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SWITCHING

POWER

SUPPLY

TOPOLOGY

REVIEW

by
Lloyd

H.

Dixon

Jr

INTRODUCTION:
This

paper

reviews

families
buck,

boost
may

has

method
any

used

can

at

control,

voltage

Several

extensions

three

in

examined:

with

methods

direct
mode

are

control

associated

control

current

is

part

of

are

filter

that

duty

(two-loopJ
also

cycle
control.

discussed,

with

mode--control

possible

three

these

with

are

of

the

first

in

the

opposite

One

common

all

three

but
(the

voltage
must
change,

CORPORATION.

output

~J-tIoo

PWM~

three

---0BOOST

other

the

same

To-y

II~

mirror

lit

power

--0-

applies

to

regardless
or

control
the

equal
zero.
violating

5 FORBES

r--o-

FLYBACK

that

across

,..

PWM

images

couple

direction.

mode

C~

not

configuration,

topologies,

operational

circuitsJ.
are

and

principle

.--0--

c
BUCK

arranged

elements,

simply
three

three

PWM

employ
inductor,

using

elements

of

The

switching
there

which

inversion

manner

the

circuits

an

diode,

different

and

converter,

and

Theoretically,

UNITRODE

Cuk

switching
circuits
three
elements:

capacitors

cycle,
would

operational
The

problems

circuits

Boost

topology.

transistor

the

of

shown

Buck,

discussed,

different
the
same

but

the

circuit

discontinuous

topology--operational

configurations

are:

flyback

in

are
basic

choice

Three

and

each

The

three
the

characteristics.

mode.

the

of

modes:

circuit
supplies:

TOPOLOGIES:

The

not

the

of

basic

Figure

Flyback.
is

minimize

basic

power

combination.

THREE BASIC
The

to

frequency

three
These

two

modes.
overall

feedforward,
merits

of

the

operational

fixed

relative

one

current
help

the

regulated

buck-boostJ.

in

on

also

and

operate

method

(or

effect

of

switching

operated

inductor
great

topology

the

in

flyback

be

continuous

mode

characteristics

used

and

topologies
or

the

commonly

ROAD.

method
inductor,

is:

In

averaged

Otherwise,
the
steady

LEXINGTON,

Figure

1.

of

the
state

MA 02173.

TEL.

steady
over
average
premise.

(617) 861-6540

state

operation,

each
inductor

.TWX

switching
current

(710) 326-6509

.TELEX

9&-1064

Each

of

the

three

relationships
duty

cycle.

For

with

output

voltage,

The

basic
less

circuit
flyback
Vin,

DISCONTINUOUS
In

the

The

inductor
of

the

current

is

increases

Three

of

1.

the

peak
stored

current
in
the
end

the

input,

the
taken

When
inductor

its

stored

peak
time,

td,

this

time

drawn

from

stored

cycle

is

the
all

the

in

the

inductor

to

the

output.

in

turns

flow

according
input

and

When
inductor

that

current
has
no
all

elements

is

zero

of

the

switching

'-"-1

of

the

Id

current
At

has

in

output.

and

conduction

and

energy

current

which

the

same

through

inductor
zero.

the

to

the

output

IQ

been

linearly
the

end

was

stored

of

I~

delivered
Suck

3.
the

and

off,

the

diode

output
to

input

shown
are

power

reverses
forces

the
the

are

waveforms

source.

voltage

decreases

This

is

energy

drives

from

ip.

energy

to

output.

to
energy
LI2/2,
at

transistor

td,

rises

this

During

energy

to

waveforms
the

taken

stored
input

last
cycle,

energy

this

diode

the

the

time,

During

input

current

diode.

of

three

each
the
the

the

IL

current

from

current
but

way.
the

during

value

ton.
and

a similar

part
of

circuit

with

"on"

equates
inductor,

inductor

2.

