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Squence 2

Necessity is the mother


of invention*
Sommaire
Objectifs de la squence
1. Get ready
2. Read to develop your knowledge
and your vocabulary
3. Listen to obtain information
4. Express yourself
in writing
5. Reading and debating
Dans cette squence de cours, vous allez vous
intresser une invention ou un dveloppement
technologique afin de pouvoir discuter de ses
avantages et de ses inconvnients.
Pour cela, des exemples dinventions vous seront
proposs dans des documents varis (textes,
images, audio) pour vous informer et dvelopper
vos comptences en lecture, audition, expression orale et crite.

* When humans need something to improve their living conditions, someone usually comes up with a solution.

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O bjectifs de la squence
Get Ready

Vous allez dvelopper vos connaissances au sujet de divers inventeurs


travers les poques et vous entraner vous exprimer de manire
simple.

Read to
develop your
knowledge
and your
vocabulary

Vous allez apprendre prlever des informations intressantes et du


vocabulaire utile dans des textes de rfrence.
Vous allez vous entraner lire des textes plus longs mais pour lesquels
une comprhension globale suffit.

Listen to
obtain
information

Vous allez vous familiariser avec le genre dinformation fournie la


tlvision.
Vous allez vous entraner retrouver lordre logique dvnements.

Express
yourself in
writing

Vous allez vous exercer construire un rcit.


Vous allez vous entraner faire bon usage de ce que vous apprenez,
rutiliser vocabulaire et structures.

Reading and
debating

Vous vous entranerez comprendre un article de presse.


Vous apprendrez approfondir votre comprhension en reprant les
informations essentielles.
Vous vous exercerez trouver des arguments pour ou contre une
invention ou un dveloppement technologique.
Vous vous entranerez identifier les diffrents registres de langue et
construire des dialogues.

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1 Get ready
Some inventors
Activity 1

 Look at the four portraits.


Wordbox
Whos who?

Sciences

Benjamin FRANKLIN

physics/chemistry/biology

Luc MONTAGNIER

mechanics/medicine/optics

Isaac NEWTON
Sir Alexander FLEMING
1
Nationality
French/American/Scottish/
English

Inventions/Discoveries
HIV virus
the telescope
the lightning rod
bifocals

Dates
1881-1955
2

1642-1727
19321706-1790

penicillin
laws of universal gravitation
Your own choice.

 Use the elements given in the wordbox above to identify each man

and complete a very short presentation of each persons biography


and achievements.
3
Language skills
He was born......... he died................ he invented.................... he studied....................he won................
Quelle diffrence faites-vous entre he invented et he won ? A quelle
catgorie de verbes appartiennent to invent et to win ?
4

Oui, bien sr, il sagit des verbes rguliers et irrguliers.


Un petit conseil : ayez toujours la liste des verbes irrguliers porte de
main et vrifiez ce que vous utilisez ! (Annexe 4)

1. National Portrait Gallery, Washington, USA akg-images.


2. Science Museum, Londres, UK. akg-images Nimatallah.
3. Rue des Archives/AGIP.
4. Keystone, Zurich, Suisse. Olivier Maire/Rue des Archives/SPPS.

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 In the last frame insert your own choice (another scientist) and

complete the information concerning this person.

Activity 2

Enregistrez chaque prsentation. Faites-le de mmoire si possible en


gardant seulement les dates devant vous. Vous devez pouvoir lire cellesci sans hsiter ! Entranez-vous !
Vous pouvez vous reporter lannexe 5 pour vous entraner lire les
chiffres en coutant lenregistrement 55 sur le CD1.

CD 1

coutez lenregistrement modle, comparez avec le vtre.

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Read to develop your knowledge


and your vocabulary
Reference documents contain valuable information. They also help you
develop your vocabulary. You are going to work on this type of document
in the next activity.

