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Religious conversion

Forced conversion is adoption of a dierent religion under duress. The convert may secretly retain the previous
beliefs and continue, covertly, with the practices of the
original religion, while outwardly maintaining the forms
of the new religion. Over generations a family forced
against their will to convert may wholeheartedly adopt the
new religion.
Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert by persuasion another individual from a dierent religion or belief
system. (See proselyte).
Apostate is a term used by members of a religion or denomination to refer to someone who has left that religion
or denomination.

1 Abrahamic religions
1.1 Judaism
Main article: Conversion to Judaism
The Conversion of Saint Paul, a 1600 painting by Italian artist
Caravaggio (15711610)

1.1.1 Procedure
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identied with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others. Thus religious conversion would describe the abandoning of adherence to one
denomination and aliating with another. This might
be from one to another denomination within the same
religion, for example, Christian Baptist to Methodist or
Catholic,[1] Muslim Shi'a to Sunni.[2] In some cases, religious conversion marks a transformation of religious
identity and is symbolized by special rituals.[3]

Jewish law has a number of requirements of potential

converts. They should desire conversion to Judaism for
its own sake, and for no other motives. A male convert
needs to undergo a ritual circumcision conducted according to Jewish law (if already circumcised, a needle is used
to draw a symbolic drop of blood while the appropriate
blessings are said), and there has to be a commitment to
observe Jewish law. A convert must join the Jewish community, and reject the previous theology he or she had
prior to the conversion. Ritual immersion in a small pool
People convert to a dierent religion for various rea- of water known as a mikvah is required.
sons, including: active conversion by free choice due to a
change in beliefs,[4] secondary conversion, deathbed con1.1.2 History
version, conversion for convenience and marital conversion, and forced conversion such as conversion by vioMain article: List of converts to Judaism
lence or charity.
Conversion or realiation for convenience is an insincere
act, sometimes for relatively trivial reasons such as a parent converting to enable a child to be admitted to a good
school associated with a religion, or a person adopting a
religion more in keeping with the social class he or she aspires to.[5] When people marry one spouse may convert
to the religion of the other.

In Hellenistic and Roman times, some Pharisees were eager proselytizers, and had at least some success throughout the empire.
Some Jews are also descended from converts to Judaism outside the Mediterranean world. It is known
that some Khazars, Edomites, and Ethiopians, as well as


many Arabs, particularly in Yemen. The word prose- Churches of Christ, and Christadelphians believe baptism
lyte originally meant a Greek who had converted to Ju- is essential to salvation.
daism. As late as the 6th century the Eastern Roman empire and Caliph Umar ibn Khattab were issuing decrees
1.2.2 Accepting Christ and renouncing sin
against conversion to Judaism, implying that this was still



Main articles:
Conversion to Christianity,
Christianization and List of converts to Christianity
Conversion to Christianity is the religious conversion of a
previously non-Christian person to some form of Christianity. The exact requirements vary between dierent
churches and denominations. The process of converting
to Catholicism involves religious education followed by
initial participation in the sacraments. In general, conversion to Christian Faith primarily involves repentance for
sin and a decision to live a life that is holy and acceptable
to God through faith in the atoning death and resurrection
of Jesus Christ. All of this is essentially done through a
voluntary exercise of the will of the individual concerned.
True conversion to Christianity is thus a personal, internal matter and can never be forced. Converts are almost
always expected to be baptized.
Christians consider that conversion requires internalization of the new belief system. It implies a new reference
point for the converts self-identity, and is a matter of belief and social structureof both faith and aliation.[7]
This typically entails the sincere avowal of a new belief
system, but may also present itself in other ways, such as
adoption into an identity group or spiritual lineage.


