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A Summer Training Project Report on

TICKETING
(FLEXI TOURS)

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the


degree of Bachelor of Business Administration (TTM) programme of Guru
Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi.

Submitted To:

Submitted by:

MR. HC JOSHI

Anuj Dang
Roll No.:05812205011

Delhi College of Advanced Studies


B-7, Shanker Garden, Vikaspuri
New Delhi 110018
Batch (2011-2014)

DECLARATION

I, hereby declare that the Summer Training Project Report, entitled Ticketing, is an
authentic work carried out by me at FLEXI TOURS. It has not been submitted earlier for
award of any degree or diploma to any institute or university.

Place: New Delhi

Candidates signature

Date:

Name: Anuj Dang


Enroll. No.: 05812205011

Countersigned

Name: Mr. H.C. Joshi


Supervisor
Delhi College of Advanced Studies

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is my pleasure to be indebted to various people, who directly or indirectly contributed in


the development of this work and who influenced my thinking, behavior and acts during the
course of study.
I express my sincere gratitude to the worthy Mr.(Dr) M.S. Chaudhary , Director of Delhi
College of Advanced Studies, for providing me an opportunity to undergo summer training of
doing this project under his leadership.
I am thankful to Ms. Harpreet Kaur (HR Training Manager) for her support, cooperation
and motivation provided to me during the training for constant inspiration, presence and
blessings at Flexi Tours.
I also extend my sincere indebtedness to Mr. H.C JOSHI who provided his valuable
suggestion and precious time in accomplishing my project.
I also take the opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to each and every person, who
directly or indirectly helped me throughout the project and without anyone of them this
project would not have been possible.
The immense learning from this project would be indelible forever.
(Anuj Dang)

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
A ticket is a voucher that indicates that one has paid for admission to an event or
establishment such as a theatre, theatre, amusement, zoo, museum, stadium, concert, or
other attraction, or permission to travel on a vehicle such as an airliner, train, bus, or boat,
typically because one has paid the fare. Also a ticket may be free, and serve as a proof of
reservation.
The first known tickets were used in the Greek period for events that primarily took place
in theatres.
One can buy a ticket at a ticket window or counter, called a box office in the entertainment
industry (this term is also used for the total receipts). The ticket check may also be there, or it
may be separate. Tickets are also available from resellers. Resellers typically are commercial
enterprises that purchase tickets in bulk, and resell them to members of the public, adding a
surcharge. Consumers patronize resellers for reasons of convenience and availability. The
convenience factor relates to being able to obtain tickets locally, and also being able to make
alternate selections on the spot if the preferred performance is not available. The availability
factor relates to the fact that all tickets may have been sold out at the box office, requiring the
purchaser to either obtain tickets from the reseller, or not to see the show (or at least not see
the particular performance of choice).
A ticket may be valid for any seat ("free seating") or for a specific one ("allocated seating").
Sometimes, ex: for some train journeys, both are available, with an increased charge for a
reserved seat. Free seating in a train means the risk that one has to stand, but in ex: a cinema
it means a seat is guaranteed, just not a specific one.

Paper or card is generally used, although plastic may be used instead for durability. Some
have a barcode or magnetic stripe for keeping simple data stored on them, higher end ones
use chips to store more data and prevent counterfeiting.
A paper ticket often is perforated so it can be separated into two parts, one (the ticket stub) to
be kept by the customer, and one to be kept by the ticket controller. Whether or not one can
leave and reenter with the customer part only varies. It may not be allowed to avoid
subsequent use of one ticket by multiple people, or even simultaneous use by giving the ticket
to someone before the ticket check (if this is physically possible), but it may also be allowed,
ex: in a movie theatre to buy, during a movie, a snack or drink before the ticket check and
reenter.
Tickets may be printed in advance, or fully or partly printed when issued, or it may be a
printed form that is completed in handwriting (ex: by a train conductor who does not carry a
ticket machine, but just a supply of forms and a pen).

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sr. No.

Topic

Page No

Certificate

Declaration

ii

Acknowledgement

iii

Executive Summary

iv

Chapter-1: Introduction

An overview of Hotel Industry

Profile of the organization

History of the Organization

Objectives of the study

Scope of the study

Methodology

Chapter-2: Conceptual Framework

Guest Services

Sales concept

Concept of marketing

1. 7 Ps
2. Promotion mix
3. Sales promotions toools

Promotional sales activities of hotel

Marketing evolution

Promotion activity

Marketing mix of tourism industry

Chapter-3: Summary and Conclusion

Summary

Suggestions and Recommendations

Bibliography

CHAPTER-I
INTRODUCTION
INTODUCTION TO THE TRAVEL AGENCY FLEXI TOURS
Flexi Tours prides itself as a premier travel organization and destination Management
Company having proven track record of providing the highest quality of professional travel
services in India. "Travel is more than the seeing of sights; it is a change that goes on, deep
and permanent, in the ideas of living
Let your memory be your travel bag said so. Flexi Tours prides itself as travel organization
and destination Management Company having proven track record of providing the highest
quality of professional travel services in India."Travel is more than the seeing of sights; it is a
change that goes on, deep and permanent, in the ideas of living,". We offer industry-leading
cus-torn content solutions to all our customers around the world. Flexi Tours is well known
for the unrivalled quality and consistency of its unmatched services. Our talent for
partnership has made us the dynamic force behind one of the successful travel industry
leaders. We believe in working together and winning together.
Flexi Tours aims to provide an unwavering commitment to customer satisfaction that leads to
a mutually beneficial lifelong relationship. We place a premium on communication so our
representatives can fully understand the client's needs. Getting clients to their destination and
back is only half the job; we seek to provide demonstrable value for customer
satisfaction. Flexi Tours is committed to be an innovative industry leader whose growth and
success is anchored by our values, integrity and dedication to customer service.

