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Cognition and Language

What is cognition?
Cognition means thinking and using knowledge, and organizing thoughts into language. It also involves perception,
memory, attention and consciousness.
Why can't we understand cognitive processes by simply asking people about them?
People dont often know their own thought process. They could make a certain choice, and then make an
explanation to suit their choice unknowingly.
Do people use mental images when thinking? What happens when people have to rotate a mental image in
order to answer a question about whether two objects are the same or mirror images of one another?
People use mental images all the time. If mentally you have to consider whether something has been rotated
(because its being viewed from a different angle), it should take the same amount of time as if you actually
physically rotated it.
What are the two basic aspects of attention?
Bottom-up and Top-down attention.
What are bottom-up and top-down attentional processes?
Bottom-up is stimulus driven, driven by properties of objects. It could be pre-concious. Top-dowm is goal driven,
under control of the person and involving working memory.
What is the difference between a preattentive and an attentive process?
Preattentive is something that stands out immediately, like something thats different in shape, size, color,
movement, etc. Attentive is when searching through the items to find the difference is needed.
What is the Stroop effect? What affects the strength of the influence of the Stroop effect?
It is the tendency to read the words instead of saying the color of ink. Its easier when the words are nonsense, and
its harder when the words have actual meaning.
What is change blindness?
It is the failure to detect changes in parts of a scene. It demonstrates the limits of attention, because we end up
paying attention to the gist of the scene but not all the details.
What is attention deficit disorder (ADD)? What is ADHD? What is known about the causes of ADHD? What are
the most common treatments for ADHD?
ADD involves easy distraction, impulsiveness, moodiness and failure to follow through on plans. ADHD is the same
thing except with excessive activity and a lot of fidgeting. However in each affected individual the intensities differ.
Some causes are genetics, usually with a combination of environmental factors (higher incidence in lower-class
families). In other cases its caused by fetal exposure, lead poisoning, epilepsy, or emotional stress, etc. Mild
abnormalities may not result in a accurate and definite diagnoses, and some feel like its cant be categorized into a
single disorder. Common treatments include stimulant drugs, or behavioral methods.
What is a prototype?
Familiar or typical examples.
What is the conceptual network and how is it organized?
Conceptual networks involve categorizing things into hierarchies, saying that everything is a form of something, type
of something, or a sub-category of something. It could also be a giant network connecting one concept to another,
not necessarily as a hierarchy since they are simply related.
What is spreading activation?
It is when thinking about one concept triggers the concepts related to it, branching or spreading out.
What is priming?
Priming something means getting it started. Its similar to the idea that seeing a similar object makes it easier to
comprehend a related object, and the same goes for words.
How do System 1 and System 2 thinking differ?
System 1 is for quick, automatic processes, routine actions, recognizing faces, easy questions etc. System 2 is for
anything that requires attention, like solving math problems or analyzing/evaluating evidence.

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What is maximizing? What is satisficing?

Maximizing is considering as many choices as possible to choose the best option. Satisficing is considering options
until one that is merely satisfactory emerges.
What is an algorithm? What is a heuristic?
An algorithm is an explicit procedure for calculating an answer or testing hypotheses, and systematic procedure that
always works. A heuristic is a strategy for simplifying a problem and generating a satisfactory guess, cognitive
shortcuts that may not always work.
What is the representativeness heuristic?
It is the assumption that an item that resembles members of a category (prototype) is in that same category.
What is base-rate information?
It is information that compares to how common two categories are. When an item is being categorized, it considers
which properties of the item are the most in common with which category.
What is the availability heuristic?
It is the tendency to assume that if we can think of many occurrences of a type of event, then that event category
must be common.
What is the confirmation bias?
It involves accepting a hypothesis, and then looking for evidence to support it, rather than considering other
What is functional fixedness?
It is the tendency to use a single conformist approach because of the common uses of an item.
What is the framing effect?
The tendency to answer a question differently when it is framed differently.
What is the sunk cost effect?
When people suffer through something simply because theyve already paid for it, and dont want to waste their
money or effort.
What factors lead to expertise and superior performance?
Some factors are hours of practice, feedback received, ability to learn fast in school, etc.
What do experts do that is different from what non-experts do when faced with a task in their area of
Experts manage to look at a pattern and recognize its characteristic features quickly.
What are near and far transfer in the context of task performance?
Near transfer is the benefit to a new skill based on the practice of an old skill. Far transfer is the benefit to a new skill
from practicing a dissimilar skill.
To what extent have non-human species been able to display language abilities?
Certain chimps (bonobos) have been able to grasp sign language to communicate, but usually just to request things,
rather than simply conversing, describing something, or combining known words or phrases to say something
What are the deep structure and surface structure of a sentence? What is transformational grammar?
Transformational grammar is used to convert deep structure into a surface structure. The deep structure is the
underlying meaning of a sentence, while the surface structure is the string of words as they are spoken or written to
convey the deep structure. A variety of surface structure sentences can be used to express the same deep structure.
What is Williams syndrome? What does it tell us about language and intelligence?
It is a syndrome where there is significant mental retardation in most matters except in language. Affected individuals
would be able to speak extremely well and communicate, except they would not be intelligible.
What did Noam Chomsky mean by "language acquisition device?" What was it intended to explain?
He is claiming that since even babies and children are able to grasp language so easily and quickly (rather than just
sounds, but as sounds with meaning), people must be born with a built-in mechanism for acquiring language.

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What is parentese?
A pattern of speech used with babies that makes the difference between two words clearer.
What is Broca's aphasia?
A condition when there are difficulties in language production. An affected individual speaks, reads and writes slowly
and inarticulately.
What is Wernicke's aphasia?
A conditions that involves an impaired recall of nouns and impaired language comprehension, despite speech that is
fluid and grammatically correct.
What is babbling? What changes in a baby's babbling at around 1 year of age?
Babbling is the creation of haphazard sounds. After a while, it is intended as an imitation of the language that the
baby hears. At around age 1 a baby will babble sounds that resembles the spoken language in the household.
What is a telegraphic phrase?
When babies start saying phrases of two or more words together with intended meaning.
What happens when a young child overregularizes the rules of the language she or he is learning?
At this point the child is not simply repeating things that the child has heard, but is taking schemas of language and
inappropriately applying them to suit all the situations.
In what circumstances does the way we hear an ambiguous word depend on the context?
Usually one can understand the gist of what is being communicated with the ambiguous word, however the context
provides further clarity on the specific meaning of the word.
What are phonemes?
They are units of sound, like t, sh, f, etc.
What are morphemes?
They are units of meaning. All morphemes have many phonemes, and morphemes can be combines to form larger
words with different meanings.
What is syntax (grammar)? At what age is it mastered? How can psychologists tell whether someone knows
the syntactical rules of a language?
It is the arrangement of words and phrases to form a sentence. Usually syntax is mastered by age 5.
What is meant by the term "pragmatics?"
It is the study of the ways in which context affects the meaning of a word or phrase.
What are saccades?
Quick eye movements from one fixation point to another.

