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Outside Broadcast and Futures Essay

Outside Broadcast and Futures!


Assessment 2 (Essay)!

Page 1 of 4

Outside Broadcast and Futures Essay


3D films have been created as an ultimate means of entertainment. The technique
stimulates the stereoscopic vision used in our everyday lives, to help make the image
literally pop, and create a much more visually stunning image. A 3D film is created by
combining two images together from two different cameras to enhance an illusion of depth
perception, which gives a more enjoyable experience at the cinema, rather than a simple
2D movie. Whilst a 2D film relies on the focus pull to show what the audience should be
looking at, a 3D film can much more easily show section of the image the audience should
be watching.!

Stereoscopic vision is the way our eyes perceive images around us. The left eye image
and the right eye image are slightly different, and when fused together, they create an
image that allows us to have a sense of depth and perception. The word "stereo" comes
from the Greek word "stereos" which means firm or solid. With stereo vision you see an
object as solid in three spatial dimensions--width, height and depth--or x, y and z. It is the
added perception of the depth dimension that makes stereo vision so rich and
special. (Rachel Cooper, 2015)!

Traditionally, a 3D film is created with two filters over the original image. This is the most
common type of stereoscopic image, and this is the technique used for creating 3D
movies. (Steves Digicams, 2015). A blue layer, a red layer, and the original layer, also
known as the anaglyphic image. The blue and red layers are created through the
stereoscopic camera, which has two lens, or sometimes a separate lens will even be
placed over the lens, which creates the 3D image, or two cameras are rigged next to each
other. These lenses are positioned the same width apart as the human eyes are, which
helps create the stereoscopic vision imitation. The lenses or cameras arent at different
angles, theyre only slightly misaligned, and only a few inches apart, which simulates how
stereoscopic vision and our eyes work. The 3D glasses for these films have one blue lens,
and one red lens, and filters the image to create the illusion of a 3D picture, imitating
stereoscopic vision. !

To create depth in the image, three things are required to be considered. The background,
foreground, and the zero parallax. The foreground holds the closest image to the
audience, and the background is the image that is the farthest, and the zero parallax is the
default zone of the image. The divergence in an image is how far apart the offset images
are. The more divergence an image has, the closer it will appear to an audience. The
further away the image is, the less divergence it has. !

Since RealDs creation in 2003 it has completely changed the way 3D films are made. The
layers and filters arent as noticeable, as instead of using reds and blues, different
polarisations are used, and what is called passive 3D technology. Their projectors flick
between the left eye frame and right eye frame at 144 frames per second. The right eye
image is circularly polarised clockwise, matching the Right lens in the glasses. This lets
only the Right image become visible. The Left Eye image is circularly polarised
counterclockwise, matching the Left lens in the glasses. This lets only the Left image
become visible. RealD 3D glasses decode the circular polarisation so that each eye sees
only what was designed for it to see, creating a perception of depth. (RealD, 2015). The
glasses are lightweight, and each lens blocks out certain spectrums of light. RealD
cinemas also use a passive circular polarizing technique to achieve 3D which allows
viewers a clear image even when turning or tilting their heads. (Timothy Fernandez, 2013)!

Coraline is a stop motion film by Laika, a company that has created the most innovative
stop motion films in the past five or so years. Using customised hardware like 3D printers,
Page 2 of 4

Outside Broadcast and Futures Essay


they print faces and bodies to use in their stop motion. When Coraline was filmed, it was
decided to film it in 3D. However, the puppets were so small that there was no possible
way to create a camera or rig two cameras close enough together that would create a
stereoscopic image. So, instead, after every shot was taken, the camera was moved
slightly to the side and the image was photographed again. The 3D aspect of the film was
created in post production, when the two images were fused together. !

Some 3D films are converted to 3D after being filmed in 2D. This includes when some
older films are remastered for 3D, including Lion King, which for a limited two weeks was
remastered and converted to 3D for the cinema. Another well known 3D film is Alice in
Wonderland, which again, was filmed in 2D, and later converted to 3D. Tim Burton, the
director, believed it would be less time consuming to film without the stereoscopic lenses,
as there were many effects that needed to be done without the added pressure of filming
in 3D. For example, the Red Queens head was huge, and as an effect, just the head on
its own, was blown up in post production, to appear towering over her body. Burton felt
that with this as an effect, it would prove difficult to work around in post production. The
conversion of 2D films into 3D films can be broken down into four steps. Rotoscoping,
depth map, creative feedback, and painting. !