Travelers Benefits
Flexi Tours is more than a travel agency committed to 24 hours customer care services. We
are a business partner, a friend, a community resource. Our success comes from the success
of our customers, their businesses, and the local economy. Integrating ourselves into these
key areas, we help ourselves by helping others first. We can save businesses time and money
through our worldwide affiliations and partnerships by offering a wide range of services for
the corporate traveler. Our corporate account managers can implement and monitor your
travel policies, as well as keep your business informed on travel industry issues through
regular communication and meetings. For the individual traveler, we take the stress out of
planning a vacation, so you can start relaxing before your depart. Whether you travel locally
or internationally, we provide information on your destination, so you know what to expect
and where to find the services you need.

Companys Objective
Complete satisfaction of every traveller calls on Flexi Tours. We recognize that good service
is more than competitive pricing; it's a near-obsessive attention to detail that transforms a
good experience into an exceptional one. We don't want to sell you a travel package; we want
to understand your needs, so we can custom design a travel solution that meets your specific
requirements. We look at your opportunities and challenges and design a solution customized
to fit you.

Services
* 24 x 7 professional and personalised services
* India wide office network within our own offices and associations
* Multilingual Staff
* Own fleet of luxurious cars and coaches
* PRICING-most competitive

Achievements
Flexi Tours has been moving ahead surely and steadily creating new opportunities for
travelers and earning a name for itself in the market. Beginning on a modest scale, today its
activities encompass the entire spectrum of tourism activities
recoding around 60% annual growth with over 6000 tourists traveling with us last year. "We
signify 300% growth in our turnover in the last 2 years".

Group of Companies
The conglomeration of Flexi Tours includes: -Flexi Tours Pvt.Ltd., Elite Travel and Tours
(India) and Indian Horizons. Together these three organizations are involved in various
ventures of Tourism activities.

Affiliations
We are recognized by the Government of India, Ministry of Tourism and are also members of
various National & International Associations like IATO and TAAI, besides being accredited
by IATA

Team
Flexi Tours is fortunate to have the most talented and committed professionals in the field
with an average experience of 15 years at senior and middle level. The personnel skills are
constantly upgraded through carefully selected top training programs. No wonder we are
proud recipients of complimentary comments about our team's efficiency and personalized
service.

Esteemed Clientele
Flexi Tours provides travel solutions to a number of renowned business houses in North
India. A few of our most esteemed corporate clients includes: National Rubber Corporation,
Luxor group of companies, Seasons textiles, Paras Milk and RGC.
"Behind Flexi Tours steady growth is the focused and well-planned business strategy of its
dynamic leader. A software engineer by profession & a travel expert by experience, Raman S
Taneja with his exceptional vision, foresight & strategic planning have ensured the
commendations of all in travel related field."
" Being a tour operator we provide complete travel solutions to the Foreigners visiting India,
Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet and Maldives. The inbound department has a team of experts with
extensive knowledge of India as a destination."

Profile of the organisation


The inbound department of Flexi Tours works under the brand name of Indian Horizons.
Being a tour operator we provide complete travel solutions to the Foreigners visiting India,
Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet and Maldives. The inbound department has a team of experts with
extensive knowledge of India as a destination.
Our Fleet: To provide our clients prompt and efficient transport, Flexi tours has its own fleet
of vehicles ranging from small cars to Volvos with experienced chauffeurs and drivers. Our
fleet includes small cars "SUVs to Luxury vehicles and coaches".specialized travel solutions
include: Inbound Holiday and Destination
Management: Showcase Incredible India - A diverse range of services for visitors to India,
for leisure, business and luxury travel.
Medical Tourism: Showcase Well being in India, world-class medical facilities for
International visitors in India.
Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions (MICE): Showcase conferencing
event management in India. A wide range of services for hosting world-class conferences,
seminars and events in India.
NRl tourism: Showcase India's diversity to the NRIs. We offer a wide range of tours in India
for people of Indian origin, discovering their roots.
Pilgrimage tourism: Showcases the holy lands of various cultures which has their origins in
India. Discover the holy lands with our specialised Pilgrimage tours. Chardham Yatras,
Buddhist pilgrim tours, Sikh holy lands and Hem Kund Sahib tours etc...Indian horizons offer
an exhaustive range of pilgrimage tour plans.

Adventure tourism : A wide array of topographical diversity provides an extensive range of


adventure possibilities. Trekking, Rafting, kayaking, white water sports, wind surfing,
paragliding and a host of other adventure sports are possible in India. We provide package
tours packed with adventure.
Cultural tours: Explore India's diverse culture and heritage with our exclusive range of
cultural tours. Experience the diverse forms of dance, music, food and art with Indian
Horizons.
Spa Tourism: Rejuvenate your senses with the holistic experience of Ayurveda, free your
mind and body and experience the luxury of Indian spas.

Ayurveda is more than a medical system; it is a science of Life! The essence of Ayurveda is
governed by the simple principal of nature's equilibrium. We provide you the opportunity to
have this heavenly experience with our exclusive Spa packages!!
Domestic Tourism: Showcase India to travelers within India and offer a wide range of tailor
made packages and customized travel services throughout India.
Business travel: Specialized services for business travelers in India for small, medium and
large enterprises to MNCs. We offer complete business travel solutions.
Travel Portal: Showcase the power of e-travel. Our Online hotel booking portal
www.hotelsfair.in offers complete flexibility for travel options and holiday bookings 24x7.
Showcase over 50 Indian cities and over 5000 hotels with availability.