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What is g?
The general ability contained by all to be able to do well on any mental skill.
What is crystallized intelligence?
Acquired skills and knowledge and the ability to apply that knowledge in certain situations.
What is fluid intelligence?
The power of reasoning and using information. This helps in learning new skills.
What are the main assertions of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences?
There are many unrelated forms of intelligence, including language, musical abilities, logical and mathematical
reasoning, spatial reasoning, ability to recognize and classify objects, body movement skills, self-control and selfunderstanding, and sensitivity to others. He states that one may be fantastic in one (or more) of these, but not the
What are the three components of Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence? What are Sternbergs
objections to traditional IQ tests and what does he hope to accomplish with the tests he developed?
The three components are (a)cognitive processes, (b)identifying situations that require intelligence and (c)using
intelligence in practical ways, a.k.a. analytic, practical, creative.
What was the motivation behind the development of the original IQ tests by Binet and Simon?
They were created to identify intellectual deficiencies in children so that they can be taught separately
What are Stanford-Binet tests?
Now they are meant to test real age with mental age. A test is first designed based on standards set by a standard
group for an age, and then other subjects are tested to see if they fit in their physical age category or in another one.
What is mental age?
The average age at which children in the standard comparison group achieve that score.
How was an IQ score calculated in the early days of IQ testing?
It was (mental age/chronological age)*100.
What are the Wechsler tests?
They are IQ tests that are similar to the Stanford-Binet, providing an overall score and four major subscores (verbal
comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed). This provides identification of stronger
and weaker areas of performance.
What is the Raven's Progressive Matrices test?
Its the most commonly used test that slowly progresses from easy to difficult. In order to reduce the variable of
having a language barrier, it aims to test fluid intelligence without language or factual information, just images.
To what extent do IQ test scores correlate with genetic relatedness?
IQ test scores are affected by genetics, and the extent of the correlation depends on the relationship. The highest
correlation is between identical twins, then between non-identical twins, then between siblings, followed by
biological parent and child, and then adoptive parent and child.
Has the Human Genome Project been able to identify any genes correlated with IQ scores? If so, what has
been found?
Many genes have shown a correlation to intelligence, however only to a certain extent, and even that could be
manipulated using the environment.
What environmental factors tend to have an effect on IQ scores?
Childhood infectious diseases mostly, because it affects the brain when it is still in development and growth.
Do programs that attempt to help children from populations that tend to score low on IQ tests have any
positive effects? If so, what seems to work and what doesn't?
Music lessons help a tiny bit. Early adoption makes a big difference.

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What is involved in standardizing an IQ test?

It involves evaluating questions, establishing administrative rules, and interpreting scores.
What is the Flynn effect?
Because of democratization of information and technological advancements, every new generations raw IQ scores
have increased, so the tests have to be made slightly harder each time to keep the mean score at 100.
In the context of psychological assessment, what is reliability? What is validity?
Reliability talks about the repeatability of the test, questioning whether if the test is taken multiple times, the same
result is obtained. Validity is the degree to which other evidence and theories support the interpretation of the test
What other than IQ test scores predict success in school (including college)?
Scores on end-of-grade tests, self-discipline, measures of effort, curiosity, initiative, creativity, etc.
What does it mean for an IQ test to be biased?
It would mean that the test overstates or understates the true performance of a selected and tested group. Eg like
race, gender, age.
What is stereotype threat? How can it be overcome?
It is the risk of performing badly, thereby supporting an unfavorable stereotype about their group. It can result in
unwanted anxiety and a drop in motivation. It could possibly be tackled by being told that there is a risk of
stereotype threat, and they should so their best to not let it affect them a.k.a. do the best they can.

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What are the symptoms and causes of spatial neglect?
Some symptoms are eating only from the right side of the plate, reading only the right side of the page, pointing to
the right and drawing only the right side. It is caused usually when someone has a right-hemispheric stroke, and is
beginning to recover. It is a tendency to be unconscious to the left side of things.
What brain areas are associated with conscious experience?
A large part of the brain is associated with conscious experience. Visual cortex, pre-frontal cortex.
What is the difference in brain activity between a stimulus that is not consciously perceived (because it was
shown for a short time and masked) and one that is consciously perceived (no mask)?
There is stimuli activation in both scenarios, however there is more activity when there is no masking, and
recognition of the word.
What is a circadian rhythm? What controls the circadian rhythm?
It is a rhythm of activity and inactivity lasting about a day. We get certain cues from the sunrise and sunset, however
it is determined innately by internal brain timing mechanisms.
What happens when someone goes without sleep? What does sleep deprivation do to a person's reasoning
ability over time?
Sleep deprivation produces a pattern of progressive deterioration superimposed on the normal circadian cycle of
rising and falling body temperature and alertness.
Who tend to be "morning people" and who tend to be "evening people?" What happens to cognitive
performance as the day wears on?
The younger generation tends to have evening people, those who take longer to warm up in the morning, and are the
most focused in the afternoon/evening. The older generation tends to have morning people, those who awaken
easily and are quickly alert. As the day proceeds, the older generation tends to deteriorate, while the younger
generation improves.
What are the main theories of why we need to sleep? What evidence supports each theory?
Sleep saves energy at night.
What are the different stages of sleep? How are they differentiated? What is special about the REM stage?
Stage 1, motionless eyes and lots of brain activity. Stage 2, slower pulse and breathing, longer brain waves. Stage 3,
even slower pulse and breathing, brain is chilling. Stage 4, slowest pulse and breathing, low neuron activity (HELLA
chill brain). REM sleep, eyes move back and forth, complex and vivid dreams, desynchronized brain waves, relaxed
muscles. It is special because it is equally light sleeping and deep sleeping in terms of different aspects.
What are the major theories of dreaming and how do they try to explain dreams?
Freuds theory is that there is a manifest content and latent content. A modern theory is that the brain takes the
crazy REM sleep brain activity and stimuli, and tries to interpret them as dreams.
What is the latent content of a dream? What is the manifest content?
Latent content contains the hidden ideas that the dream experience symbolically represents. Manifest content is that
which appears on the surface of the dream.

