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# Dr. M. Venu Gopala Rao, Professor, Dept.

of ECE, KL University

Dept. of ECE,
Signal Processing (B. Tech all branches) 13-ES205
Lesson-4: Simple Manipulation of DT Sequences
Topics to be covered:
Simple Manipulation of DT Sequences:
Addition, multiplication, shifting, folding and scaling.

Study objectives
After studying this chapter you should be able to:
To

## Manipulate the DT Sequences.

4.0 Simple Manipulation of DT sequences: There are various kinds of operations or
manipulations of DT sequences are illustrated below.
4.1 Addition, subtraction and multiplication of DT sequences:
Ex1: Consider two DT sequences

## x1[n] 2 1 -1 3 -1 5 and x2[n] 2 3 4 3 2 1 .

Compute and plot the addition, subtraction and multiplication operations of these two
sequences. Repeat the above in graphical form. Develop Matlab codes and plot them

## Ans: Given that x1[n] 2 1 -1 3 -1 5 , and

x2[n] 2 3 4 3 2 1

## x1[n] x2[n] = x1[n] x2[n] 4 4 3 6 1 6

Subtraction

x1[n] x2[n] 0 2 5 0 -3 4

Multiplication

x1[n] x2[n] 4 3 4 9 -2 5

1

## Ex2: Consider a DT sequence x[n] 2 6 -1 3 -1 5 . Determine and plot the results

for amplification by a factor 2 and attenuation by a factor 2. Develop Matlab codes and
plot them.

## The results are shown below.

4.3 Time scaling: The time scaling refers to the up sampling and down sampling process.
Ex3: Perform the time scaling operations for the sequence in Ex2. Develop Matlab codes and
plot them.

## Dr. M. Venu Gopala Rao, Professor, Dept. of ECE, KL University

4.4 Transformation of independent variable (time): A sequence x[n] may be shifted in time
by replacing the independent variable n by n k , where k is an integer. If k a is positive
integer, the time shift results in a delay of the sequence by k units of time. If k a is negative
integer, the time shift results in an advance of the signal of the sequence by | k | units of time.

## Ex4: A sequence is represented by x[n] {-1 0 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4} . Find analytical

solution for the sequences x[n 3] and x[n 2] and represent in graphical form.
Solution: The analytical solution

x[n]
x[n 3]

{-1 0 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4}

{-1 0 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4}

x[n 2] {-1 0 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4}

Graphical representation

4.5 Folding / Reflection / Time reversal: Another useful modification of the time base is to
replace the independent variable n by n . The results of this operation is a folding or a
reflection of the signal about the time origin n 0 . An example is shown below.

## 4.6 Combined Folding and Shifting operations:

References:
1. John G. Proakis and Dimitris G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, principles,
algorithms and applications, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011.
5

## Dr. M. Venu Gopala Rao, Professor, Dept. of ECE, KL University

Exercise
1. Define the following DT sequences both in mathematical expressions and graphical
representations. Develop Matlab scripts and plot them.
(a) [n 3] (b) [n 2] (c) u[n 2] (d) u[n 2] (e) u[n] u[n 10] (f) u[n 2] u[n 10]
2.

## A discrete-time sequence x[n] is defined as x[n] {2 1 3 1 0 3 4 5 2

1} .

Sketch and label the following sequences. Develop Matlab scripts and plot them.
(a) x[n] [n] (b) x[n] [n 3] (c) x[n] [n 2] (d) x[n]u[n] (e) x[n]u[n 3] (f) x[n]u[n 2] .
3. Consider a DT sequence is represented by x[n] { 2 -2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5} . Perform the

## following operations. Represent both in mathematical and graphical forms.

(a) x[n 3] (b) x[n 2] (c) x[n] (d) x[n 2] (e) x[n 3] (f) x[2n] (g) x[n / 2] (h) x[n2 ]
(i) even xe [n] and odd components xo [n] of sequence (j) y[n] xe [n] xo [n] , where xe [n] and

xo [n] are even and components of the sequence computed in part (i) . Justify whether the
resultant sequence y[n] is even or odd. Illustrate the results by computing in mathematically
and representing in graphical form.
4. Consider

two

DT

sequences

x1[n] 3 0 1 1 0 2 3 -2 5

and

## (a) Addition (b) Subtraction, and (c) multiplication.

5. A discrete-time sequence x[n] is defined as

1 n2 , 3 n 1

x[n] 1, 0 n 3
0,
elsewhere

## (a) Determine its values and sketch the signal x[n] .

(b) Sketch the signals that results if we:
(i) First fold x[n] and then delay the resulting sequence by four samples.
(ii) First delay the x[n] by four samples and fold the resulting sequence.
(c) Sketch the signal x[n 4] .