Activity 3

General comprehension.
Tout le monde connat le GPS mais que savez-vous de cette invention?
Lisez cet article propos sur un site internet. Dans chaque section
soulignez les mots qui vous aident reprer lide essentielle puis
crivez lide essentielle de chaque partie sur la ligne numrote.
Faites-vous une ide densemble, sans chercher forcment comprendre
chaque mot.
How GPS Receivers work
1. .....................................................................
Our ancestors had to go to pretty extreme measures to keep from getting
lost. They erected monumental landmarks, laboriously drafted detailed
maps and learned to read the stars in the night sky.
2. .....................................................................
Things are much easier today. For less than $100, you can get a pocketsized gadget that will tell you exactly where you are on Earth at any
moment. As long as you have a GPS receiver and a clear view of the sky,
youll never be lost again.
3. .....................................................................
In this article, well find out how these handy guides pull off this amazing
trick. As well see, the Global Positioning System is vast, expensive and
involves a lot of technical ingenuity, but the fundamental concepts at
work are quite simple and intuitive.
4. .....................................................................
When people talk about a GPS they usually mean a GPS receiver. The
Global Positioning System is actually a constellation of 27 Earth-orbiting
satellites (24 in operation and three extras in case one fails). The U.S
military developed and implemented this satellite network as a military
navigation system, but soon opened it up to everybody else.

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5. .....................................................................
Each of these 3,000 to 4,000-pound solar-powered satellites circles the
globe at about 12,000 miles (19,300 km), making two complete rotations
every day. The orbits are arranged so that at any time, anywhere on earth,
there are at least four satellites visible in the sky.
6. .....................................................................
A GPS receivers job is to locate four or more of these satellites, figure
out the distance to each, and use this information to deduce its own
location. This operation is based on a simple mathematical principle
called trilateration; trilateration in three-dimensional space can be a
little tricky, so well start with an explanation of simple two-dimensional
trilateration.
7. .....................................................................
Imagine you are somewhere in the United States and you are TOTALLY
lost - for whatever reason, you have absolutely no clue where you are.
You find a friendly local and ask Where am I? He
says, You are 625 miles from Boise, Idaho. This is a
Boise
nice, hard fact, but it is not particularly useful in itself.
You could be anywhere on a circle around Boise that
has a radius of 625 miles, like this:
You ask somebody else where you are and he says,
You are 690 miles from Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Now you are getting somewhere. If you combine this
information with the Boise information, you have two
circles that intersect. You now know that you must be
at one of these two intersection points, if you are 625
miles from Boise and 690 miles from Minneapolis.
If a third person tells you that you are 615 miles from
Tucson, Arizona, you can eliminate one of the
possibilities, because the third circle will only intersect
with one of these points. You know exactly where you
are - Denver, Colorado.

Boise

Minneapolis

Boise
Minneapolis
Denver
Tucson

8. .....................................................................
Three-dimensional trilateration isnt much different from two-dimensional
trilateration, but its a little trickier to visualize. Instead of a series of
circles you get a series of spheres.
If you know you are 10 miles from satellite A in the sky, you could be
anywhere on the surface of a huge, imaginary sphere with a 10-mile
radius. If you also know you are 15 miles from satellite B, you can overlap
the first sphere with another, larger sphere. The spheres intersect in a
perfect circle. If you know the distance to a third satellite, you get a third
sphere, which intersect with this circle at two points. The Earth itself can

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act as a fourth sphere - only one of the two possible points will actually
be on the surface of the planet, so you can eliminate the one in space.
Receivers generally look to four or more satellites, however, to improve
accuracy and provide precise altitude information.
9. .....................................................................
The most essential function of a GPS receiver is to pick up the transmissions
of at least four satellites and figure out the receivers position on Earth.
To make the navigation more user-friendly, most receivers plug this data
into map files stored in memory. A standard GPS receiver will not only
place you on a map at any particular location, but will also trace your
path across a map as you move, tell you how far youve travelled, how
long youve been travelling, your current speed, your average speed, the
estimated time of your arrival at destination if you maintain your current
speed.