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What is the mere measurement effect?
It is when estimating the probability of doing a desirable activity increases the probability of that action.
What is homeostasis?
It is the maintenance of an optimum level of biological conditions within an organism.
What is the reward center of the brain? How was it discovered by researchers?
The circuit includes the brainstem, hypothalamus, limbic system and frontal lobes. It was discovered by testing on
What is Maslow's motivational hierarchy? How has it been criticized? What modifications have been
proposed to the hierarchy?
Maslows hierarchy of needs proposes that we resolve conflicts by address our most urgent needs, then the nest
most urgent, and so on and so forth. The hierarchy was originally physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness
needs, esteem needs, and finally self-actualization. This works in theory, however in real life it may not be literally
possible. The modified hierarchy is physiological needs, safety needs, then it splits. One could either follow the
original hierarchy, or go down the route of sexual needs, childbearing needs and childrearing needs.
What is the best way to set goals? How important are deadlines? What research supports the conclusion?
The best way is to set goals that are realistic, take the goal seriously, receive feedback and believe that achieving the
goal is worth it. Deadlines are important because it helps in accomplishing some piece of work. (See the experiment
where the prof once he set spread out deadlines, and the other he told they could set their own deadlines.
How do psychologists study the ability to resist temptation and what have these studies shown?
(See the marshmallow experiment). Delayed gratification.
What are the best ways to avoid procrastination?
Encouragement and praise helps. Make a detailed plan of what has to be done, strategize.

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What are the components of the nervous system that play a central role in emotional experience?
The autonomic nervous system is involved in the emotional experience, consisting of the sympathetic (fight or flight)
and parasympathetic (nonemergency functions) nervous systems.
What was the James-Lange theory of emotions? What evidence supports this theory?
The theory states that an interpretation of a stimulus evokes autonomic changes and possibly muscle reactions. The
perception of those changes is the feeling aspect of the emotion. The updated version of this theory involves an
appraisal of the situation before autonomic changes and action perception.
Describe the main features and findings of Schachter and Singer's experiments on emotions. What did this
research lead Schachter and Singer to propose about the nature of emotions?
The theory suggests that the degree of sympathetic nervous system arousal determines the intensity of the emotion,
while a cognitive appraisal of the situation determines the type of emotion. (See experiment of injecting patients with
adrenaline, some are told, some arent, angry vs manic reactions but same physiological affects)
What is the significance of the discovery that some sensory signals are routed from the thalamus to the
amydala in addition to those being routed from the thalamus to areas of the cortex?
In the fight-or-flight context, the amygdala can act faster than the cortex.
Why do some psychologists believe that there are basic universal emotions? What classic research has been
done to support this notion?
Throughout the world certain basic facial expressions have been seen, and facial expressions represent certain
emotions therefore there must be basic universal emotions. They are basic emotions if they are similar across
cultures and emerge relatively early in life.
What are the six basic emotions, according to research by Paul Ekman and others?
Happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust and surprise.
What is the broaden-and-build hypothesis?
It suggests that positive emotions broadens ones awareness and encourages novel and exploratory thoughts and
How do the Trolley Dilemma and the Footbridge Dilemma reveal about the role of emotion in reasoning
through moral problems?
Trolley dilemma questions the morals of choosing to sacrifice one person vs five people, while the Footbridge
dilemma questions the morals of pushing someone else to possibly save five other people. In order to explain their
emotional decisions, individuals tend to explain and morally reason for their choices.
What happened to Phineas Gage? What did this tell us about the emotions?
An iron bar shot through his head, directly damaging his prefrontal cortex. As a result, he showed little to no
emotion, and since he also did not reason he made rash, poor and impulsive decisions. Therefore a prefrontal cortex
would control someones emotions and reasoning (they wouldnt feel good or bad after making a decision, so they
would pick either choice).
What do psychologists use as a good operational definition of anxiety?
It is an increase in the startle reflex.
What brain structure seems to be highly implicated in the experience of anxiety? What happens when this
brain structure is damaged?
The most involved brain structure in the anxiety experience is the amygdala. Damage means that individuals respond
much slower to complex emotion situations, and are often unable to correctly recognize emotions, facial expressions
or tone of voice.
What does the polygraph do? What is the problem with using the polygraph for lie detection?
A polygraph records sympathetic nervous system arousal, as measured by blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate
and electrical conduction of the skin. However it isnt an accurate method of lie-detection, since even innocent
individuals have been called liars under the polygraph, perhaps simply because of the stress of being under a