are

"discontinuous

Il

peak

of

inductor

each

states

current

to

the

same

greater

during

from

and

series

transistor

inductor

zero

the

the

storing

all

energy

cycle:

the

zero,

mode

for

There

During

ton,

with
either

in

first

topology,

in

operational

the

part,

transistor

circuit

or

discontinuous)

pumping

differ

switching

behave

from

load,

are

States.

each

polarity.

opposite.

mode,

second

inductor,

elements

distinct

only

same

Vin
Vo

circuits

Discontinuous

The

waveforms
three

than

current

During

the

the

regardless

the

of
and

functions
the

with
be

set

currents,

with

greater

(hence

current
into

2.

current

zero
cycle.

Waveforms.

same

unique

regulator

and

must

flyback

During

discharged

Figure

Vo

polarity

switching

input.

Current
in

Vin

functions

inductor
and

each

the

is

the

boost

inductor

from

requires

but

buck

than

voltages,

MODE OPERATION:

buck,

part

basic

less

has

output

topology

discontinuous

mode",

families

and
the

Vo,

The
than

circuit

input

example,

boost

polarity.
or

basic

between

reaches
more
energy.

switching
for

the
period.

zero,
The
circuit

I.

Boost

Flyback

.
In.

10:

IQ

IL

III

IL

Id

Id

Figure

2.

remainder
During
1-2

UNITROOE CORPORATION.

5 FORBES ROAD.

LEXINGTON, MA 02173. TEL. (617) 861-6540 .TWX

(710) 326-6509 .TELEX 95-1064

this

idle

turn

the

time,

ti,

the

transistor

Discontinuous

Mode

control

circuit

Peak

inductor

time

td

then

not

to

to

Closed

to

stored

large
inductor

energy.

obtain
full

energy

output,

on

from

the

output

small

single-pole
with

closing

Feedback

Loop").

limits

loop

is

High

Peak

mode

is

not

filter

current

capability

rating
circuits,
diode

current,

full

load

period,

Id,

the

the

factor

peak

buck

circuit
the
to

used

provides
Poor

ODen

for

the

below.
(see

in

much
Looo

"Closing

the

output
td

the

inductor

is
full

current

the

peak

current.

diode

mode

the

output
RMS

current

and
the

flyback
average

filter

Io.

of

load

the

Under

switching

Io.

with

its

is

better

form

somewhat

the

because

and
higher

and

current,
50%

current

However,

discontinuous

buck

the

less

in

topology

continuous

is
mode

performance.
and

topology
boost

OC

flyback

discontinuous

in
both
boost
and
therefore

time

the

with

on

resistance)

4 times

so

output

Line

flyback
The

the

the

semiconductors

the

and

the

requires

deal

severely

transistor,

burden

to

topologies.

of

the

the

"Closing

boost

mode

disadvantage

only

which

through

diode
is

output,

better

mode

to

resulting

easy

on

zero

to

zero

"vanishes"

and

paper

is

circuit

The

stable

extreme

it

current,
with
zero

leaving

continuous

equal
if

is

that

from

lag.

discontinuous

an

It
inductor

load
cycle

inductor

phase

For
example,
in
the
output,

must

the

The

separate

series

current

drives

proportion
seldom

puts

the

control

characteristic,

main

gain
is

mode,

and

the

[RHP)

This

conditions,

longer

mode.

limit

required,

inherently

in

one

is

no

operation

disturbances

for

output)

the

the

[equivalent

requirements.
the
diode

and

voltage
switching

degree

current

and

ESR

will

discontinuous

line
each

loop

in

capacitor.

capacitor

in

90

response

peak

zero,
load

continuous

basis.

is

The

high

ti.

becomes
If
the
mode

correcting

right-half-plane

Current.
the

the

possible

[see

present

load

time,

boundary.

in

power

its

loop

the

In

it

[and
closed

The

closed

circuits

output

makes

the

current

sense

mode

changes
alway
starts

characteristic

in

in

response

with

in

idle

continuous

to

ResDOnse.