Rotoscoping is when every single separate frame is traced to show the depth between
different objects, even an actors nose from their face. Youre isolating somebodys
nose separate of their cheek so that the nose can play further from the
cheek (William Sherak, 2013). Even every single raindrop in a thunderstorm.!

After rotoscoping, hundreds of artists begin to work on the depth map. This is what creates
the depth and stereoscopic simulation in an image. It gives a body sitting on a chair depth.
Every single item or object that was just traced for rotoscoping is now given a depth, to
work within the camera.!

Creative feedback is when the director comes in and watches their film in 3D for the first
time. They give critique on what they do and dont like, if they want something to feel
bigger, or smaller. !

The painting process is more of a cleanup process. If I create volume in your head from a
2D photograph, the side of your head you could never see before is now visible, because
now theres volume so that information on the side of your head is stereo noise on the
frame, a bit blurry, so we now have to go and clean all of that up. And thats whats called
the painting process. (William Sherak, 2013)!

After these four steps, the film is then watched in a small cinema with an acute attention to
detail, noting the small details and objects that may have been missed on smaller
computer monitors. To convert a film like Jurassic Park, it took over nine months, and
seven hundred people working on it. Part of the reason it took so long to finish was
because there was a rainstorm scene in the movie, and like earlier mentioned, every
single raindrop needed to be rotoscoped.!

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Page 3 of 4

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References!
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Outside Broadcast and Futures Essay

AVForums, 2010, AVForums, How is 3D Filmed and Edited, viewed 19 April 2015,
<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmYIrH2mp2w>.!

Bailey, J 2013, Flavorwire, How a 2D movie because a 3D movies, viewed 19 April 2015,
<http://flavorwire.com/382554/jurassic-park-how-a-2d-movie-becomes-a-3d-movie>.!

Blum, E 2012, EricBlumProductions, Coraline Hand Made in 3D, viewed 19 April 2015,
<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LCS80fdgd98>.!

Cooper, R 2015, MagicEyeinc, What is stereo vision?, viewed 19 April 2015, <http://
www.vision3d.com/stereo.html>.!

Entertainment2knight, 2013, Entertainment2knight, How the movie Coraline was made,


viewed 19 April 2015, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fGxDQRBKFZI>.!

Fernandez, T 2013, 423digital, RealD vs. Imax Digital 3D: Whats the difference?, viewed
19 April 2015, <https://423digital.wordpress.com/2013/01/06/reald-vs-imax-digital-3dwhats-the-difference-cnet-asia/>.!

McCarthy, E 2010, PopularMechanics, Tim Burtons Alice in Wonderland Movie 3D Tech,


viewed 19 April 2015, <http://www.popularmechanics.com/culture/movies/a5201/
aliceinwonderland3dvfx/>.!

MiracleAttraction, 2009, MiracleAttraction, Miracle Motion Meeting 5 - Rob Myers and Tom
Hager talks about 3D in the films Coraline and Up, viewed 19 April 2015, <https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=AZvfv6kNBFQ>.!

Monahan, M 2010, Telegraph, Tim Burtons magical Alice in Wonderland in 3D, viewed 19
April 2015, <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/filmreviews/7322558/Tim-Burtonsmagical-Alice-in-Wonderland-in-3D.html>.!

Physics, 2010, Physics, How do 3D films work?, viewed 19 April 2015, <http://
www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=56>.!

Quora, 2010, Quora, How are 3D movies made?, viewed 19 April 2015, <http://
www.quora.com/How-are-3D-movies-made-both-animated-and-live-action>.!

RealD, 2015, RealD, Knowing How a Stereoscopic Camera Works, viewed 19 April 2015,
<http://reald.com/#/howrealdworks>.!

Steve, 2015, Steves Digicams, viewed 19 April 2015, <http://www.steves-digicams.com/


knowledge-center/how-tos/photo-accessories/knowing-how-a-stereoscopic-cameraworks.html#b>.!

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