Activity 4

Check your answers

Detailed comprehension
Vocabulary
 lcrit les mots transparents sont faciles reprer. Trouvez les

mots du texte correspondant aux mots franais suivants : le numro


indique le paragraphe o chercher !
un gadget : (2) ............................................ un rcepteur : (9) .................................
un satellite : (4) ......................................... le globe : (5) ............................................
une rotation : (5) ....................................... linformation : (6) .................................
un cercle : (7) ............................................. combiner : (7) .........................................
liminer : (7) ..............................................

un concept : (3) .....................................

une sphre : (8) ........................................ une srie : (8) .........................................


la surface : (8) ........................................... les transmissions : (9) .......................
la position : (9) .......................................... tracer : (9) .................................................
Pronunciation
Attention la prononciation loral!
CD 1

Enr.27

coutez lenregistrement des mots suivants et classez-les selon la


prononciation du i .
Classez les mots suivants selon la prononciation du i : /i/ ou /ai/?
satellite, eliminate, position, information, series, combine,
transmissions.

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CD 1

Que remarquez-vous sur le mot anglais qui signifie une srie de


quelque chose ? ...........................................
coutez et rptez les mots.

Enr.27

 Infrer le sens des mots

Pouvez-vous suggrer le sens des mots suivants en vous appuyant sur


le contexte :
to draftt a map: (1) ..................................................................................................................
the GPS is a handyy guide: (3) ..........................................................................................
the satellites circle the globe: (5) ..................................................................................
their job is to figure outt distances: (6) .......................................................................
a circle with a radius of 625 miles: (7) .......................................................................
the third circle will intersect: (7) ....................................................................................
the GPS will trace your path: (9) .....................................................................................
 Vrifiez vos

rponses

Il est important pour vous de prendre confiance et doser faire des


hypothses avant de vous rfrer au dictionnaire. Un mot inconnu
sinsre dans une phrase, dans un contexte qui doivent vous aider.
 Le dictionnaire

Cherchez les mots suivants si vous ne les connaissez pas :


to keep from: (1) .....................................................................................................................
to pull off a trick: (3) .............................................................................................................
implemented (4) (verbe) : ..................................................................................................
at least: (5) ................................................................................................................................
to locate: (6) .............................................................................................................................
tricky: (6+8) ...............................................................................................................................
clue: (7) ........................................................................................................................................
to move: (9) ...............................................................................................................................
speed: (9) ...................................................................................................................................
average: (9) ...............................................................................................................................


Activity 5

Check your answers

Observing
Vous avez bien compris le document sur le GPS ? Alors vous pouvez
trouver les six erreurs dans ce compte rendu crit par un lve. Soulignezles et corrigez-les.

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Autrefois il ny avait aucun moyen de se reprer, les gens se perdaient


tout le temps. Le GPS est un systme peu coteux et pratique. Il y a 27
satellites, dont 3 sont en panne. Ce sont les Amricains qui ont invent ce
systme pour les militaires du monde entier. Chaque satellite fonctionne
lnergie solaire et parcourt 19 300 km chaque jour. Il faut un minimum
de 3 satellites pour se reprer partir de la Terre. Le GPS fournit des
informations supplmentaires comme les distances parcourues ou votre
heure darrive prcise.

Activity 6
Language skills

Comment appelle-t-on ces formes ?


Quand on parle dune invention
on est amen faire des
comparaisons.
tudiez les phrases suivantes
propos du GPS :
Things are much easier today.
For less than $100...
Four or more of these satellites...
Its a little trickierr to visualize...

.............................................................................................................

Quelles en sont les 3 diffrentes sortes ?


............................................................................................................;

Quand on applique ces formes des adjectifs,


comment classe-t-on les adjectifs ?
.............................................................................................................

Si vous avez pu rpondre ces questions sans regarder la suite, passez


directement lexercice dapplication. Sinon, tudiez le tableau cidessous avant de vous lancer !
Comparatifs

Adjectifs courts

Adjectifs longs

adjectif+er than

more + adjectif + than

dgalit (aussi... que)

as + adjectif + as

as + adjectif + as

dinfriorit (moins... que)

less + adjectif + than

less + adjectif + than

Rappel
 On appelle adjectif court un adjectif dune syllabe ou de deux se terminant par un y.


On utilise plus souvent les comparatifs de supriorit que les autres.