signal

the

unstable
because
the
loop
discontinuous
mode operation

a cycle-by-cycle

capacitor

conduction

become
stable

this

level

diode

the

increase

level,
ti
reached.

is

to

increase.

and

crossing

This

any

in

to

cycle,

circuit

step

and

inductor

pulse

increases,

cycle)
an

to a certain
boundary

oscillation

excellent

from
the

current
duty

reduction

control

LooD

obtain

result
because

In

the

prevent

Excellent
easy

for

prevent

for

current

will

clock

cycle.

greater

the

every

circuit
required

adequate

state

increased,

zero

load
ton

next

Consequently,

increases
mode

results.
The
compensation
imperative

next

becomes

steady

further
to

the

the

When

increase.

When
load
current
and
the
discontinuous
discharge

for

begin

transistor

current

is

waits
and

Boundarv.

also

causes

current

on

causes

must

current

circuit

back

Feedback
Vo

Reaulation.

operated

regulator

Load

has

in
a

Loop").

The

basic

OC

discontinuous

similar
For

but
the

mode
more

complex

flyback

equation
is

given
formula

circuit:

v;nD-v'Ro/(2Lfl
1-3

UNITRODE

CORPORATION.

5 FORBES

ROAD.

LEXINGTON,

MA 02173.

TEL,

(617) 861-6540

.TWX

(710) 326-6509

.TELEX

95-1064

It

can

be

seen

(open
root

control
of
the

loop

line

be

from

equation

Vo
load

load

regulation

and

changed

this

loop),
output

output

by

voltage

if

the

directly
quite

the

poor,

control

under

the

duty

cycle

with
Vin
In
other

Ro.

is

considerably

desired

that

varies
resistance,

and

duty

circuit

full

cycle

to

range

is

fixed

and
the
square
words,
the
open
D

must

maintain

of

line

the

and

load

conditions.
Control

Method.

(direct

duty

output

voltage

resulting

Direct

compared

voltage

C~cle

VoltaQe

lag

Feedforward

Vin

D
(VinDJ

is

Current

the

Mode
inductor
loop,

as

feedforward

the

An

inner

loop

In

the

same

loop

of
the

loop

system

Vin

changes.

input

Open
is

gain
1

is

and

voltage

so
a

ton/T

open
loop
line
for
correction.

closed

of

D =

Poor
gain

duty
(D =
that

fixed

is

the

Vc.

loop
line
required

fed

cycle
KVc/VinJ.

to

input

Thus,

Vc

regulation
to
meet

DC

becomes:

inner,
to
Ip

VinD/Vc"

second

control

the
control
directly.

loop

compares

voltage,
The inner

similar

to

the

Vc.
In
the
loop
provides

voltage

feedforward.

KVc-v'RoLf/~
current

control

factor

current

the

mode

same

maxlp/maxVc.

control

good

is

effect

providing
instantaneous
less
closed
loop
gain.

recommended.

--improved
correction

open
to

line

MODE OPERATION

continuous

inductor

current
(see
Figure
application

greater
to
the

the

for

directly.
loop

or

essentially

loop
line
regulation,
changes
and
requiring

inductor
cycle

feedforward

have

CONTINUOUS

closed

cycle

Vc.
loop

automatically

ratio

Control:

voltage
both

the
The

KVc-YRo/[2Lf)

Vo

Either

the

and
causes
the
directly
with
Vc

Equation

(3)

They

mode),
voltage.

as

correction

constant

current,
Ip,
Vc now controls

is

of

as

decreases

regulation,

part

circuit
well

good
inherent
line
Equation
1 becomes:

where

used

duty

A sample

requirements.

methods

current

reference

and

delays

remains

Vo

peak
outer

is

input
volt-seconds
so
that
less
closed

(2)
where

a fixed

Transistor

Control:

increases,

regulation

control

and

amplified

which

the
control
with
Vin

volt-seconds
controls
is
good,

is

capacitor

phase

directly
into
vary
inversely
If

frequency

to control
voltage
requires
fairly
high

filter
a

with

Control:

proportion
regulation

output

constant
feedforward,

Vc.