The Augsburg Confession divides repentance into two parts:

One is contrition, that is, terrors smiting the conscience through
the knowledge of sin; the other is faith, which is born of the
Gospel, or of absolution, and believes that for Christs sake,
sins are forgiven, comforts the conscience, and delivers it from

Conversion derives from the Latin conversin-em, literally meaning turning round and guratively meaning a change in character.[11] Change of heart,
metanoia, and regeneration are among the synonyms
for conversion.[12] Conversion is, therefore, more than a
mere change in religious identity, but a change in nature
(regeneration), evidenced by a change in values. Jesus
demands "metnoia (conversion)" to become a good tree
that bears good fruit (Matthew 7:1718, [Luke 6:43] ).[13]

Main article: Baptism

According to Christianity, a convert renounces sin as

worthless and treasures instead the supreme worth of
Catholics, and Orthodox denominations encourage infant Christ in Jesus sacricial death and resurrection.[14]
baptism before children are aware of their status. In Ro- Christian conversion is a deeply personal matter. It enman Catholicism and certain high church forms of Protes- tails changes in thinking, priorities and commitments: a
tantism, baptized children are expected to participate in whole new direction in ones life.[15]
conrmation classes as pre-teens. In Eastern Orthodoxy, Because conversion is a change in values that embraces
the equivalent of conrmation, chrismation, is adminis- God and rejects sin, it includes a personal commitment
tered to all converts, adult and infant alike, immediately to a life of holiness as described by Paul of Tarsus and
after baptism.
exemplied by Jesus. In some Protestant traditions, this
Methods of baptism include immersion, sprinkling (aspersion) and pouring (ausion).[8] Baptism received by
adults or younger people who have reached the age of accountability where they can make a personal religious decision is referred to as believers baptism among conservative or evangelical Protestant groups. It is intended as
a public statement of a persons prior decision to become
a Christian.[9] Some Christian groups such as Catholics,

is called accepting Christ as ones Savior and following

him as Lord.[16] In another variation, the 1910 Catholic
Dictionary denes conversion as One who turns or
changes from a state of sin to repentance, from a lax to
a more earnest and serious way of life, from unbelief to
faith, from heresy to the true faith.[17] The Eastern Orthodox understanding of conversion is illustrated in the
rite of baptism, in which the convert faces west while


Latter Day Saint movement

publicly renouncing and symbolically spitting upon Satan, and then turns to the east to worship Christ as king
and God.[18]


In the New Testament, Jesus commanded his disciples

in the Great Commission to go and make disciples of
all nations ([Matthew 28:19] , [Mark 16:15] ). Evangelization
sharing the Gospel message or Good News in deed and
word, is an expectation of Christians.


Transferring from one Christian denomination to another

may consist of a relatively simple transfer of membership,
especially if moving from one Trinitarian denomination
to another, and if the person has received water baptism
in the name of the Trinity. If not, then the person may
be required to be baptized or rebaptized before acceptance by the new church. Some denominations, such as
those in the Anabaptist tradition, require previously baptized Christians to be re-baptized. The Eastern Orthodox Church treats a transfer from another denomination
of Christianity to Orthodoxy (conceived of as the one
true Church) as a category of conversion and repentance,
though re-baptism is not always required.
The process of conversion to Christianity varies somewhat among Christian denominations. Most Protestants
believe in conversion by faith to attain salvation. According to this understanding, a person professes faith
in Jesus Christ as God, their Lord and savior. Repentance for sin and a holy living are expected of those professing faith in Jesus Christ. While an individual may
make such a decision privately, usually it entails being
baptized and becoming a member of a denomination or
church. In these traditions, a person is considered to become a Christian by publicly acknowledging the foundational Christian doctrines that Jesus Christ died, was
buried, and was resurrected for the remission of sins.

Comparison between Protestants

This table summarizes three Protestant beliefs.


Latter Day Saint movement

Latter Day Saint baptism ceremony, circa the 1850s

than personal ones, as adherents do not believe in original

sin. Latter Day Saints baptisms also occur only after an
"age of accountability" which is dened as the age of eight
years.[22] The theology thus rejects infant baptism.[23]
In addition, Latter Day Saint theology requires that baptism may only be performed with one who has been called
and ordained by God with priesthood authority.[24] Because the churches of the Latter Day Saint movement operate under a lay priesthood, children raised in a Mormon
family are usually baptized by a father or close male friend
or family member who has achieved the oce of priest,
which is conferred upon worthy male members at least 16
years old in the LDS Church.[25]
Baptism is seen as symbolic both of Jesus' death, burial
and resurrection[26] and is also symbolic of the baptized
individual putting o of the natural or sinful man and becoming spiritually reborn as a disciple of Jesus.
Membership into a Latter Day Saint church is granted
only by baptism whether or not a person has been raised
in the church. Latter Day Saint churches do not recognize baptisms of other faiths as valid because they believe
baptisms must be performed under the churchs unique
authority. Thus, all who come into one of the Latter Day
Saint faiths as converts are baptized, even if they have
previously received baptism in another faith.