 On

peut laisser tomber la deuxime partie du comparatif, dire par exemple que cest plus
cher sans prciser la suite qui est alors sous-entendue dans le contexte.

 On peut utiliser les formes comparatives avec des noms : He has more money...
 On

peut nuancer les formes comparatives en ajoutant much (beaucoup) ou a little (un peu)
devant. Par exemple: it is much quicker.... it is a little more expensive...

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Exercice

Vous comparez le GPS dautres inventions. Traduisez et compltez


chaque amorce.
1. Cest moins cher. .................................................................................................................
2. Cest plus facile utiliser. ...............................................................................................
3. Cest plus rapide. .................................................................................................................
4. Cest plus utile. .....................................................................................................................
5. Cest moins encombrant. ................................................................................................
6. Plus de la moiti des voitures ont le GPS. .............................................................
 Vrifiez vos

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rponses

Listen to obtain
information
General comprehension

Activity 7

 Look at the 3 pictures, use your dictionary to answer the questions :

Picture 1. What are these? What are they used with?


Picture 2. What is this man doing?
Picture 3. What is this policeman wearing?
4. Have you heard of Kevlar?
CD 1

 Now listen to the recording and identify.

What is the Colt Trooper?


Enr.28

What do these figures correspond to?


300 ......................
1,000 ....................
 Check your

answers

Detailed comprehension
CD 1

Enr.28

 Listen to the first part and circle the correct answer:

The bullet is fired through


a) a car door

b) a human body

c) a metal can

The result shows it can


a) pass
anything in its path.
b) devastate
c) touch

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CD 1

 Listen to the second part and circle the correct answer:

Kevlar is

a) a man-made fibre [f
f ib ]

b) a natural fibre

Enr.29

In its raw state ( ltat brut)


t it is
a) hard

b) soft

This part explains how Kevlar is made.


Use your dictionary to find the meaning of the following words:
a fabric:
a layer:
a yarn:
to spin (spun, spun):
to weave (wove, woven):
to bond:
 Now put the 3 processes for making Kevlar in the correct order after

you have listened again to the passage:


a) The fabric is bonded together in layers;
b) The fibre is spun into a yarn;
c) It is woven into a fabric.
 Complete the information:

Kevlar is made by a ......................... company.


 Listen once more and note 3 comparatives to describe a Kevlar

panel:
It is .....................................................................................................................................................
CD 1

Listen to the third part and answer the questions.

Why is an air bag necessary in the jacket? ..................................................................


Enr.30

What would the consequence be on a human? .......................................................


Why is plasticine used in the experiment? .................................................................
CD 1

Enr.31

Listen to the conclusion

Which is the most damaged?


a) the panel?
b) the plasticine?

c) the bullet?

How can a man walk if he wears this jacket? .............................................................


What does this expression mean?
a) he can look over other people
b) he can feel confident


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Check your answers

CD 1

Enr.32

Listen to the whole recording again.


Put the sequence of events in the correct order.

How the test was carried out:


1

10

11

12

l
a) This was held in place by two elastic straps.
b) A thick layer of plasticine was used to cover a square wooden block.
c) The bullet-resistant panel was placed over the pillow.
d) For the first test, a plasticine stand-in was used.
e) The gun was loaded and fired at the stand-in.
f) This was then covered by an air-filled pillow.
g) The bullet was examined and found to be damaged.
h) The plasticine was then examined and only a very small indentation
was found.
i) The panel was found to be only slightly damaged.
j) There was no damage at all and the man hardly even felt the impact of
the bullet.
k) The stand-in was placed in position against the car door.
l) Finally, the same test was carried out on a man wearing a bulletresistant jacket.
Vocabulary

Here are some words and expressions you hear in the recording:
Choose in the box below the equivalents:
strongly joined

to make a hole in its been very badly damaged

possible bone fractures

able to kill

put it to the test

proves to be useful

in its way

make
something
immediately

material or fibre

type of experiment


stop

sort of thing

Check your answers, learn the words

a) Deadly ........................................................................................................................................
b) To punch through .................................................................................................................
c) In its path .................................................................................................................................
d) Theres not much left of that ..........................................................................................