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What is the guilty-knowledge test? Why is it a superior method for lie detection?
It is more accurate because it only asks questions that could out someone who knows details about the crime.
Rather than asking whether someone was present, asking whether the individual had a certain weapon, or was there
at a certain time, etc.
How do anger, disgust, and contempt differ?
Anger is associated with wanting someone to go away or wanted to harm someone, because that someone has
harmed you, possibly without reason. Disgust can commonly be known as a reaction that would make one feel
contaminated if it went into their mouth/went in contact. Contempt is a reaction to a violation of community
What is positive psychology?
It studies the features that enrich life, such as happiness, hope, creativity, courage, spirituality and responsibility.
Does wealth increase happiness? If so, for whom and under what circumstances?
Beyond a certain amount of wealth, additional money doesnt really add happiness. (See Maslows hierarchy).
What correlates with greater happiness, well-being, and life satisfaction?
Individual freedoms, social equality, education, opportunities for women, and an uncorrupt government. Also,
tolerance (eg for minorities). Personalities, weather, certain big life events (divorce, death), deep conversations (vs
small talk), having goals, happy friends, religion, health.
According to Seligmans happiness formula, how much of the variance in happiness levels is accounted for
by each component of the equation?
Around 50% is accounted for by S, leaving around 40% for V and just 10% for C.
What can you do to increase your happiness in your daily life?
Change lifestyle: take a walk, join a club, take out time to feel grateful for things, perform an act of kindness.
Are elderly people more or less happy in general than everyone else? Why?
They are usually more happy than everyone else in general, because of decreased stress, personally regulated
moods (if something bothers them they go away from it), etc.
What are the attributional styles identified by Seligman in his research? What characterizes each style? What
are the consequences for success and well-being of ones attributional style?
He identified the optimist and the pessimist. The optimist seems bad events as temporary, one-time things that are
out of ones control, and good events as long-lasting, recurring and because of oneself. A pessimist is the opposite.
Optimists are therefore less depressed, more persistent; they take advantage of success and recover more easily
from troubles than pessimists.
What makes people sad?
Sadness often comes from a sense of loss, whether its loss of a loved one, health, finance, academic standing, etc.
Does crying relieve tension and depression?
Relaxation occurs once crying has stopped. There are no recorded health benefits of crying itself.
What might be the social function of crying?
However crying may simply occur to elicit sympathy and social support rather than relieve tension.
What are the "self-conscious" emotions?
Embarrassment, shame, guilt and pride.
What was Hans Selyes definition of stress?
It is the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it.
What are the direct and indirect effects of prolonged or severe stress?
Some indirect effects are health influences by altering behavior. Directly, stress affects the sympathetic nervous
system (releasing lots of cortisol), and after a while would result in a lowered, drained immune system. It also leads
to exhaustion, and disease.
What helps prevent heart disease?
Strong friendships and familial ties, lower stress levels, not having a type A personality.

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What is PTSD? How common is it in people who have experienced trauma?

It stands for Post-Traumtic Stress Disorder, and is prolonged anxiety and depression as a result of severe stress. It is
usually seen in war veterans. However it is not as common as one would think given the amount of the population
that endures trauma, because most victims suffer for a few weeks and then tend to recover.
What are the three main types of ways of coping with stress?
Problem-focused coping (gaining control), coping by reappraisal (paying attention to the positive side of things) and
emotion-focused coping (addressing the physiological stress reactions).
What can a person do to prepare for a difficult experience to make it less stressful?
Get a preview of the anticipated stressful situation, and then practice or visualize the actions needed to deal with the
What is reappraisal?
Reappraisal is the concept of looking at something from a different perspective.
What are the cultural differences in the frequency and effect of emotion suppression as a mechanism of
dealing with stress? of providing and seeking social support?
Most Europeans and North Americans find it hard to suppress emotions, however Asians routinely suppress
emotions and find it much easier to deal with. Similarly, in western culture, people can actively discuss emotion
issues without expecting feedback or help, however in Asian cultures the knowing about an issue tends to create an
obligation to help fix the issue, resulting in not wanting to share the issue in the first place.
What are other techniques that a person can employ to reduce anxiety and stress?
Relaxation, exercise, distraction, and social support.

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Social Psychology
What was Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development? What procedures did he use to study moral
His theory suggests that in moral development, the reasons for making a certain choice should be discussed rather
than the choice itself. It focused on the reasoning processes behind moral decisions.
What research shows that moral judgments are sometimes made on an emotional rather than a rational
(See any experiment, like brother and sister in a cabin) People tend to make snap choices and judgments, and then
search for reasons to support their argument, rather than thinking about right and wrong and then making a choice.
What is altruistic behavior?
It is behavior that helps others despite a personal cost.
What differences between real life and the prisoner's dilemma game can account for greater cooperation in
real life?
In real life unlike the prisoners dilemma game, people tend to cooperate all the time. This is because the game is
usually a one-time event; if the game is played multiple times, then both individuals would learn that cooperation is
the best choice.
How do" diffusion of responsibility" and "pluralistic ignorance" explain why bystanders might not help
someone in need?
Diffusion of responsibility means that one feels less compelled to help when there are others that are equally able to
help. Pluralistic ignorance is an example of herd mentality, where each person says nothing because everyone else
says nothing, thinking that the majority knows better (while the majority isnt saying anything because you arent
saying anything because they are as uncertain as you).
What is the frustration-aggression hypothesis? What alternative did Leonard Berkowitz propose?
It states that the main cause of anger and aggression is frustration, an obstacle that stands in the way for achieving
or obtaining something. Berkowitz proposes that any unpleasant event instigates the fight or flight response in an
individual, the response depending on the individual circumstances.
What hypotheses about the causes of aggression remain controversial?
Having a low self-esteem, mental illness, genetics, violent neighborhood, anti-social parents, lack of guilt, watching
violence on tv/in games, suicide attempts, and culture.
What does a study of baboons described in the textbook suggest about the relationship between culture and
Culture is an important influence on violence. If the culture of the surrounding society promotes non-violence, then
most of the members would adopt that custom to adapt and survive.
What psychological mechanisms have been used by perpetrators to justify their violence?
De-individuation and dehumanization.
What is the primacy effect in impression formation?
It is the concept that the first information we learn about someone is more influential than later information is.
What is a self-fulfilling prophecy? What classic studies were performed by Rosenthal to demonstrate the
It is when expectations of a certain event increase the probability of the event occurring. (See watching short videos
of someone and making quick impressions of them experiment).
What is a stereotype?
A belief or expectation about a group of people.
What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination?
A prejudice is an unfavorable attitude towards a group of people, while discrimination is unequal treatment of
different groups.

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What is an implicit association? How are implicit associations assessed by researchers?