Dut~

introduces

three

is

voltage,

varied
in
and
load

all

voltage

error

control

The

In
cycle,

parameters,

inductance.
full
load

current

is
never
zero
3).
Compared
The
output

mode

during
to
the
the

(continuous

any
part
discontinuous

continuous

inductor
current.

ripple

mode
current

mode),

of

the

the
switching
mode
for
requires

is

small

the

much
compared

1-4
UNITRODE

CORPORATION.

5 FORBES

ROAD.

LEXINGTON,

MA 02173.

TEL.

(617) 861-6540

.TWX

(710) 326-6509

.TELEX

95-1064

Current

Waveforms.

waveforms
Just

Continuous

are

as

with

shown

the

in

same

for

the

buck,

but

waveforms

differ

of

the

boost

or
and

flyback

output
Id,

The

output

peak

the

IL

which

in

series

is

cases,

the

diode

IQ

discontinuous.

current

is

value

burden

have

both
is

which

more
than
half
the
in
the
discontinuous
reduces

output

circuits
In

current

current,

flyback
to

are

behavior.

the

diode
the

output.

and

similar

boost
input
according

and

Id

mode,

and
exactly

elements

input

The

the

three

with

3.

discontinuous

the
inductor,
transistor
current
waveforms
are
circuits,

mode

Figure

slightly

r--

encountered
mode.
This

on

the

output
Buck

capacitor.
The

buck

regulator

differently.

behaves

Its

the
inductor
discontinuous,

output

current,
but

very

current

is

which
is
a relatively

has

Flyback

T.-"
-111.

Tn
-~

IL

IQ

10:

IL

Id

Id

Figure

3.

not

slope

amplitude.
reducing
For
this
popular

This
waveform
is
easy
to
filter,
substantially
the
output
capacitor
ESR and current
rating
requirements.
reason,
the
continuous
mode
buck
regulator
is
the
most
switching
power
supply
configuration,
particularly
at
power

with

all

output
Two
no

Because

current

encountered

intolerable

burden

on

the

inductor
power)

mode

current
levels

and

ton,

zero,
two

there

is

operational

the

given

the

diode

the

initial

current
zero)

up

the

to

during

IL

a higher
the

"off"

input.

conducts
value,

for

never

the

rest

reaching

of
zero

output.
the

dependent

totally

inductor
than

from

operation,

are

never
only

(greater

drawn

off,
to

to

is
and

energy
is

is

declines

energy

continuous

time,

value

transistor

up

current
mode

cycle.

initial
the

IL

giving

voltage

peak

an

inductor

"on"

an
(and

the

cycle.

inductor

higher

continuous
switching

replacing

When

much
put

transistor
from

Current

each

the

the

the

each

During

time.

In

in

during

increases

but

where

capacitor.

time

value,

ripple

configurations

States.
idle

1.

2.

levels

other
filter

states

small

Boost

gentle

higher

and

--1

only

up slope
upon

independent

of

and

downslope

the

input

the

average

of

and

output
inductor

current
or output
load
current.
Without
the
flexibility
provided
by the
third
(idle)
state
of
the
discontinuous
mode,
Vin,
Vo and
duty
cycle
D are
related
differently
for
each
topology.
In
the
buck
of

regulator,
the

inductor

inductor
output

for
is
is

example,

the

Vinton/T,
Vo.

In

average
or

the

voltage

VinD,

steady

while
state,

at
the
the

the
voltage
average

input

side
at

the

voltage

1-5
UNITRODE

CORPORATION.

5 FORBES

ROAD.

LEXINGTON,

MA 02173.

TEL.