Main article: Baptism in Mormonism

When performing a Baptism, Latter Day Saints say the
Much of the theology of Latter Day Saint baptism was following prayer before performing the ordinance:
established during the early Latter Day Saint movement
founded by Joseph Smith. According to this theology,
Having been commissioned of Jesus
baptism must be by immersion, for the remission of sins
(meaning that through baptism, past sins are forgiven),
Christ, I baptize you in the name of the
and occurs after one has shown faith and repentance.
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
Mormon baptism does not purport to remit any sins other

Baptisms inside and outside the temples are usually done
in a baptistry, although they can be performed in any
body of water in which the person may be completely
immersed. The person administering the baptism must
recite the prayer exactly, and immerse every part, limb,
hair and clothing of the person being baptized. If there
are any mistakes, or if any part of the person being baptized is not fully immersed, the baptism must be redone.
In addition to the baptizer, two priesthood holders witness
the baptism to ensure that it is performed properly.[28]


Islam teaches that everyone is Muslim at birth[31][32] because every child that is born has a natural inclination to
goodness and to worship the one true God alone, but his
or her parents or society can cause him or her to deviate from the straight path. When someone accepts Islam
he/she is considered to revert to his/her original condition. While conversion to Islam is among its most supported tenets, conversion from Islam to another religion
is considered to be the sin of apostasy. In several MusFollowing baptism, Latter Day Saints receive the Gift lim majority countries it is subject to the death penalty or
of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands of a heavy punishments. In Islam, circumcision is a Sunnah
Melchizedek Priesthood holder.[28]
custom not mentioned in the Quran. The primary opinion
is that it is not obligatory and is not a condition for entering into Islam. The Sha`i and Hanbali schools regard it
as obligatory, while the Maliki and Hana schools regard
1.4 Islam
it as only recommended. However, it is not a precondition for the acceptance of a persons Islamic practices, nor
Main category: Conversion to Islam
Further information: Spread of Islam, Islamization, does one sin if choosing to forgo circumcision. It is not
one of the Five Pillars of Islam or the Six Fundamentals
of Belief.[33][34][35]

1.5 Bah' Faith

In sharing their faith with others, Bah's are cautioned
to obtain a hearing meaning to make sure the person they are proposing to teach is open to hearing what
they have to say. "Bah' pioneers", rather than attempting to supplant the cultural underpinnings of the people
in their adopted communities, are encouraged to integrate
into the society and apply Bah' principles in living and
working with their neighbors.
Bah's recognize the divine origins of all revealed religion, and believe that these religions occurred sequentially as part of a Divine plan (see Progressive revelation),
with each new revelation superseding and fullling that
of its predecessors. Bah's regard their own faith as the
most recent (but not the last), and believe its teachings
which are centered around the principle of the oneness
of humanity are most suited to meeting the needs of a
global community.
In most countries conversion is a simple matter of lling
out a card stating a declaration of belief. This includes acGhazan was born and raised as a Christian, studied Buddhism, knowledgement of Bah'u'llah the Founder of the Faith
and converted to Islam upon accession to the throne.
as the Messenger of God for this age, awareness and
acceptance of His teachings, and intention to be obedient
Al-Baqara 256, List of converts to Islam, Hanif, Islamic to the institutions and laws He established.
Missionary Activity and Apostasy in Islam
Conversion to the Bah' Faith carries with it an explicit
There are ve pillars, or foundations, of Islam but the primary, and most important is to believe that there is only
one God and creator, referred to as Allah (the word for
the name of God in Arabic) and that the Islamic prophet,
Muhammad, is His nal messenger. A person is considered to have converted to Islam from the moment he or
she sincerely makes this declaration of faith, called the

belief in the common foundation of all revealed religion,

a commitment to the unity of mankind, and active service to the community at large, especially in areas that
will foster unity and concord. Since the Bah' Faith has
no clergy, converts to this Faith are encouraged to be
active in all aspects of community life. Even a recent
convert may be elected to serve on a Local Spiritual Assembly the guiding Bah' institution at the community




spirituality, ahimsa (non-violence) as the greatest dharma
or virtue, and others.[46]