Implicit associations stem from unconscious associations and cognitive processes. These are assessed by
researchers using the Implicit Association Test (Left and right for good, bad, white and black, etc).
What has been revealed by studies of implicit associations?
Even well-meaning people have unrecognized prejudices.
What research has been done to inform us how intergroup prejudice and hostility can be reduced?
It can be reduced by increasing contact between groups, maybe even getting groups to work together towards a
common goal. Also, multiculturalism.
What is an attribution? What is consensus information? What is distinctiveness information? What is
consistency information?
Attribution is the set of thought processes we use to assign causes to ones own behavior and that of others.
Consensus is to the extent to which other people behave in a similar manner in a similar situation (A does what
everyone does); Distinctiveness is the extent to which one person behaves in a certain way in certain situations (A
does a thing only as this one type of event); Consistency is the extent to which one person behaves in a manner
every time the situation occurs.
What is an internal attribution? What is an external attribution?
Internal attribution is an explanation based on someones attitude, personality trait, ability or other characteristic.
External attribution is an explanation based on the situation, including events that would influence almost anyone.
What is the actor-observer effect?
It is the idea that one would make internal attributions for others and external attributions for themselves.
What is the fundamental attribution error? Who is most likely to make this error and why?
It is when someone makes internal attributions for someones behavior even thought there is evidence for an
external attribution. This happens when there might be a connection between ones disposition and actions.
What is an attitude?
It is a like or dislike that influences behavior. It is also an evaluation of some aspect of the world, involving cognitive,
emotional and behavioral components.
How are attitudes typically measured?
It can be measured on a Likert scale, from 1 to 7 (1 being strongly disagree and 7 being strongly agree).
What is cognitive dissonance? Describe the classic study on attitudes and behavior performed by Leon
Festinger and its results.
It is a state of unpleasant tension that people experience when they hold contradictory attitudes, or when their
behavior contradicts their stated attitudes, especially if the inconsistency distresses them. (See experiment on
rotating pegs).
What is the central route of persuasion? What is the peripheral route?
The central route is when people take a decision seriously, so they invest the necessary time and effort to evaluate
the evidence and logic behind each message. The peripheral one is when people listen to the message on a topic
that they find unimportant, so they attend to more superficial matters.
What is the effect of your liking of and similarity to a speaker on the probability that you will be persuade by
that speaker's message?
It is more likely that one will be more persuaded if they like the speaker or find that they share similarities with the
How is reciprocation used to influence the behavior of others?
Society tends to use reciprocation in order to generate an obligation to return the favor (not cool).
How do contrast effects increase sales?
It is a technique whereby one sees the superlative of something, and is therefore persuaded to purchase something
that is still expensive, however relatively not AS expensive as the first one.

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What is the "foot in the door" technique?

It is when someone starts out with a modest request, and then follows up with a much larger request once the first
one has been accepted.
What is the "bait and switch" technique?
It is when someone makes a deal that seems quite favorable, and once the deal has been made, makes additional
What is the "that's not all" technique?
Its when someone makes an offer, and before accepting it improves the offer to make it see more desirable.
When are fear-based messages effective in influencing the behavior of the recipient of the message?
They are only effective if they are believable. If they are chimerical, they would not work.
What is the sleeper effect?
It is used to describe delayed persuasion by an initially rejected message.
How can a minority influence the opinions of the majority?
If the minority collectively suggests an idea that is simple and good, the majority would reconsider it.
How can resistance to persuasion be increased?
Inform the individual that they will here a speech that they are going to hear something that will persuade them. Also,
presenting evidence to support an argument, starting with the weak, means that the argument as a whole would be
rejected, even if after the weak the speaker presents the strong evidence.
Are coercive techniques effective? What is the problem with using coercive techniques to elicit confessions?
They are not as effective simply because even an innocent individual would confess if they were being tortured,
simply to get rid of the torture or stress. Unfortunately, regardless of the persons innocence, a confession is almost
always accepted.
What is the mere exposure effect?
It is the concept that the more often one comes in contact with someone or something, the more we tend to like it.
When people have only a limited time to interact with each other when first meeting, what determines
whether or not they would be romantically interested in each other?
Physical attractiveness.
What character values promote successful long-term relationships?
Genuine pleasure at the partners successes. Attitudes and personalities of the partners, income for the couples
Do "opposites attract" or is similarity more likely to lead to a successful relationship?
One is likely to spend time with those who have similar backgrounds, attitudes, values, interests and morals.
What is the equity principle in relationships?
Social relationships are transactions in which partners exchange goals and services (there has to be equal give and
take in a successful relationship).
What has John Gottman identified as dangerous to a relationship? How can psychologists predict if the
marriage of a newlywed couple will last? What behavior in particular does Gottman say is beneficial in an
interaction between partners?
Escalating arguments, greater anger, contempt (rolling eyes), among others are some dangerous signs of a failing
relationship. Being genuine is extremely beneficial.
In marriages that are successful over a long period of time, what changes occur in the feelings of the
partners toward one another?
Sexual desire, romance and friends eventually transitions to sharing, care and protection between the two.
What is a social norm? What is a social role?
Norms are rules of behavior that can be explicit or implicit. Roles are shared expectations about how group
members are to behave.

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What happened in Solomon Asch's conformity studies?

The subject consistently gave the wrong answer because the subject tended to conform to all the other (controlled)
subjects who claimed the wrong answer. Conformity is extremely common.
What was the purpose and design of Stanley Milgram's famous obedience to authority study? What were the
results? How well were people able to predict the results if they didn't know in advance what would happen?
What factors influenced the degree to which subjects were obedient?
(See experiment of giving shocks to subject). Milgram thought that when under authority someone people were told
to hurt someone else, they would do it, and they did. The subjects were obedient because the experimenter said
they would take responsibility, if the experimenter and/or the shock-ee was close to them, and once they were able
to do the initial shocks, they could continue on to the larger shocks (those who left, left early on).
What is the "group polarization" effect?
It is the idea that is most of the individuals in a group have the same view on a issue, then a group discussion will
push the group further towards that idea.
What is groupthink?
It is when members of a group suppress their doubts about the groups decision for fear of making a bad impression
or disrupting group harmony.