(617) 661-6540

.TWX

(710) 326-6509

.TELEX

95-1064

across

the

DC

equation

to

load

load
but

inductor

must

for

the

current

or

regulation.
the

Continuous

and

current
the

flyback

level,
ripple

the
If

time

the

completely
must

this

boundary

In
be
is

of

Poor

Closed

Loog

mode

regulators
of

the

resonant

LC

filter.
in

capacitors

used

voltage

in

levels

when

inductor

time

output

for

correction

single

first

order

the

discontinuous

The

RHP

circuits

zero
is

output
flyback

When

temporarily
to
During

output

This

forces

the

otherwise
There

the
rightit

is

poles,

the

charge

to

limited

operation,

in

load

take

unusual
current.

considerable

"Closing

the

Feedback

this
problem
in
the
inductor
pole.
remains,

and
deal

drop.

duty

for

continuous
Only
the

the

flyback

same

as

In

in

increased
because

crossover

of

to

it

complete

smaller,

RHP

zero

be

much

its
so

opposite

the

frequency

inductor

However,

to

[1-DJ

voltage

the

load.

current
the

capacitor

error

causing

D makes

boost
and
a flyback

output

increased

decreased,
lag

the

mode

regulators,
in
in

resulting
D,

inductor

buck

IL,
but
process

the

The

the

continuous

with.

cycle,

the

temporarily
gain

of
a

of

the

what

is

inevitably
lower

than

desired.
is

in

addition

circuits--the

large

the

additional

loop

circuits

have

filter

changes

increases,

to

time,

is

continuous

While
two

which

current
Consider

accommodate

this

with

boost

current

cycles

current

desired.

desired

load

to

many

of

also

the

pole

to

starts

rise

take

rise.

with

increases

current
may

is

mode

signal

up

capacitor

difficult

immediately

load
where

requirement

response

paper:

10 equals
inductor
10 = IL[1-DJ.

regulator.
voltage

the
level

circuits.

more

current
circuits,

load

errors

separate

associated
much

with

critical

network

keep

filter

state

regulation

characteristic.

control
overcomes
by eliminating

mode

third

characteristic

large

offset

(see

Loop").
Current
mode
mode
buck
regulators

the

mode

regulator,

the

for

of

cannot

of

continuous

circuits

compensation

voltage

load

minimum

DC

order

gain

periods

current

causes

the

discontinuous

compensate

the

during

do

current
IL,
for

discontinuously,

signal

flyback

loop

to

at

for

minimum

than

and

their

possible

load

critical

zero

mode

second

Boost

certain

the

current

systems.

worse

pole

loop

changes,

inductor
10

decreases,

Small

much

below

This
mode

open

When

average
regulator

operates

drop

Resgonse.

zero

theoretically

to

basic

relating

ripple

characteristics.

crossed.

two

the
buck

continuous

the

also

Current.

inductor

further

allowed

is

half-plane

IL

boundary

circuit

continuous

because

This

the
operating

not

disadvantage

the

is

terms

excellent

reaches

current

and

radically.

current

is

This
no

!!.Q..!.. change.

At

current

load

different

degrades

but
the

For

This

appears,

and

(1-D)IL.

inductor

do

Load

cycle

waveform.

operation.
idle

10

are

Vo

--Minimum
duty

VinD.

steady-state

current

the

There
indicates

changes,

not
change
(except
momentarily),
declines
proportionately.
and

Vo

which

Io

Boundar~

decreases,

boost

so

resistance,

ripple

Mode

zero,

regulator.

When

inductor

current

be

buck

inability
with
inductor

large
values

large
to

step

signal

problem

rapidly

slew

changes
used

in

in

load.

continuous

with
the

continuous

inductor
This
mode

is

mode

current
because
circuits.

as
of

the
The

1-6
UNITROOE CORPORATION.