Religious conversion to Hinduism has a long history outside India. Merchants and traders of India, particularly
2 Indian religions
from Indian peninsula, carried their religious ideas, which
led to religious conversions to Hinduism in Indonesia,
2.1 Hinduism
Vietnam, Cambodia and Burma.[47][48][49] Some sects of
Hindus, particularly of the Bhakti schools began seeking
See also: List of converts to Hinduism
or accepting converts in early to mid 20th century. For
Since 1800 CE, religious conversion from and to example, Arya Samaj, Saiva Siddhanta Church, BAPS,
and the International Society for Krishna Consciousness
accept those who have a desire to follow their sects of
Hinduism, and each has their own religious conversion

A yajna initiation to Hinduism ceremony in progress.

Hinduism has been a controversial subject within Hinduism. Some have suggested that the concept of missionary conversion, either way, is anathema to the precepts
of Hinduism.[38] Religious leaders of some of Hinduism
sects such as Brahmo Samaj have seen Hinduism as a nonmissionary religion yet welcomed new members, while
other leaders of Hinduisms diverse schools have stated
that with the arrival of missionary Islam and Christianity in India, this there is no such thing as proselytism in
Hinduism view must be re-examined.[38][39]
Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism,
pandeism, monism, and atheism among others. Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralized religious authorities, no universally accepted governing body, no prophet(s), no binding holy book nor
any mandatory prayer attendance requirements.[40][41][42]
Hinduism has been described as a way of life.[40] In its
diuse and open structure, numerous schools and sects
of Hinduism have developed and spun o in India with
help from its ascetic scholars, since the Vedic age. The
six Astika and two Nastika schools of Hindu philosophy, in its history, did not develop a missionary or proselytization methodology, and they co-existed with each
other. Most Hindu sub-schools and sects do not actively
seek converts.[43] Individuals have had a choice to enter, leave or change their god(s), spiritual convictions,
accept or discard any rituals and practices, and pursue
spiritual knowledge and liberation (moksha) in dierent
ways.[44][45] However, various schools of Hinduism do
have some core common beliefs, such as the belief that all
living beings have Atman (soul), a belief in karma theory,

In recent decades, mainstream Hinduism schools have attempted to systematize ways to accept religious converts,
with an increase in inter-religious mixed marriages.[51]
The steps involved in becoming a Hindu have variously
included a period where the interested person gets an informal ardha-Hindu name and studies ancient literature
on spiritual path and practices (English translations of
Upanishads, Agamas, Epics, ethics in Sutras, festivals,
yoga).[52] If after a period of study, the individual still
wants to convert, a Namakarana Samskaras ceremony
is held, where the individual adopts a traditional Hindu
name. The initiation ceremony may also include Yajna
(i.e., re ritual with Sanskrit hymns) under guidance of
a local Hindu priest.[51] Some of these places are mathas
and asramas (hermitage, monastery), where one or more
gurus (spiritual guide) conduct the conversion and oer
spiritual discussions.[51] Some schools encourage the new
convert to learn and participate in community activities
such as festivals (Diwali etc), read and discuss ancient literature, learn and engage in rites of passages (ceremonies
of birth, rst feeding, rst learning day, age of majority,
wedding, cremation and others).[53]

2.2 Sikhism
Sikhism is not known to openly proselytize, but accepts

2.3 Jainism
Jainism accepts anyone who wants to embrace the religion. There is no specic ritual for becoming a Jain. One
does not need to ask any authorities for admission. One
becomes a Jain on ones own by taking the ve vows:[56]
1. Nonviolence (Ahimsa)
2. Observing Truth (Satya)
3. Non-stealing (Asteya)
4. Chastity


5. Non-possession (Aparigraha).

Following the ve vows is the main requirement in Jainism. All other aspects such as visiting temples are secondary. Jain monks and nuns are required to observe
these ve vows strictly.[56]