Global Products: Flexi Tours offers a wide array of Global travel products. The range of
products includes innovative rail and bus passes, Hotel passes and a wide array of short and
long duration travel packages. Our range of products includes
International Rail Travel: Worldwide rail travel including Britrail - the most convenient
way to see Great Britain. Eurail - the best way to see Europe with extensive network in
around 30 European countries "Japan and Swiss Rail".
Destinations and Tour packages: We provide complete travel plan for destinations round
the world, with more than 1,500 tour programs for Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland, Far
East and Europe.
Coach Tours: Travel through some of the most famous destinations in luxurious coaches and
with specialized guides' in USA, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Switzerland.
Apartments by Citadines, Ascot's, Oaks and Break free: Fully furnished apartments in
Europe (UK, France, Germany, Belgium and Spain), Australia and New Zealand. Apartments
located in prime central locations.
International Car rentals Experience the freedom and flexibility of self drive tours in
Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland and many other destinations around the world. We offer
special wholesale rates for Hertz, Avis and Budget car services.
Cruises: Flexi Tours offers an extensive range of the world's most luxurious cruises. Enjoy
luxury as you sail across seas and oceans to exotic locales. Cruises covering all major hot
Spot around the globe. Caribbean, Alaskan and star cruises.
Hotel Passes: Go as you please. An all-new concept of travel, hotel passes for UK and
France. where in you have the flexibility to Stay at any hotel of your choice from our

extensive list of hotels with the use of hotel passes. We offer various options for Farm stays
and Bed and breakfast inns.
Destination specialisations: Flexi Tours proudly wear the titles of Aussie Specialist and
Kiwi Specialists. We have a wide range of innovative travel products for these destinations in
which we call us specialists! be itself drive tours, Luxury lodges or Coach passes we have the
most extensive range of latest travel products and packages.
Agents and Affiliates network: Flexi Tours have multiple offices in the city along with its
head office. We have over 20 PSA selling our products countrywide. Flexi tours also have
representation office in Canada and UK.

COMPETITORS INFORMATION
PRIME TRAVELSL-8 Green Park Extension
New Delhi, Delhi
Prime travels prides itself as a premier travel organization and destination Management
Company having proven track record of providing the highest quality of professional travel
services in India. "Travel is more than the seeing of sights; it is a change that goes on, deep
and permanent, in the ideas of living "
Prime travels prides itself as travel organization and destination Management Company
having proven track record of providing the highest quality of professional travel services in
India."Travel is more than the seeing of sights; it is a change that goes on, deep and
permanent, in the ideas of living,". We offer industry-leading cus-torn content solutions to all
our customers around the world. Prime travels is well known for the unrivaled quality and
consistency of its unmatched services. Our talent for partnership has made us the dynamic
force behind one of the successful travel industry leaders. We believe in working together and
winning together.\
JOY TRAVELS17, Vasant Enclave Market,
Vasant Vihar,
New Delhi, DL
011 2614 5397

Joy Travels - Indian travel agency/tour operators for fulfill your complete travel requirement.
Find travel in International or India, Joy Travels offers you various choices at little amount
backed by a good service.We offer you Indian Travel Package, International holidays, flight
tickets, LTC trip, Honeymoon Package, Ayurveda package and several enormous bargains!
RAO TRAVELS8, Regal Building,
Parliament Street,
Connaught Place,
New Delhi, Delhi 110001
One of the leading tour operators, since 1977, pioneers in conducting Package tours across
the country. the organization has created its own brand in the travel industry. we have over a
period of time grown up with a fleet of cars (of all segments), MUV S, Luxury coaches AC
& Non AC and VOLVO air buses, besides network of Branches, booking offices, agents and
sub agents across the country.

Objectives of The Study


The main objectives of this study are:

To gain knowledge regarding services offered by Travel agency like types of


Ticketing, Reservations etc.

To increase knowledge regarding different kind of Ticketing software.

To study the importance of Ticketing in the service industry.

To study Ticketing as a tourism product.

To gain knowledge about the various types of Tickets.

Scope of The Study

Methodology
Data can be classified under the main categories, depending upon the sources used for the
collection purposes, i.e., Secondary data. The validity and accuracy of final judgment is
most crucial and depends heavily upon how well the data is gathered in the first place. The
methodology adopted for date gathering also affects the conclusions drawn there from.
Secondary data is information gathered for purposes other than the completion of a research
project. A variety of secondary information sources is available to the researcher gathering
data on an industry, potential product applications and the market place. Secondary data is
also used to gain initial insight into the research problem.
The two major advantages of using secondary data in market research are time and cost
savings.

The secondary research process can be completed rapidly generally in 2 to 3 week.


Substantial useful secondary data can be collected in a matter of days by a skillful
analyst.

When secondary data is available, the researcher need only locate the source of the
data and extract the required information.

Secondary research is generally less expensive than primary research. The bulk of
secondary research data gathering does not require the use of expensive, specialized,
highly trained personnel.

Secondary research expenses are incurred by the originator of the information. In


preparation of this study, I have used secondary data sources.

CHAPTER-II
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.