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e) Kind of thing ...........................................................................................................................


f) The odd broken rib ..............................................................................................................
g) Bonded together ..................................................................................................................
h) Give it a go ...............................................................................................................................
i) Stop something dead..........................................................................................................
j) Comes in useful.......................................................................................................................
k) Stuff .............................................................................................................................................

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4 Express yourself in writing


Sujet d'expression crite
Activity 8

A paper reports an attack on a local Bank by two gangsters. One of the


policemen interviewed was shot at but saved by his bullet-proof jacket.
Write the article.
Avant de commencer rdiger, soulignez dans lnonc les mots-cls.
De quelles personnes parle-t-on ? De quel lieu ? De quel vnement ? Quel
est le temps employ dans les phrases ? Quest-ce que cela indique ?
Maintenant toffez ces premiers indices pour rassembler vos ides :
1. When? Yesterday, last weekend etc..... donc quel temps allez-vous
utiliser pour votre article? (pensez la forme simple et ING)
2. Where? ajoutez des dtails la donne: quelle rue, centre ville, ct
de quel magasin etc...
3. Who? donnez quelques prcisions sur les gangsters: leur ge, dj
connus de la police, faites des comparaisons, etc...
4. What happened? se sont gars devant la Banque/ont menac le
directeur/sont sortis avec largent de la caisse/quelquun a pu prvenir
la police....
Voici quelques verbes pour vous aider.
to park to rush in to threaten to point a gun at
to get out to press the alarm

5. Introduce the policeman: name, age.


6. Quote his words: quelle personne allez-vous utiliser ?
7. Conclusion
Vrifiez vos verbes, les mots de liaison employs.
Voici quelques mots et expressions qui pourraient vous tre utiles :
when at that moment then finally
meantime ((pendant ce temps)
thanks to ((grce )
while ((pendant que /tandis quee)

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Si vous ntes pas au point sur les mots de liaison voici un rappel sur
quelques-uns dentre eux :

Language skills
Les mots de liaison servent structurer votre expression.
Ainsi, pour ordonner une squence dvnements, on peut faire appel :
first (dabord, premirement) secondly (deuximement)
then (ensuite), after that (aprs cela)
finally (finalement)
Mettez la recette de lomelette en ordre grce ces mots de liaison :
Break the eggs into a bowl. Serve without delay! Add salt and pepper. Beat the eggs for a
minute or two. Cook into a hot frying pan.
Les mots de liaison peuvent aussi situer une action dans le temps :
Ainsi, on peut utiliser :
as soon as: ds que
meantime: pendant ce temps
when: quand
Lequel de ces mots vous semble le plus appropri dans les phrases suivantes ?
...... the teacher arrived, all the pupils stood up.

You must return your book to the library .....................possible.


Have a shower, ................... Ill prepare breakfast.

Les mots de liaison les plus courants sont: and (et),


t but (mais), so (donc)
c et orr (ou).
Attention ! Il ne sagit pas de mettre un mot de liaison dans chaque phrase !
Choisissez ceux qui vous paraissent ncessaires, sans tomber dans lexcs.

Rdigez votre article (100 - 150 mots) et noubliez pas de relire !




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Comparez votre travail avec le corrig modle.