Persons newly adhering to Buddhism traditionally "take

Refuge" (express faith in the Three JewelsBuddha,
Dharma, and Sangha) before a monk, nun, or similar representative. But cultural or secular Buddhists often hold
multiple religious identities, combining the religion with
some East Asian religions in dierent countries and ethnics, such as:
Throughout the timeline of Buddhism, conversions of entire countries and regions to Buddhism were frequent, as
Buddhism spread throughout Asia. For example, in the
11th century in Burma, king Anoratha converted his en- A Scientologist introduces the E-meter to a potential convert.
tire country to Theravada Buddhism. At the end of the
12th century, Jayavarman VII set the stage for conversion of the Khmer people to Theravada Buddhism. Mass
conversions of areas and communities to Buddhism occur
up to the present day, for example, in the Dalit Buddhist
movement in India there have been organized mass conversions.
Exceptions to encouraging conversion may occur in some
Buddhist movements. In Tibetan Buddhism, for example, the most important and widely cited studies of the prothe current Dalai Lama discourages active attempts to win cess of religious conversion, and one of the rst modern
sociological studies of a new religious movement.[81][82]
The Church of Scientology attempts to gain converts
by oering free stress tests.[83] It has also used the
celebrity status of some of its members (most fa3 Other religions and sects
mously the American actor Tom Cruise) to attract
The Church of Scientology requires that
In the second half of the 20th century, the rapid growth converts.
all converts sign a legal waiver which covers their relaof new religious movements (NRMs) led some psycholof Scientology before engaging
ogists and other scholars to propose that these groups tionship with the Church
in Scientology services.[86]
were using "brainwashing" or "mind control" techniques
to gain converts. This theory was publicized by the popu- Research in the United States and the Netherlands has
lar news media but disputed by other scholars, including shown a positive correlation between areas lacking mainstream churches and the percentage of people who are a
some sociologists of religion.[75][76][76][77][78][79]
This applies also
In the 1960s sociologist John Loand lived with member of a new religious movement.
Unication Church missionary Young Oon Kim and a
small group of American church members in California
and studied their activities in trying to promote their beliefs and win converts to their church. Loand noted that
most of their eorts were ineective and that most of the
people who joined did so because of personal relationships with other members, often family relationships.[80]
Loand published his ndings in 1964 as a doctoral thesis
entitled The World Savers: A Field Study of Cult Processes, and in 1966 in book form by Prentice-Hall as
Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization,
and Maintenance of Faith. It is considered to be one of

On the other end of the scale are religions that do not accept any converts, or do so very rarely. Often these are
relatively small, close-knit minority religions that are ethnically based such as the Yazidis, Druze, and Mandaeans.
Zoroastrianism classically does not accept converts, but
this issue has become controversial in the 20th century
due to the rapid decline in membership. Chinese traditional religion lacks clear criteria for membership, and
hence for conversion. The Shakers and some Indian
eunuch brotherhoods do not allow procreation, so that every member is a convert.

International law

Army, Jehovahs Witnesses, and other religious movements in what it refers to as its canonical territory.

Greece has a long history of conict, mostly with

Jehovahs Witnesses, but also with some Pentecostals,
over its laws on proselytism. This situation stems from a
law passed in the 1930s by the dictator Ioannis Metaxas.
A Jehovahs Witness, Minos Kokkinakis, won the equivalent of $14,400 in damages from the Greek state after
being arrested for trying to preach his faith from door to
door. In another case, Larissis v. Greece, a member of
Based on the declaration the United Nations Commission the Pentecostal church also won a case in the European
on Human Rights (UNCHR) drafted the International Court of Human Rights.
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, a legally binding
Some Islamic countries with Islamic law outlaw and
treaty. It states that Everyone shall have the right to freecarry strict sentences for proselytizing. Several Islamic
dom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall
countries under Islamic lawSaudi Arabia, Yemen,
include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief
Afghanistan, Pakistan, Egypt, Iran, and Maldives
of his choice (Article 18.1). No one shall be subject to
outlaw apostasy and carry imprisonment or the death
coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to
penalty for those leaving Islam and those enticing Musadopt a religion or belief of his choice (Article 18.2).
lims to leave Islam. Also, induced religious conversions
The UNCHR issued a General Comment on this Article in the Indian states Orissa has resulted in communal riots.
in 1993: The Committee observes that the freedom to
'have or to adopt' a religion or belief necessarily entails
the freedom to choose a religion or belief, including the 5 See also
right to replace ones current religion or belief with another or to adopt atheistic views [...] Article 18.2 bars
Apostasy, or renunciation of religion
coercion that would impair the right to have or adopt a
religion or belief, including the use of threat of physi Deathbed conversion, adoption of faith before dying
cal force or penal sanctions to compel believers or non Forced conversion against the will of the subject
believers to adhere to their religious beliefs and congregations, to recant their religion or belief or to convert.
Secondary conversion that results from a relation(CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.4, General Comment No. 22.;
emphasis added)
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human
Rights denes religious conversion as a human right: Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience
and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief (Article 18). Despite this UN-declared
human right, some groups forbid or restrict religious conversion (see below).