The

World

Tourism

Organization defines tourists as people "travelling to and staying in places outside their usual
environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".
Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2011, there were over 983 million
international tourist arrivals worldwide, representing a growth of 4.6% when compared to
940 million in 2010. International tourism receipts (the travel item of the balance of
payments) grew to US$1.03 trillion (740 billion) in 2011, corresponding to an increase
in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. In 2011, international travel demand continued to recover
from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong
slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. After a 5% increase in the
first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the
second half of 2008, and ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in
2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the
outbreak of theH1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880
million international tourist arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts.
Tourism is important, and in some cases, vital for many countries. It was recognized in
the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 as "an activity essential to the life of
nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural, educational and economic sectors

of national societies and on their international relations." Tourism brings in large amounts of
income in payment for goods and services available, accounting for 30% of the world's
exports of services, and 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It also creates
opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy, associated with
tourism. These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise
ships and taxicabs; hospitality
including hotels and resorts;

and

services,

such

entertainment

venues,

parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres.

as accommodations,
such

as amusement

TICKETING IN TOURISM
IRCTC is better known for changing the face of railway ticketing in India. It
pioneered internet-based rail ticket booking through its website, as well as from the mobile
phones via GPRS or SMS. Ticket cancellations can also be done online. In addition to etickets, IRCTC also offers I-tickets that are basically like regular tickets except that they are
booked online and delivered by post. The tickets PNR status is also made available.
Commuters on the Mumbai Suburban Railway can also book season tickets through the
IRCTC website. IRCTC has also launched a loyalty program called Shubh Yatra for frequent
travellers. Through this program, passengers can avail of discounts on all tickets booked
round the year by paying an upfront annual fee.
Seeking to make it easier to book e-tickets, IRCTC launched a scheme called Rolling Deposit
Scheme (RDS). RDS is a hassle-free e-ticket booking scheme allowing passengers to reserve
seats against advance money kept with the corporation. IRCTC has also added flights and
hotels booking facilities to their line of online reservation services.
Generally there is a huge load on the website at 10 am, when booking of Tatkal tickets opens.
The booking of tickets varies from time to time based on festivals and vacations. IRCTC is
currently using 58 iridium servers and 10 more servers to be added to cater the heavy traffic
in peak hours.

As of May 2013, the ticketing site of the IRCTC is able to handle about 1.2 lakh concurrent
connections on web servers and can book about 2000 tickets per minute. Indian Railways
plans to spend about 100 crore (US$15 million) to strengthen the website to enable it for
booking 7200 tickets per minute. CRIS, the technical arm of railways, is involved in the
upgrading of the IRCTC website.
According to a senior Railway Ministry official, the average booking per day has been
increased from 3.67 lakh in 2012 to 4.15 lakh in May 2013. Approximately, 31 crore reserve
tickets are booked in a year out of which 55% of tickets are sold through windows, 37% of
tickets are booked online and 8% are booked by ticketing agents. IRCTC's highest ever single
day booking is 5.02 lakh e-tickets on 1 March 2013.

TICKETING BY TRAVEL AGENCY


AIRLINE TICKETING
An airline ticket is a document, issued by an airline or a travel agency, to confirm that an
individual has purchased a seat on a flight on an aircraft. This document is then used to obtain
a boarding pass, at the airport. Then with the boarding pass and the attached ticket, the
passenger is allowed to board the aircraft.
There are two sorts of airline tickets - the older style with coupons now referred to as a paper
ticket, and the now more common electronic usually referred to as an e-ticket.
Regardless of the type, all tickets contain details of the following information-

The passenger's name.

The issuing airline.

A ticket number, including the airline's 3 digit code at the start of the number.

The cities the ticket is valid for travel between.

Flight that the ticket is valid for. (Unless the ticket is "open")

Baggage allowance.

Fare. (Not always visible on a printout but recorded electronically for the airline)

Taxes. (Not always visible on a printout but recorded electronically for the airline)

The "Fare Basis", an alpha-numeric code that identifies the fare.

Restrictions on changes and refunds. (Not always shown in detail, but referred to).

Dates that the ticket is valid for.

"Form of payment.

CAR RENTAL TICKETING

A car rental or car hire agency is a company that rents automobiles for short periods of time
(generally ranging from a few hours to a few weeks) for a fee. It is often organized with
numerous local branches (which allow a user to return a vehicle to a different location), and
primarily located near airports or busy city areas and often complemented by a website
allowing online reservations.
Car rental agencies primarily serve people who have a car that is temporarily out of reach or
out of service, for example travellers who are out of town or owners of damaged or destroyed
vehicles who are awaiting repair or insurance compensation. Because of the variety of sizes
of their vehicles, car rental agencies may also serve the self-moving industry needs, by
renting vans or trucks, and in certain markets other types of vehicles such as motorcycles or
scooters may also be offered.
Alongside the basic rental of a vehicle, car rental agencies typically also offer extra products
such as insurance, global positioning system (GPS) navigation systems, entertainment
systems, and even such things as mobile phones.
Hertz is one of the longest established rental companies, and the first in America, originally
started in 1918 by Walter L. Jacobs as Rent-a-Car with twelve Ford Model T cars in Chicago.

CRUISE LINE TICKETING


A cruise line is a company that operates cruise ships. Cruise lines have a dual character; they
are partly in the transportation business, and partly in the leisure entertainment business, a
duality that carries down into the ships themselves, which have both a crew headed by the
ship's captain, and a hospitality staff headed by the equivalent of a hotel manager.
Among cruise lines, some are direct descendants of the traditional passenger shipping lines,
while others were founded from the 1960s on specifically for cruising. The business is
extremely volatile; the ships are massive capital expenditures with very high operating costs,
and a slight dip in bookings can easily put a company out of business. Cruise lines frequently
sell, renovate, or simply rename their ships just to keep up with travel trends.
A wave of failures and consolidation in the 1990s has led to many lines existing only as
"brands" within larger corporations, much as a single automobile company produces several
makes of cars. Brands exist partly because of repeat customer loyalty, and also to offer
different levels of quality and service. For instance, Carnival Corporation owns both Carnival
Cruise Lines, whose former image were vessels that had a reputation as "party ships" for
younger travellers, but have become large, modern, and extremely elegant, yet still profitable,
and Holland America Line, whose ships cultivate an image of classic elegance.
Currently the five largest cruise line operators in the world are Carnival Corporation &
plc, Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., Star Cruises, MSC Cruises and Louis Cruises.