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How did Sigmund Freud develop his theory of personality?
Freud talks about the psychodynamic theory that personality is related to the interplay of conflicting forces, including
unconscious ones within the individual. He emphasized the role of hidden, repressed desires and fears in the control
of behavior (See Psychoanalysis)
What is catharsis?
A release of pent-up emotional tension.
What is the Oedipus complex?
It is when a young boy develops a sexual interest in his mother and competitive aggression towards his father,
based on the ancient Greek tale of Oedipus.
What is libido?
Psychosexual energy, or desire.
What are the stages of psychosexual development in Freud's personality theory?
Oral stage (ages 0-1.5, pleasure from stimulation of mouth, eg. breast feeding), Anal stage (ages 1.5-3, pleasure from
sensations of bowel movements. Too strict means kids grow up and get stuck at this stage), Phallic stage (ages 3-6,
pleasure from playing with genitals), Latent stage (ages 6-12, suppression of psychosexual interest), Genital stage
(puberty onwards, strong sexual interest in others)
What is meant by a fixation in a Freudian developmental stage? What are the consequences of fixations in
each of the stages?
It is when someone continues to be preoccupied with the pleasure area associated with that stage, and the
consequences that the physical fixation comes out as a personality trait that is an exaggeration of that stage.
In Freud's theory, what are the three parts of the mind? What is the nature of each of these parts, and how
does each part function?
Id (sexual and other biological drives that demand immediate gratification), ego (rational, decision making aspect of
the personality) and superego (the memory of rules and prohibitions we learned from our parents and others).
What is a defense mechanism? What are the major defense mechanisms identified in this course and how
does each of them work?
It is a mechanism employed by the mind: the ego defends itself against anxieties by relegating unpleasant thoughts
and impulses to the unconscious mind. The major mechanisms are repression (motivated removal of something to
the unconscious), denial (the refusal to believe some unpleasant information), rationalization (when people try to
prove that their actions are justifiable), displacement (diverting a behavior or thought away from its natural target
towards a less threatening target), regression (a return to a more immature level of functioning), projection (attributing
ones own undesirable characteristics to other people), reaction formation (presenting themselves as the opposite of
what they are) and sublimation (transformation of sexual or aggressive energies into culturally acceptable behaviors).
What are the criticisms that have been raised against Freuds personality theories?
His theories seem out of the ordinary, unconventional and hard-to-accept, since he attributes the unconscious to
repressed sexual thoughts. However none of the big things he highlighted were original (unconscious thoughts and
feelings). Also, his claims were impossible to test, so they were also non-falsifiable.
In general, how has Freuds influence on psychology changed over the years?
Neo-Freudism is a thing, because there are psychologists who have kept parts of his theories while modifying parts
of them.
Which aspects of Freud's work have been lasting contributions, and which have been abandoned?
The positives are that he popularized psychotherapy, and recognized transference (reacting to someone because
they remind you of someone else you know).
What was Karen Horney's contribution to the development of psychodynamic personality theory?
She kept the concept of repression, but said that penis envy was as likely as womb envy. She also said that women
have the same drive as men (one of the early feminists), and she focused on ideal self vs real self.

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What was Carl Jung's contribution to the development of psychodynamic personality theory?
Jung promoted the idea that people searched for a spiritual meaning in life. He also stressed that unlike Freuds
theory, personality changes were due largely to adulthood, not childhood. He also claimed that people have a
conscious mind and personal unconscious, but also a collective unconscious, which is the cumulative experience of
preceding generations. He introduced the idea of archetypes (vague images that have always been a part of the
human experience).
In what ways did Alfred Adler's views of early childhood psychological development differ from Freud's?
Unlike Freud, Adler provided lesser emphasis on sexual and aggressive motivations, and more emphasis on the
motivation for success, feeling of superiority and fulfillment. He also suggested that rather than parts of the mind (id,
ego, superego), the individual psychology of the person as a whole was important.
What did Adler mean by "individual psychology?"
The psychology of the person as a whole, indivisible psychology.
What did Adler mean by "inferiority complex?"
An exaggerated feeling of weakness, inadequacy and helplessness.
What did Adler mean by "social interest" and what role did he suggest it plays in a person's mental health?
It is a sense of solidarity and identification with other people, and it is extremely important for ones mental health
because it results in cooperation and the welfare of the society.
What are the main principles of the learning approach to personality?
The main principles are that one learns social behaviors one situation at a time. As previously seen, one copies
behaviors that were successful for others and avoid those that failed for others, learning by reinforcement and
punishment. Imitation of those we want to be like is key (See experiment, men picked apples so boys picked apples,
women picked bananas so girls picked bananas).
What are the main principles of the humanistic approach to personality?
Humanistic psychology deals with consciousness, values, and abstract beliefs, including spiritual experiences and
the beliefs that people live and die for. It also asserts that people are good by nature and are driven to fulfill their
potential for creative growth through self-understanding. Humanistic psychologists dont explain behavior through
hidden causes, rather they claim that people make deliberate, conscious decisions, and they study the special
qualities of a given individual, rather than groups of individuals.
Why did humanistic psychologists reject psychodynamic and behaviorist psychology?
They reject psychodynamic and behaviorist notions of personality as too deterministic, which means that every
behavior has a cause.
What did Carl Rogers mean by "unconditional positive regard?"
It is the complete, unqualified acceptance of another person as he or she is.
What were Carl Rogers views on personality development?
He felt like people would club certain traits into the self-concept and the ideal-self, and if they felt there was a great
disparity between the two, then the people were distressed. Therefore he dealt with improving the self-concept, or
revising the ideal-self. He also felt like unconditional positive regard should be the lie of the land, and a therapist
should treat a client as such, rather than as a subject to be studied. His main claim was that people felt the need to
be loved, and they feel distressed if they are not perpetually loved.
What is self-actualization?
The achievement of ones full potential.
How is factor analysis used in generating a trait theory of personality?
The trait approach states that people have consistent characteristics in their behavior, or traits. The idea was that
everyone has them, but what makes one unique is having them in varying levels. In order to understand personality,
psychologists tried to group the traits into conceptually coherent clusters that were independent of other clusters.
Cattell argued for 16 distinct trait factors.
What were the three major factors identified by Eysenck in his trait theory?
Extraversion (withdrawn to outgoing), Neuroticism (stable to unstable), and psychoticism/nonconformity (low to high).