Some countries distinguish voluntary, motivated conversion from organized proselytism, attempting to restrict
the latter. The boundary between them is not easily dened: what one person considers legitimate evangelizing,
or witness-bearing, another may consider intrusive and
improper. Illustrating the problems that can arise from
such subjective viewpoints is this extract from an article by Dr. C. Davis, published in Cleveland State University's Journal of Law and Health: According to the
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Jews for Jesus and Hebrew Christians constitute two of the most dangerous cults, and its members are appropriate candidates
for deprogramming. Anti-cult evangelicals ... protest that
'aggressiveness and proselytizing ... are basic to authentic
Christianity,' and that Jews for Jesus and Campus Crusade for Christ are not to be labeled as cults. Furthermore, certain Hassidic groups who physically attacked a
meeting of the Hebrew Christian 'cult' have themselves
been labeled a 'cult' and equated with the followers of
Reverend Moon, by none other than the President of the
Central Conference of American Rabbis.[89]
Since the collapse of the former Soviet Union the Russian
Orthodox Church has enjoyed a revival. However, it
takes exception to what it considers illegitimate proselytizing by the Roman Catholic Church, the Salvation

Moral conversion based on the internalist view of

List of converts to Christianity
List of converts to Hinduism
List of converts to Islam
List of converts to Judaism
List of converts to Buddhism
Love Jihad conversion to Islam by feigning love
Missionary sent abroad
Islamic Missionary Activity
Missionary (LDS Church)
Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults
Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism
The Rage Against God, 2010 book by Peter Hitchens
Conversion to Islam in U.S. prisons


[1] More conservative Protestants, especially Fundamentalists, would view a realiation to Catholicism as a conversion to a new religion.
[2] Stark, Rodney and Roger Finke. Acts of Faith: Explaining the Human Side of Religion. University of California
Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-520-22202-1
[3] Meintel, Deirdre. When There Is No Conversion: Spiritualists and Personal Religious Change. Anthropologica
49 (1): 149162.
[4] Falkenberg, Steve. Psychological Explanations of Religious Socialization. Religious Conversion. Eastern Kentucky University. August 31, 2009.
[5] The Independent newspaper: "... nding religion is
there anything middle-class parents won't try to get their
children into the 'right' schools?"


[21] Roger E. Olson, Arminian Theology: Myths and Realities (InterVarsity Press, 2009), 18. Arminian synergism
refers to evangelical synergism, which arms the prevenience of grace.
[22] See Doctrine and Covenants 68:25-27
[23] See Moroni 8:4-23
[24] See, e.g., Guide to the Scriptures: Baptism, Baptize:
Proper authority, LDS.org (LDS Church)
[25] See, e.g., Gospel Topics: Priest, LDS.org (LDS Church)
[26] See, e.g., Baptism, KJV (LDS): LDS Bible Dictionary,
LDS Church
[27] See 3 Nephi 11:25
[28] Performing Priesthood Ordinances, Duties and Blessings of the Priesthood: Basic Manual for Priesthood Holders, Part B, LDS Church, 2000, pp. 4148

[6] http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/source/pact-umar.asp
[29] Converts to Islam
[7] Hefner, Robert W. Conversion to Christianity. University
of California Press, 1993. ISBN 0-520-07836-5
[8] Bromiley, Georey W. Baptism. The International
Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D (p. 419). Wm. B.
Eerdmans Publishing, 1995. ISBN 0-8028-3781-6
[9] The Purpose of Baptism. http://gospelway.com/
[10] Augsburg Confession, Article XII: Of Repentance
[11] conversion, n.. OED Online. September 2013. Oxford
University Press.
[12] http://thesaurus.com/browse/conversion
[13] Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich, eds, Theological
Dictionary of the New Testament: Abridged in One Volume
by Georey W. Bromily (Eerdmans, 1985) 101, 403.
[14] Conversion to Christ: The Making of a Christian Hedonist
[15] St. Paul on Conversion at http://jesuschristsavior.net/
Conversion.html. Accessed November 5, 2013
[16] BibleGateway.com- Commentaries Matthew 16 The
Cost of the Kingdom
[17] New Catholic Dictionary: conversion
[18] Saints Constantine & Elena: Reception into the Catechumenate
[19] Paul ChulHong Kang, Justication: The Imputation of
Christs Righteousness from Reformation Theology to the
American Great Awakening and the Korean Revivals
(Peter Lang, 2006), 70, note 171. Calvin generally defends Augustines monergistic view.
[20] http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Monergism and Paul
ChulHong Kang, Justication: The Imputation of Christs
Righteousness from Reformation Theology to the American
Great Awakening and the Korean Revivals (Peter Lang,
2006), 65.