RAILWAY TICKETING
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods, by way of wheeled vehicles
running on rails. It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road
transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally
guided by the tracks on which they run. Track usually consists of steel rails installed
onsleepers/ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels,
moves. However, other variations are also possible, such as slab track where the rails are
fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface.
Rolling stock in railway transport systems generally has lower frictional resistance when
compared with highway vehicles and the passenger and freight cars (carriages and wagons)
can be coupled into longer trains. The operation is carried out by a railway company,
providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided
by locomotives which either draw electrical power from a railway electrification system or
produce their own power, usually by diesel engines. Most tracks are accompanied by
a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms
of transport.[Nb 1]Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization
and

energy

efficiency,

but

is

often

less

flexible

and

than highway transport is, when lower traffic levels are considered.

more capital-intensive

The oldest, man-hauled railways date back to the 6th century B.C, with Periander, one of
the Seven Sages of Greece, credited with its invention. Rail transport blossomed after the
British development of the steam engine as a viable source of the power in the 18th and 19th
centuries. With steam engines, it was possible to construct mainline railways, which were a
key component of theindustrial revolution. Also, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and
allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with shipping, which faced occasional sinking of
ships. The change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices
varied very little from city to city. Studies have shown that the invention and development of
the railway in Europe was one of the most important technological inventions of the late 19th
century for the United States, without which, GDP would have been lower by 7.0% in 1890.
In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and also the first tramways and rapid transit
systems came into being. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most
countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the
process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway
systems were introduced in Japan and a few other countries. Other forms of guided ground
transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have

ROUND THE WORLD TICKETING BY THE TRAVEL AGENCY


A round-the-world ticket (also known as round-the-world fare or RTW ticket in short) is a
product that enables travellers to fly around the world for a relatively low price. RTW tickets
have existed for some time and in the past were generally offered through marketing
agreements between airlines on several continents. Now, they are almost universally offered
by airline alliances such as SkyTeam, Star Allianceand Oneworld, or else by specialist travel
agencies that will spend time helping customize a trip to the consumer's needs. Prices vary
but are generally in the range of $30005000 USD for an economy class ticket. [citation needed].
Sometimes, depending on airline, and destination stops it can be as low as 1171GBP [1] (~
$1829.57 USD). An alternative for a round-the-world ticket is a continent pass.

Round-the-world tickets are priced according to travel class, origin of travel, number of
continents, mileage (usually between 30,000 and 60,000 km), and sometimes season of
travel. The traveller benefits from the large and optimized network of the airline alliance and
can often participate in the alliance's frequent flyer programs, although Round-the-world
tickets are usually subject to restrictions. The start and end of the journey almost always have
to

be

located

in

the

same

country

and

exactly

one

crossing

each

of

the Atlantic andPacific must be included in the itinerary. The number of stops is usually
restricted to 5-16, and backtracking between continents (especially Europe/Asia) is often
restricted. The dates and journey do not have to be pre-planned, but may be changed en route
at a local office of any airline in the alliance (although a change of destinations often results
in an additional fee, and if the next flight is left open-dated the booking can be dropped by
the airlines' computers).
It is possible to piece together a round-the-world route by combining one-way tickets on
various airlines without resorting to alliances. In addition, discounts often apply to some
long- and short-haul legs. It can be useful to consult with travel agents who specialize in
round-the-world itineraries to compare fares and itineraries. These can be found in major
cities that are transit hubs San Francisco, London, New York, Bangkok, etc.

TYPES OF TICKETS

FIRST CLASS
First class is the most luxurious travel class of seats and service on a train, passenger
ship, airplane, or other conveyance. It is usually much more expensive than business
class and economy class, and offers the best service and luxurious accommodation.
The first-class section of a fixed-wing passenger aircraft is typically located in the very front
of the aircraft. However, many commercial carriers have removed first class altogether from
their international flights, offering business class as their highest level of international
service. First class passengers are usually granted access to lounges at airports while they
wait for their flights.
Some benefits of first class on modern cruise ships include larger cabins, priority check-in,
priority embarkation and disembarkation, priority meal-sitting selection, and, on premium
lines, butler service.

BUSINESS CLASS
Business class is a travel class available on many commercial airlines and rail lines, known
by brand names which vary by airline or rail company. In the airline industry, it was
originally intended as an intermediate level of service between economy class and first class,

but many airlines now offer business class as the highest level of service, having eliminated
first class seating. Business class is distinguished from other travel classes by the quality of
seating, food, drinks, ground service and other amenities. Full business class is usually
denoted 'J' or 'C' with schedule flexibility, but can be many other letters depending on
circumstances.

PREMIUM CLASS
Premium economy is a travel class offered on some airlines, positioned in price, comfort,
and amenities between economy class andbusiness class. In 1991, EVA Air became the first
airline company that have this kind of class in aircraft.

ECONOMY CLASS
Economy class, also called coach class (or just coach), steerage, or standard class, is the
lowest travel class of seating in air travel,rail travel, and sometimes ferry or maritime travel.
Historically, this travel class has been called tourist class on ocean liners and third class, or
even fourth class, on railways.