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What is the "Big-Five" personality theory? What are the five factors identified in the theory?
The theory states that there are 5 main traits using which we can adequately describe personality, especially in a
stated language. The five factors are Neuroticism (A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions frequently),
Extraversion (A tendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of other people), Agreeableness (A tendency
to be compassionate towards others), Conscientiousness (A tendency to show self-discipline, to be dutiful and to
strive for achievement and competence) and Openness to new experiences (A tendency to enjoy new intellectual
experiences and new ideas).
What do heritability studies indicate about the causes of personality differences among individuals?
The genome does have an influence on personality to an extent, however most of the variation comes from ones
unshared environment, the aspects of environment that differ from one individual to another, even within a family.
How does personality tend to change as people get older?
As people grow older, personality change becomes significantly slower, possibly because older people tend to stay
in the same environment doing the same things day in and day out.
What is the Barnum effect?
It is the tendency to accept vague descriptions of our personality.
What is the MMPI? How is the MMPI designed to detect dishonest responses?
It is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, designed to measure certain personality dimensions and
clinical conditions using true-false questions. The MMPI includes certain questions that could detect lies, certain
combinations of questions that could only be answered in that pattern by a saint (unlikely) or a liar (trying to make
themselves look better than they actually are).
What is the NEO PI-R?
It is the Neo personality inventory-revised, a test that includes 240 items to measure the Big-Five.
What is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator? How has it been criticized?
It is a test of normal personality, loosely based on Carl Jungs theories. It is extremely distrusted and criticized
because it insists on putting people into distinct categories, an unlikely theory.
What is the theory behind projective personality tests? What are two major types of projective tests, and how
are they administered?
The theory is that the tests are designed to encourage people to project their personality characteristics onto
ambiguous stimuli. The two main types are the Rorschach inkblots (see the inkblot, explain what you see and
possibly why you see it) and the Thematic Apperception test (see the picture, explain whats going on, what
happened right before to cause this and why, and what will happen in the future).
What are the criticisms of projective personality testing?
Most critics find the Rorschach to be completely invalid, claiming that seeing an inkblot cant be enough to make
such important claims about ones personality. Also, the interpretation of the TAT is without clear rules, and would
differ from therapist to therapist.
How does an implicit personality test work?
It attempts to measure ones personality without awareness of the same. There could be a variety of implicit
personality tests, such as the implicit association test, but maybe with words (nervous around people person would
pair party with unpleasant emotions, etc). Another test is the Affective priming paradigm (putting someone good,
and then putting a good/bad word after and say the word aloud, see faster/slower reaction times as related to the
strength of ones dislikes/likes).
What are valid uses of the available personality tests? What are the dangers of using personality tests like the
MMPI for diagnosing psychological disorders?
Researchers use them to investigate the development of personality; clinicians use them identify disorders and
measure improvement during therapy; businesses use them to decide whom to hire (Positive but low validity for
businesses). Some dangers are that most test arent really valid, and also people could fake good scores if they
know how the tests work or what they are designed to measure. They are also limited, and using the MMPI could
even lead to a false-diagnosis.

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Abnormal Psychology
What is medical student's disease?
It is when a medical student misunderstands the symptoms of a disease and confuses it with their normal condition.
What is the biopsychosocial model of psychological abnormality?
It consists of behaviors that lead to disrupted functioning as well as distress or danger to the individual or others. It
also includes behaviors that lead to an increased risk of death, pain or loss of freedom. The biopsychosocial model
provides emphasis on three aspects of abnormal behavior, namely the biological (Genetic factors, infections, poor
nutrition/sleep, drug/influences on brain functioning), psychological (reactions to stressful experiences, living
conditions like poverty, etc) and sociological (social contexts and expectations, whats normal in one and abnormal
in another).
What is the DSM-5?
The current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.
What are the major criticisms of the DSM-5?
One thing is that the DSM lists too many conditions as mental illnesses. This means that almost half the people in
the USA qualify for a DSM diagnosis of some sort or the other (depression, anxiety, mood, impulse control,
substance abuse). Also, a lot of individuals fit partially in multiple diagnoses, and no one perfect diagnosis.
What are the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
GAD includes frequent and exaggerated worries. Even though their circumstances are normal, affected individuals
grow tense, irritable, and fatigued; they have trouble working, maintaining relationships and basically enjoying life.
Associated with depression.
What are the symptoms of panic disorder?
Panic disorder consists of intense attacks of anxiety that are not seemingly justified by the situation. Affected
individuals have frequent periods of anxiety and occasional attacks of panic (rapid breathing or hyperventilation,
increased heart rate, chest pains, sweating, faintness and trembling).
What does the research suggest are the causes of panic disorder?
Genetics could possible play a role in causing panic disorder (double-jointedness). Anything that causes
hyperventilation. Smoking could also be a trigger. Agoraphobia, or social phobia.
How can panic disorder be treated?
Teaching the affecting individual controlled breathing, and relaxation exercises. Also, learning to control stress, and
practicing over a period of time.
What is a phobia?
A fear that interferes with normal living.
What might explain why certain things (e.g., snakes, strangers, etc.) are much more likely to be the focus of
phobias rather than other things (e.g., cars, power tools, etc.) even though the items in the latter group tend
to cause more injuries and death in our society?
Phobias often come form a specific event or incident. Also, fears can be learned.
How common are phobias in the population and at what age are they most prevalent?
Around 11% of the population suffer from a phobia at some point in time, and at any given moment in time around
5-6% of the population suffers from a phobia. Phobias are more common in women than men, and more common
younger adults than in older people.
How can phobias be treated?
One common treatment method is systematic desensitization, a method of reducing fear by gradually exposing
people to the object of their fear.
What features differentiate panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobia from one another?
Panic attacks can come out of nowhere, and can be crippling. Phobias are simply irrational fears of certain things.
GAD is being constantly worried, and to an exaggerated level.

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What is obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? What is the difference between an obsession and a
People with OCD experience anxiety if they are unable to complete their ritual, because they experience both an
obsession and a compulsion. An obsession is a repetitive, unwelcome stream of thought, the presence of which
could incur shame. A compulsion on the other hand is a repetitive, almost irresistible action, an intentional behavior
that occurs in response to a thought, or an obsession in certain cases.
How can OCD be treated?
It could be treated by exposure therapy with response prevention.
What is the definition of an addiction?
One has an addiction to something if they are unable to quit a self-destructive habit.
What is the difference between "liking" and "wanting," and to which is dominant in addictive behavior?
Addiction leads to wanting, and not necessarily liking (or gaining pleasure) the thing they are addicted to.
What is the "relief from distress" explanation of addiction?
One would have a physical dependence on the thing if they were addicted because they wish to reduce withdrawal
symptoms, and then eventually to relieve stress.
In what way does addiction "hijack" the brain?
It hijacks the brain areas that are important for motivation and attention. This could occur if the addictive substance
causes distress in itself; the neurons in the brain get used to the presence of the substance, and then refuse to
respond in a similar manner for any other, less harmful substance, forcing the individual to use again.
What has been found about the influence of genetics on alcoholism?
Genetics have a strong influence on alcoholism, especially Type II.
What has been found about environmental effects on the tendency toward alcoholism?
The environment has an equally strong influence on alcoholism, including culture, family situations, peer pressure,
What are the symptoms of major depression? People of which gender is more likely to experience major
Major depression is an extreme condition of depression, when the individual experiences little interest, pleasure or
motivation for weeks at a time. Some symptoms are sadness, or more importantly a lack of happiness. As of now,
women experience major depression significantly more than men.
What does the research suggest are the causes of major depression?
Major depression doesnt occur from a single event of incident. The major cause could be genetics plus a very
stressful experience. Also, environmental factors, cognitive factors and rumination.
What is rumination? What are its effects? Who is most likely to engage in rumination?
It is when one dwells on the stressful event and the negative feelings, as opposed to thinking objectively about
solving the problem or distracting oneself. It makes it harder for treatment, and people with major depression are
likely to ruminate.
How can major depression be treated? How effective are the different treatments for varying intensities of
depression? How quickly do different treatments work? What are the major drawbacks or side effects of
each treatment?
Antidepressants (affects neurotransmitter reuptake. Synaptic effect is fast, but mood improvement is slow. Results in
BDNF, generates new neurons, effective); Psychotherapy (cognitive behavioral theory, improves situation
interpretation, encourages being active); effectiveness of medication and therapy (if the treatment seems to work,
they feel even better. Placebo works as well); Shock therapy (resistant patients, or suicidal, last resort kind of
treatment, somehow works); exercise and seafood.
What are the symptoms of seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?
It is when people get repeatedly depression during one season of the year.
What does the research suggest are the causes of SAD?
Areas where there are short days (little to no sunlight) and long nights, causing messed up circadian rhythms.