Reading
and debating
Read the following newspaper extract.
The Guardian, Saturday December 3, 2005
Lucy Atkins
Tagged, and ready for bed.
Tagged, and ready for bed. In the States theyve been at it for years. But
are British parents really ready to use satellite technology to keep tabs
on their children?
Lucy Atkins investigates
This week a company called Teddyphone launched a teddy-bearshaped mobile phone aimed at four-to-eight year-olds, just in time for
Christmas. At the same time, it launched the i-Kids satellite mobile
phone, which looks a bit like a spaceman and incorporates the latest
global positioning satellite (GPS) technology, allowing you to track your
childs movements through a secure website - or from your own mobile
phone - to a radius of 20-50 metres. These are just two new additions
to the latest parenting growth industry: a multimillion-pound market on
both sides of the Atlantic in new and increasingly flashy child-tracking
devices. Using fast-developing mobile phone, wireless, radio, microchip
and GPS technology, these new inventions will enable us to keep tabs on
our children wherever they are, night or day.
(...) all this is small fry compared with developments in the US where
electronic tagging is the latest child-tracking buzz. In the UK, electronic
tags - or radio frequency identification (RFID) tags - are mostly being
used on early release prisoners, or being investigated as a possible
alternative to barcodes in shops. In the States, meanwhile, one San Diego
company, Smart Wear Technologies, is launching Home Alarm next
year. Small, high-frequency RFID tags act as your childs unique digital
ID and can be simply sewn, like name tags, into pyjamas or clothes.
Sensors attached to the doors and windows of your house create an
invisible barrier - if your tagged child breaches the boundary an alarm
sounds. Smart Wear tagged clothes are to be stocked by Target, the US
equivalent of Tesco, and Smart Wear expects to have a London office in
the next 12-14 months

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General comprehension
Activity 9

 Choose the correct answer.

a) What suggests that the new phones are some sort of toys?
1. They are sold in toy departments.
2. They look like toys.
3. The company is called Teddyphone.
b) These phones are bought by:
1. children
2. parents
3. friends
c) Thanks to the GPS you can:
1. find your child
2. know where your child is
3. call your child
d) The parenting industry is:
1. confidential
2. developing fast
3. about to fail
e) The child-tracking industry is:
1. the same in the UK and the USA
2. slightly more developed in the USA
3. far more advanced in the USA
f) The use of electronic tagging is:
1. restricted to children
2. already used for other people
3. planned for shop use.
g) Attaching tags to children is:
1. very simple
2. very complicated
3. very long
h) To work, the system sold by Smart Wear:
1. does not require anything else
2. requires sensors at various points of the house
3. requires the installation of physical barriers

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i) Parents know if the child leaves the safe perimeter because:


1. there is an alarm
2. it is indicated on the doors and windows
3. the child is missing
j) The English market:
1. has rejected this product
2. has imported this product
3. will adopt this product in the near future.
 Working on the vocabulary

Reliez les mots avec leurs quivalents en franais :


to launch (a product)
to aim at
a bit
increasingly
flashy
to enable
to keep tabs
small fry
the latest buzz
to release
meanwhile
to sew
sensors
to breach
the boundary
to expect

des capteurs
permettre
lancer
la limite
coudre
viser
pendant ce temps
un peu
compter, esprer
du menu fretin, des broutilles
dernier cri
de plus en plus
violer, rompre
voyant, tapageur
tenir loeil
relcher, librer

 Finding arguments for and against these devices:

Look at the ideas below. Some are in favour of these devices, (the pros)
others are against (the cons). Classify them in the grid. You can add more
ideas of your own!
the world is dangerous children have a sense of adventure there are bad
people it is reassuring for children it is reassuring for parents if there is a
problem you can intervene quickly parents will be spying on their children it
does not develop a sense of responsibility in children there will always be
risks parents will get tired of this gadget and forget using it children can
easily lose their mobile the phones are not 100 percent reliable batteries
can go flat the use of devices like those will develop hyper anxiety in parents
those who cant afford this technology will feel left out children are treated like
prisoners parents feel they are in control

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The pros

The cons

 Entranement lexpression crite : la forme passive.

La forme passive
Rappel : le passif se forme
avec lauxiliaire be suivi
du participe pass du
verbe. Lauxiliaire se conjugue aux temps voulus (is,
was, will be, has been,
would be).
Attention : la forme progressive est utilise quand
on insiste sur le droulement de lvnement. On
trouve alors is being
are being devant le participe pass.