SOME IMPORTANT ELEMENTS

1. ELECTRONIC TICKETING:- An electronic ticket (commonly abbreviated as eticket) is a digital ticket. The term is most commonly associated with airline issued
tickets. Electronic ticketing for urban or rail public transport is usually referred to
as travel card or transit pass. It is also used in ticketing in the entertainment industry.

2. FREQUENT FLYER:- A frequent-flyer program (FFP) is a loyalty program offered


by many airlines. Typically, airline customers enrolled in the program accumulate
frequent-flyer miles (kilometers, points, segments) corresponding to the distance
flown on that airline or its partners. There are other ways to accumulate miles. In
recent years, more miles were awarded for using co-branded credit and debit cards
than for air travel. Acquired miles can be redeemed for air travel, other goods or
services, or for increased benefits, such as travel class upgrades, airport lounge access,
or priority bookings.

3. GOVERNMENT CONTRACT FLIGHT:- A government contract flight is a type


of charter airline operation contracted with a government agency.In the United States,
the massive mobility requirements during World War II proved that military transport
could not meet all the logistical needs that might arise. As a result, theCivil Reserve
Air Fleet (CRAF) was developed to use airline capacity to provide maximum airlift
support in wartime situations. As a benefit, airlines that commit planes to CRAF are
able to receive peacetime government contracts in an amount proportional to the
airline's potential wartime mobilization value. This is the basis for most routine
military charter flights. The government receives an extremely economical source of
emergency capacity as well as reasonable costs for peacetime military transportation.

PRICING OF TICKETS

Pricing is the process of determining what a company will receive in exchange for its
products. Pricing factors are manufacturing cost, market place, competition, market
condition, and quality of product. Pricing is also a key variable in microeconomic price
allocation theory. Pricing is a fundamental aspect of financial modeling and is one of the four
Ps of the marketing mix. (The other three aspects are product, promotion, and place.) Price is
the only revenue generating element amongst the four Ps, the rest being cost centers.Pricing
is the manual or automatic process of applying prices to purchase and sales orders, based on
factors such as: a fixed amount, quantity break, promotion or sales campaign, specific vendor
quote, price prevailing on entry, shipment or invoice date, combination of multiple orders or
lines, and many others. Automated systems require more setup and maintenance but may
prevent pricing errors. The needs of the consumer can be converted into demand only if the
consumer has the willingness and capacity to buy the product. Thus pricing is very important
in marketing.

Line pricing is the use of a limited number of prices for all product offerings of a vendor.
This is a tradition started in the old five and dime stores in which everything cost either 5 or
10 cents. Its underlying rationale is that these amounts are seen as suitable price points for a
whole range of products by prospective customers. It has the advantage of ease of
administering, but the disadvantage of inflexibility, particularly in times of inflation or
unstable prices. The price/quality relationship refers to the perception by most consumers that
a relatively high price is a sign of good quality. The belief in this relationship is most
important with complex products that are hard to test, and experiential products that cannot
be tested until used (such as most services). The greater the uncertainty surrounding a
product, the more consumers depend on the price/quality hypothesis and the greater premium

they are prepared to pay. The classic example is the pricing of Twinkies, a snack cake which
was viewed as low quality after the price was lowered. Excessive reliance on the price/quality
relationship by consumers may lead to an increase in prices on all products and services, even
those of low quality, which causes the price/quality relationship to no longer apply.

Demand-based pricing is any pricing method that uses consumer demand - based on
perceived value - as the central element. These include price skimming, price
discriminationand yield

management, price

points, psychological

pricing, bundle

pricing, penetration pricing, price lining, value-based pricing, geo and premium pricing.
Pricing factors are manufacturing cost, market place, competition, market condition, quality
of product.

Multidimensional pricing is the pricing of a product or service using multiple numbers. In


this practice, price no longer consists of a single monetary amount (e.g., sticker price of a
car), but rather consists of various dimensions (e.g., monthly payments, number of payments,
and a down payment). Research has shown that this practice can significantly influence
consumers' ability to understand and process price information.

FLIGHT TICKET CANCELLATION


A cancellation occurs when the airline does not operate the flight at all for a certain reason.
When flights are cancelled or delayed, passengers may be entitled to compensation due to
rules obeyed by every flight company, usually Rule 240, or Rule 218 in certain locations.
This rule usually specifies that passengers may be entitled to certain reimbursements,
including a free room if the next flight is the day after the canceled one, a choice of
reimbursement, rerouting, phone calls, and refreshments.
When a flight is delayed, the FAA allocates slots for takeoffs and landings based on which
flight is scheduled first.

AIR TICKETING SOFTWARE


Galileo CRS: Galileo is a computer reservations system (CRS) owned by Travelport. As of
2002, it had a 26.4% of worldwide CRS airline bookings.
In

addition

to

airline

reservations,

the

Galileo

CRS

is

also

used

to

book train travel, cruises, car rental, and hotel rooms. The Galileo system was moved from
Denver, Colorado, to the span data centre in Atlanta, Georgia, on September 28, 2008,
following the 2007 merger of Travel port and World span (although they now share the same
data enter, they continue to be run as separate systems). Galileo is subject to the Capps II and
its successor Secure Flight program for the selection of passengers with a risk profile.
Galileo is a member of IATA, OTA and SITA.
Galileo traces its roots back to 1971 when United Airlines created its first computerized
central reservation system under the name Apollo. During the 1980s and early 1990s, a
significant proportion of airline tickets were sold by travel agents. Flights by the airline
owning the reservation system had preferential display on the computer screen. Due to the
high market penetration of the Sabre and Apollo systems, owned by American Airlines and
United Airlines, respectively, World span and Galileo were created by other airline groups in
an attempt to gain market share in the computer reservation system market and, by inference,
the commercial airline market.Galileo was formed in 1987 by nine European carriers -British Airways, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, Alitalia, Swissair, Austrian Airlines, Olympic,
Sabena, Air Portugal and Aer Lingus.