5 FORBES ROAO .LEXINGTON,

MA 02173. TEL. (617) 861-6540 .TWX

(710) 326-6509 .TELEX

95-1004

problem

is

current

when

has
been
slightly
Good

Load
for

DC

the

resistance,

mode,
Vo,

change

be

changed

Direct

with

Dutv

make

overcome.

design
See

Voltage

the

(buck)

equations

mode
continuous

D.

in

load

basic

duty

or

cycle

current,

loop

line

does

but

gain

is

must

required

regulation.

many

"Poor

It

problems
Closed

feedforward

the

current

Vin.

high

and

that

output

The

in

loop

topologies
mode

reveal

of

and

under

Voltage

discontinuous
in
the

only

The

Reaulation.

changes

loop,

comments

Feedforward.

as the
regulation

Vin

open

closed

circuit

Flyback:
Vo = V;nD/(1-D)

Moderately
poor

earlier

Line

changes

inherent

inductor

the

are:

above

for

the
if

capability,
VinD,
state
operation.

independent

upon

Control.

the
to

the

correction

Cvcle

correct

only

increase

especially

Vin/1-DJ

totally

steady-state

to

difficult

Loop

applied

in

provides
good
buck
regulator.

is

cannot

be

Response."

the
open

same

way

loop
Equation

line
4

becomes:

(5)

Vo

Open
gain

loop
line
BnQ
is
now
required

load.

Boost

and

only
partially
Methods
that
are

Current

the

Mode

load
only

regulation,

only

scope

of

this

after

single

large

inductor

signal
pole

is
loop

it

Current

mode

control

power
each

total

module
load

will

mode

are

technique.
but
they

load

always

not

current

the

deliver

current

the
outer
characteristic,
gain

line

inner

loop

loop

no
but

characteristic

required

because
has

the

dependency
Equation

K =

The

the

control

regulator

facilitates

regulators,

compensation
capacitors
output
voltage
errors

mode

Buck

modules.

The

are

Current

buck

Second,

Third,
cause

operation)

also

mode

so
that
resonant

= KVcRo.

supply

continuous

improved
performance.
provides
inherent
good

pole.

introduces

Vo

individual

pole

correction.

(6)

Closed
loop
changes
in

feedforward
compensation,

open.

order

capacitor

eliminated.

that

closed

loop

compensate.
input
[which

limited

the

continuous
greatly
loop

outer

inductor
second

easy
to
amplifier

disadvantage
need

the

filter

very
error

to

provides
control

the
filter
a two-pole

has

the

in
simple
achieve

to

paper.(1J

Applied

with

VinD/Vc

are
both
good.
dynamic
response

topologies

Control.

even

becomes
at
the

regulation
for
good

flyback

mode
control
the
inner
current

eliminates
longer

K =

KVcl

compensated
by this
are
more
complex
will

beyond

current
First,

the

is

depending

not

Poor
mode

Boost:
Vo =

voltage,

to
Vin,

volt-second
for
steady

continuous

discontinuous

output

attempting
minimum

Reaulation.

the

Buck:
Vo = VinD

Unlike

that

when
near

with
input
than
required

Looo

equations

(4)

to

severe

operating

designed
greater

Ooen

DC

most

the
single

which
4

does

becomes:

maxIL/maxVc
paralleling

of

control

its

assigned

TEL.

(617) 661-6540

loop

several
insures

proportion

of

current.

1-7
UNITRODE

CORPORATION.

5 FORBES

ROAD.

LEXINGTON.

MA 02173.

.TWX

(710) 326-6509

.TELEX

95-1064

In

the

continuous

boost

improvements
partial
voltage
Vin
but

changes,
10 will

boost

flyback
mode

simplifies
RHP zero,
boost

flyback

topologies,

mode
control
compensation

are

the
inner
current
control
change
because
the
(1-0)

and

Current

and

from
current
feedforward

circuits

control

does

the
closed
which
is

and

changes

flyback

loop
factor
with

eliminate

the

inductor

loop
design,
but
the
worst
limitation

it

the

coupled

the
the

avoids

the

versions

ratio

also
to

or

required

transformer

permits

very

small

duty

the

basic

are

easily

Transformer

core

and

due

losses

Forward

ended
4.

the

basic

buck

the
and

addition
series

former

The

restrictions
outputs

that
at

various

windings.

problems,

however.

losses

in

circuits,

and

These

the

core

in

push-pull

(especially

leakage

would

voltage

and

spikes

reactance.