La forme passive est frquemment utilise pour


exprimer des ides. En anglais, elle est souvent
lquivalent du pronom on en franais. Dans les
deux langues, elle est utilise quand on ne veut pas
ou quon ne peut pas mentionner lagent. Il est donc
essentiel de bien matriser cette forme.
a) tudiez les exemples suivants :
The telephone was invented at the end of the 19th
century.
Everyday, new gadgets are being invented....
Vous remarquez que linventeur du tlphone nest
pas mentionn, pas plus que celui ou ceux des
gadgets (lagent). Ce qui est important dans mon
discours, ce que je mets en avant, cest le tlphone
ou les gadgets.

b) tudiez les phrases suivantes et proposez une traduction pour


chacune :
1. These gadgets are produced in China. ...............................................................
2. They are sold all over the world. ............................................................................
3. More and more parents are being persuaded to buy them. ...................
4. A new model is being launched everyday. .......................................................
5. I never thought parents would be tricked by such commercials! ........
..................................................................................................................................................


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Vrifiez vos rponses

c) Faites une phrase voix haute pour chacune des inventions suivantes.
La date de leur invention vous est donne.
1. The printing press (1440)
2. The dishwasher (1893)
3. The disposable nappy (couche)
e (1950)
4. The nylon pantyhose (collants) (1959)
CD 1

5. The laser disc (1969)


Vrifiez les rponses avec lenregistrement.

Enr.33

 La production dun dialogue lcrit.


Avant de vous lancer dans le travail qui vous est demand, pouvez-vous rpondre aux questions suivantes :
Comment prsente-t-on un dialogue lcrit ? En quoi est-ce diffrent dune
autre production crite ?
Comment indique-t-on quon change de personnage, que la parole passe un
autre?
Avez-vous dfini qui sont les personnes participant au dialogue ? Leur avezvous donn un nom ? Comment allez-vous rendre cette information claire pour
le lecteur ?
Quelle est la relation sociale entre les protagonistes ? Se connaissent-ils
dj ? Ont-ils une relation dgalit ou non ?
Comment la langue utilise va-t-elle reflter cet tat de choses ? Allez-vous
utiliser du langage familier ou au contraire un langage plus soutenu ?
Un dialogue tourne autour dune information : Qui dtient linformation ? Qui
va poser des questions son sujet ?
Dans un dialogue, les participants doivent pouvoir manifester leurs sentiments :
approbation, doute, refus. Comment peut-on rendre lchange vivant ?
la fin du dialogue est-on parvenu progresser par rapport la situation de
dpart ? Y a-t-il accord ? chec ?

Observez ces 3 extraits :


 Quest-ce
 Que

qui diffrencie le troisime des deux autres ?

remarquez-vous sur lusage des guillemets ?

 Quest-ce

qui sintercale entre les phrases de dialogue du premier et


du deuxime ?

 Quel

registre de langue est utilis pour chaque extrait ? Justifiez votre

avis.

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 He say, Miss Jones I would appreciate it if you would leave the room

right NOW. I say, I ain going nowhere [...] till the bell ring. I came
here to learn maff and you gon teach me..
He dont know what to do. He try to recoup, be cool, say, Well, if you
want to learn, calm down- Im calm, I tell him. He say, If you want
to learn, shut up and open your book. His face is red, he is shaking.
(Sapphire, Push, 1997)
 Lady, he said coolly, you were doing seventy miles an hour in a

forty-five-mile-zone. Could I see your licence, please?


Certainly, said Maude. Its on the front bumper.
No, said the policeman patiently, I want your license.
You mean those little pieces of paper with your picture on it?
Yes.
Oh, I dont have one.
Come again?
I dont have one. I dont believe in them.
(Colin Higgins, Harold and Maude, 1971)
 Sir PETER (...) and we shall now be the happiest couple -

Lady TEAZLE And never differ again?


Sir PETER No, never - though at the same time, indeed, my dear Lady
Teazle, you must watch your temper very seriously; for in all our little
quarrels, my dear, if you recollect, my love, you always began first.
Lady TEAZLE I beg your pardon, my dear Sir Peter; indeed, you always
gave the provocation.
Sir PETER Now, see, my angel! Take care - contradicting isnt the best
way to keep friends.
Lady TEAZLE Then, dont you begin it, my love!
(Richard Brinsley Sheridan, The School for Scandal, 1777)
 tudiez les commentaires
donns dans la section Rponses et servez-vous
de ces remarques pour construire vos propres dialogues.

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