In response and to prevent possible government intervention, United Airlines spun-off its
Apollo reservation system, which was then controlled by Covia. Galileo International was
born when Covia acquired Europe's Galileo and merged it with the Apollo system in 1992.[3]
The Apollo reservation system was used by United Airlines until March 3, 2012, when it
switched to SHARES, a system used by its former Continental Airlines subsidiary. Apollo is
still used by Galileo International (now part of Travel port GDS) travel agency customers in
the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan.
Galileo UK was originally created from Travicom which was the world's first multi-access
reservations system using the technology developed by Videcom. Travicom was a company
launched by Videcom, British Airways, British Caledonian and CCL in 1976 which in 1988
became Galileo UK.
Galileo Software is a windows software application that connects via web service to an
integrated database where the records of all patients are stored.
When a patient starts rehabilitation in a clinic using Galileo Software, the clinic's staff enters
all the information regarding the patient and the accident he or she has suffered. The system
automatically checks if this patient has current open treatments in other rehab clinics.
This check is done via two important information fields. The patient's driver license and the
insurance Claim Number . If Galileo Software finds another record matching any of this
fields, the software quickly shows the user that this patient has been found in another clinic.
The contact information of the found clinic is provided to the user to get in contact with them
and confirm whether this patient is involved in a scam.

SABRE GDS: Sabre Global Distribution System (GDS), owned by Sabre Holdings, is used
by more than 350,000 travel agents around the world with more than 400 airlines, 100,000
hotels, 25 car rental brands,50 rail providers and 14 cruise lines. The Sabre GDS enables
companies such as American Airlines, American Express, BCD Travel, Carlson Wagonlit
Travel, Hogg Robinson Group (HRG), Expedia, Frontier, LastMinute, JetBlue, GetThere and
Travelocity to search, price, book, and ticket travel services provided by airlines, hotels, car
rental companies, rail providers and tour operators. Sabre Holdings is a travel technology
company serving airlines, hotels, online and offline travel agents and travel buyers. The
company is organized into four business units:

Travelocity: online travel agency

Sabre Travel Network: global distribution system

Sabre Airline Solutions: airline technology

Sabre Hospitality Solutions: hotel technology solutions

The company is headquartered in Southlake, Texas, and has 10,000 employees in 60


locations around the world with datacenters in global locations.

Sabre Travel Network (STN) is a travel technology company, serving travel agencies and
corporations. It is a division of Sabre Holdings. Sabre Travel Network began when the Sabre
computer reservations system, also known as a GDS (global distribution system) was
installed in Briarcliff Manor, New York in 1960. It began as the reservations system for
American Airlines. Its parent company, Sabre Holdings, spun off from American as The
Sabre Group on March 15, 2000. Today, Sabre Travel Network software connects more than
370,000 travel professionals to more than 400 airlines, 100,000 hotels, 25 car rental brands,

50 rail providers, 13 cruise lines and other global travel suppliers. More than 300 million
people purchase airline tickets through this channel annually.

AMADEUS: Amadeus is a computer reservations system (or global distribution system,


since it sells tickets for multiple airlines) owned by the Amadeus IT Group with headquarters
in Madrid, Spain. The central database is located at Erding, Germany. The development
center is located at Sophia Antipolis, France. In addition to airlines, the CRS is also used to
book train travel, cruises, car rental, ferry reservations, and hotel rooms. Amadeus also
provides New Generation departure control systems to airlines.[citation needed]. Amadeus IT
Group is a transaction processor for the global travel and tourism industry. The company is
structured around two key related areas - its global distribution system and its IT Solutions
business area.
Amadeus is a member of IATA, OTA and SITA. Its IATA airline designator code is 1A.
Amadeus was formed in 1987 by an alliance between Air France, Lufthansa, Iberia Airlines
and Scandinavian Airlines System.
The site is owned and operated by Amadeus IT Group SA. This site delivers key travel data
that is found in the Amadeus suite of travel products with the aim to empower any traveler
with the right information to make a decision on all parts of their trip planning.
Available in 11 different languages Amadeus.net uses items created and owned by Amadeus.
At the core of this you will find best fares, flight availability, flight timetables and flight
status. This is accompanied by Hotel room availability for over 70 000 properties and a Car
rental search. To allow a complete experience Amadeus Activities and Entertainment in our

Trip Tools section allows you to see and book an expansive and exciting range of locationbased content with thousands of products in over 400 destinations.
Founded in 1987, and headquartered in Madrid, Amadeus is the worlds leading technology
provider to the travel industry, providing marketing, distribution and IT services worldwide.
Today's travel industry is seeing rapid growth, high customer expectations, fierce competition
and pressure on margins. This is a market driven by new technologies, new entrants and new
business models. In this challenging world, Amadeus is not only the leading Global
Distribution System (GDS) and the biggest processor of travel bookings in the world, but a
leader in delivering a wider range of superior technology to help you tackle the issues you
face.
Every Amadeus customer uses our modular technology in a different way. From global
network airlines to low cost carriers, from multinational travel agencies to independent
hotels; these companies use our technology to create effective commercial environments,
make their business processes more efficient and give themselves a competitive advantage.