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How can SAD be treated?

Bright-light exposure.
What are the major symptoms of bipolar disorder?
It is manic-depressive disorder, when people are either manic, hyperactive and uninhibited, or are depressed, with
no inbetween.
How can bipolar disorder be treated?
Lithium salts, anticonvulsant drugs.
What is mania?
It is the opposite of depression, when people are excessively happy or irritable, high energy, little sleep, racing
thoughts, unrealistically inflated sense of self.
What are the major symptoms of schizophrenia? What are positive symptoms and negative symptoms?
Major symptoms of multiple personality disorder include a deterioration of daily activities like work, social relations,
self-care, as well as hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech and thought, movement disorder, and a loss of
normal emotional responses and social behaviors. Positive means the presence of some behavior, while negative
means a lack of some behavior.
How common is schizophrenia in the population and at what age do the symptoms usually appear?
It occurs in 7-8 people per thousand, and usually in second- and first-world countries. It appears most frequently in
ones 20s, sometimes in teenagers.
What does the research suggest are the causes of schizophrenia?
The prime candidates of causes are genetics (some genes are weakly linked and there could be multiple mutations,
there are brain abnormalities) and pre-natal environment (malnutrition, exposure to toxins, difficult pregnancy and
labor, mothers infection and fever), aggravated by difficulties later in life.
What area or areas of the brain are most disrupted in schizophrenia?
The pre-frontal and frontal cortexes are disrupted the most.
How can schizophrenia be treated?
Medications (antipsychotic drugs that block the production of dopamine, but could result in tremors and involuntary
movements after prolonged use), as well as psychotherapy (could reduce stress and promote better compliance with
medication schedules).
What are the major symptoms of autism?
Impaired social connections and relationships, impaired communication and stereotyped repetitive behaviors. Also,
fluctuations of temperature regulation, insensitivity to pain, decreased tendency to feeling dizzy, tendency to focus
attention on one thing and exclude all else.
At what age do the symptoms of autism usually appear?
Around 30 months.
What does the research suggest are the causes of autism?
Strong genetic component, more that 60 genetic abnormalities. Possible environmental causes (toxic wastelands).
How can autism be treated?
No treatments have been particularly successful for autism, however behavioral interventions at an early age (if
intensive) could be highly effective.
The major schools of psychotherapy are psychodynamic, behavior, cognitive, and humanistic. What are the
assumptions, goals, and techniques of each of these approaches?
Psychoanalysis tries to bring unconscious thoughts and emotions to the conscious, in an attempt to restructure the
clients personality (involving free association, dream analysis and transference). Behavior begins with a goal, and
attempts to achieve it though learning (everything is caused by learning, and fixing it requires learning counteracting
or alternate behaviors, like exposure therapy). Cognitive attempts to improve psychological well-being by changing
interpretations of events (dysfunctional beliefs and thought patterns are dispelled by having an explicit goal, and then
using cognitive-behavior therapy that focuses on the present rather then on the past). Humanistic is personcentered, where the therapist listens with total acceptance and unconditional positive regard.

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What type of cognitive therapy was developed by Aaron Beck? What type of cognitive therapy was developed
by Albert Ellis. What are the features of each of these two types of cognitive therapy?
Beck proposed cognitive restructuring, where the patient keeps a daily record of dysfunctional beliefs, and then
upon review identifies those beliefs and generates rational responses. Ellis developed the Rational Emotive Therapy,
where the therapist teaches alternative thinking that promotes rational thought, because pathology occurs when the
individual has illogical beliefs guiding life choices.
What is family systems therapy?
The guiding assumption is that most peoples problems develop in a family setting, and that the best way to deal
with them is to improve familial relationships and communication. The therapist works with more than one family
member at a time.
How does group therapy work and what are its advantages?
It is when therapy is administered to multiple people at a time. It is popular because it is economical, and also it is
reassuring for patients to see that others face similar problems to them. The therapist also gets to see how the
patients are socially.
In general, is psychotherapy effective? What research demonstrates this?
Psychotherapy is deemed effective if it is better than spontaneous remission. In general, psychotherapy does work,
and only those that work would be developed and improves, and so on and so forth. However psychotherapy alone
isnt as good as when its combined medicine. 80% of individuals who were treated showed greater improvement
than others.
What is spontaneous remission? Why is it significant in research on psychotherapeutic effectiveness?
It is when there is improvement without therapy. It is significant because it proves the effectiveness of the therapy,
otherwise the therapy is a waste of resources.
Which approach to psychotherapy is generally more effective? What is the explanation for this finding?
All together, different approaches show similar statistical results. This cold be because of the therapeutic alliance
between the therapist and the client characterized by acceptance, caring, respect and attention. Also, talking openly
and honestly about stuff makes a big difference.
What is an eclectic psychotherapist?
It is one who would use multiple different psychotherapeutic techniques depending on the context, if certain
treatments dont seem to be working. This applies to most current western psychotherapists.