[30] How to Become a Muslim - Meeting Place for Reverts/Converts To Islam

[31] Every Child is Born Muslim
[32] Conversion to Islam
[33] Is Circumcision obligatory after conversion?
[34] Considering Converting: Is it necessary to be circumcised?
[35] Circumcision for Converts
[36] Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah'
Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 185168-184-1.
[37] Momen, M. (1997). A Short Introduction to the Bah'
Faith. Oxford, UK: One World Publications. ISBN 185168-209-0.
[38] Arvind Sharma (2011), Hinduism as a Missionary Religion, State University of New York Press, ISBN 9781438432113, pages 31-53
[39] Gauri Viswanathan (1998), Outside the Fold: Conversion,
Modernity, and Belief, Princeton University Press, ISBN
978-0691058993, pages 153-176
[40] Chakravarti, Sitansu (1991), Hinduism, a way of life,
Motilal Banarsidass Publ., p. 71, ISBN 978-81-2080899-7
[41] Julius J. Lipner, Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7,
page 8; Quote: (...) one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus,
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Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006 ISBN 0-275-987175, ISBN 978-0-275-98717-6, page 180

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lectures on natural religion delivered at Edinburgh
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[82] Exploring New Religions, Issues in contemporary religion,

George D. Chryssides, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001 ISBN 0-8264-5959-5, ISBN 978-08264-5959-6 page 1

Morris, Harold C., and Lin M. Morris. Power and

purpose: Correlates to conversion. Psychology: A
Journal of Human Behavior, Vol 15(4), Nov-Dec
1978, 1522.

[83] The Foster Report. Chapter 5, The Practices of Scientology;" section (a), Recruitment;" pages 75-76.

Rambo, Lewis R. Understanding Religious Conversion. Yale University Press, 1993.

[84] Artists Find Inspiration, Education at Church of Scientology & Celebrity Centre Nashville. The Tennessee Tribune, Jan 20-Jan 26, 2011. Vol. 22, Iss. 3, pg. 14A

Ramstedt, Martin. Hinduism in Modern Indonesia:

A Minority Religion Between Local, National, and
Global Interests. Routledge, 2004.

[85] Goodyear, Dana (2008-01-14). Chteau Scientology.

Letter from California. The New Yorker. Retrieved 200801-10.

Rawat, Ajay S. StudentMan and Forests: The Khatta

and Gujjar Settlements of Sub-Himalayan Tarai. Indus Publishing, 1993.

[86] Friedman, Roger (3 September 2003). Will Scientology

Celebs Sign 'Spiritual' Contract?". FOX News. Retrieved

Vasu, Srisa Chandra (1919), The Catechism Of

Hindu Dharma, New York: Kessinger Publishing,

[87] Schepens, T. (Dutch) Religieuze bewegingen in Nederland

volume 29, Sekten Ontkerkelijking en religieuze vitaliteit:
nieuwe religieuze bewegingen en New Age-centra in Nederland (1994) VU uitgeverij ISBN 90-5383-341-2
[88] Stark, R & W.S. Bainbridge The future of religion: secularization, revival and cult formation (1985) Berkeley/Los
Angeles/London: University of California press
[89] Joining a Cult: Religious Choice or Psychological Aberration?

Further reading
Barker, Eileen The Making of a Moonie: Choice or
Brainwashing? (1984)
Barrett, D. V. The New Believers: A survey of sects,
cults and alternative religions (2001) UK, Cassell &
Co ISBN 0-304-35592-5

8 External links
Conversion: A Family Aair, Craig Harline,
Berfrois, 4 October 2011


Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses



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