IRCTC
Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation, abbreviated to IRCTC, is a subsidiary of
the Indian Railways that handles the catering, tourism and online ticketing operations of the
railways.
As per new Railway Catering Policy 2010 (Introduced by Railways Minister Mamata
Banerjee), catering services provided by IRCTC were handed over to INDIAN Railways.
Now IRCTC is in charge of catering services on few trains such as All Duranto Exp, Farakka

Exp, Maitree Express ( Train between INDIA and BANGLADESH), Kandhari Exp and some
Rajdhani Exp rest all of train operated by Zonal Railways railway stations across
India.IRCTC also started NRC project (NON RAILWAY CATERING) under which cafeteria
were operated in many Indian Ministries and Institutes.

Online ticketing
IRCTC is better known for changing the face of railway ticketing in India. It pioneered
internet-based rail ticket booking through its website, as well as from the mobile phones via
GPRS or SMS. Ticket cancellations can also be done online. In addition to e-tickets, IRCTC
also offers I-tickets that are basically like regular tickets except that they are booked online
and delivered by post. The tickets PNR status is also made available. Commuters on the
Mumbai Suburban Railway can also book season tickets through the IRCTC website. IRCTC
has also launched a loyalty program called Shubh Yatra for frequent travellers. Through this
program, passengers can avail of discounts on all tickets booked round the year by paying an
upfront annual fee.
Seeking to make it easier to book e-tickets, IRCTC launched a scheme called Rolling Deposit
Scheme (RDS). RDS is a hassle-free e-ticket booking scheme allowing passengers to reserve
seats against advance money kept with the corporation. IRCTC has also added flights and
hotels booking facilities to their line of online reservation services.

Generally there is a huge load on the website at 10 am, when booking of Tatkal tickets opens.
The booking of tickets varies from time to time based on festivals and vacations. IRCTC is

currently using 58 iridium servers and 10 more servers to be added to cater the heavy traffic
in peak hours.
As of May 2013, the ticketing site of the IRCTC is able to handle about 1.2 lakh concurrent
connections on web servers and can book about 2000 tickets per minute. Indian Railways
plans to spend about INR100 crore (US$15 million) to strengthen the website to enable it for
booking 7200 tickets per minute. CRIS, the technical arm of railways, is involved in the
upgrading of the IRCTC website.
According to a senior Railway Ministry official, the average booking per day has been
increased from 3.67 lakh in 2012 to 4.15 lakh in May 2013. Approximately, 31 crore reserve
tickets are booked in a year out of which 55% of tickets are sold through windows, 37% of
tickets are booked online and 8% are booked by ticketing agents. IRCTC's highest ever single
day booking is 5.02 lakh e-tickets on 1 March 2013.
Tatkal booking
Under the Tatkal scheme, passengers who plan their journey at short notice can book their
tickets in almost all Mail/Express trains through the Indian railways internet portal. The
booking starts at 10:00 AM daily, one day prior to the departure of the train from source
station. It is recommended to use the Chrome browser instead of Firefox or IE for successful
booking of Tatkal tickets

INFLUENCE OF SYSTEM
Worldspan is a provider of travel technology and content and a part of the Travelport GDS
business. It offers worldwide electronic distribution of travel information, Internet products
and connectivity, and e-commerce capabilities for travel agencies, travel service providers
and corporations. Its primary system is commonly known as a Global Distribution System
(GDS), which is used by travel agents and travel related websites to book airline tickets, hotel
rooms, rental cars, tour packages and associated products. Worldspan also hosts IT services
and product solutions for major airlines.
In December, 2006, Travelport, owner of the Galileo GDS, Gullivers Travel Associates
(GTA) and a controlling share in Orbitz, agreed to acquire Worldspan. However, at the time,
management of Travelport did not commit to the eventual merging of the two GDS systems,
saying that they were considering all options, including running both systems in parallel.[2]
On August 21, 2007, the acquisition was completed for $1.4 billion and Worldspan became a
part of Travelport GDS, which also includes Galileo and other related businesses. On
September 28, 2008, the Galileo and Apollo GDS were moved from the Travelport datacenter
in Denver, Colorado to the Worldspan datacenter in Atlanta, Georgia (although they continue
to be run as separate systems from the Worldspan GDS).
In 2012, Worldspan customers were migrated from the TPF-based FareSource pricing engine
to Travelport's Linux-based 360 Fares pricing engine already used by Galileo and Apollo.

Although the three systems share a common pricing platform, they continue to operate as
separate GDS.
Worldspan was formed in early 1990 by Delta Air Lines, Northwest Airlines, and TWA to
operate and sell its GDS services to travel agencies worldwide. Worldspan operated very
effectively and profitably, successfully expanding its business in markets throughout North
America, South America, Europe, and Asia. As a result, in mid-2003, Worldspan was sold by
its owner airlines to Citigroup Venture Capital and Ontario Teachers' Pension Fund[3] which
in turn sold the business to Travelport in 2007.
Worldspan was formed in 1990 by combining the PARS partnerships companies (owned by
TWA and Northwest Airlines, Inc.) and DATAS II, a division of Delta Air Lines, Inc. One of
Worldspans predecessors TWA PARS became the first GDS to be installed in travel
agencies in 1976. ABACUS, an Asian company owned by a number of Asian airlines, owned
a small portion of Worldspan, and Worldspan owned a small portion of Abacus. Worldspan
and Abacus entered into a series of business and technology relationships. These relationships
were terminated after Abacus engaged in fraudulent and deceptive practices, for which
Worldspan received a sizable judgement in an arbitration in London.

CHAPTER IV
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Limitations of the study

The data in the project may be insufficient.

Time consuming because no accurate information is provided.

It is difficult to complete the project in one go because it is a tedious job.

Not accurate data is provided on each and every topic