The
~~.-or---"'1-1

to

I'NM

with
-

'-0-

step-down

Figure
off
filtered

input

and

increase

the

voltage

the

the

AC

output,

duty

cycle

will

4.

Forward

line.

For

turns

to

negative

provision

Converter
example,

ratio

near

50%

so

volt-seconds

that
applied

of

the

symmetry

In

waveform

be

windings
the

transformer
change

of

and

made
to

reverse
during

with
15:1

is

reduce

to
back

swing

volt-seconds
the

"on"

the

the

the
not

not

the

must
steady-

system,

of

does
reset

inductor
is

push-pull

to

this

or
(which

applied

converter,
must

the

any
must

saturate.

because

forward

across

across
current

core

and
ended

time

different,
the
turns

very
to
set

isolation

large

occurs

Specific

are

secondary

new

which
that

polarity

weight,

supplies.

currents

multiple

single-ended

identical

or

and

voltage

power

peak

multiple

several

current.

naturally

single

the
mode

adjustment

converter

line

zero,

positive

and

and

transformer

steady-state

state)

in

high

saturation

regulator

OC

primary

thereby

where
primary
transformer

the

ratio

voltages
The
ability

some

size

(Buck).
is

to

and

provide

off-line

Also,

when
operated
and
crudely

average

"off"

reset

ratio
rectified

typical,
peak

Vo

of a transformer
diode.
The
trans-

usually

200-400

vs.

core

to

provides

turns
the

output

introduces

forward

Figure

and

with

cost,

Converter

single

and

Vin

potential

circuitsJ,

in

TOPOLOGIES:

applications
First,

line.

cycle

obtained

additional

windings,

pole

circuits

in

a turns

topologies.

coupling

include:

in

the

basic

for

input
and
applications.

removes

voltages

of

particularly
230
V AC

isolation

otherwise
occur
when
as in
most
off-line
apply

constant,
to 10

IL

circuits.

advantages,
the
120
V

Second,

IL

does
~
eliminate
of
the
continuous

Transformer
is

Only
When

Vin.

OF THE BASIC

provides

performance

maintains
relating

TRANSFORMER COUPLEO ADAPTATIONS

important
power

the

less
dramatic.
is accomplished.

windings.
happen

core
during
equal

this

alternating
In

naturally.

by

allowing

the

the

transistor

and

cancel

the

time.

1-8
UNITROOE CORPORATION.

5 FORBES ROAO .LEXINGTON,

MA 02173. TEL. (617) 861-6540 .TWX

(710) 326-6509 .TELEX 9&-1064

The

series

diode

this

voltage

must

be

by

is

diode

limited

4).
is

and
the

back

forward
capability.
the

of

[the

and

bifilar

the

voltage

is

often

to
Vin,
applied

applied

the
to
to

shown

the
during

In

maximum

exceed
clamped

which

not

in

back swing
the
"on"

to 50%,
otherwise
reverse
volt-second

saturate.
the

swing

primary,
but

limited
the

permit

back

accomplished

the

essential,

clamped
voltage

clamp

and
the

with

is

will
[2)

can
never
back swing

the

This

O) must
be
will
exceed

transformer

secondary

transistor,

clamp.

clamp

[and

the

the

back swing
thus
as the
forward

the

forward,

times

kind

swing,

volt-seconds
With

decouple

protect

winding,

Vin

means
ton
volt-seconds

capability

to

to

With
the
the
same

This
forward

clamp

some

to
To

transformer

clamped

Figure
voltage

required

swing.
by

tertiary

time.
the

is

back

summary,

duty

reverse
reverse

a
the

[1)

cycle

so

the

volt-second
voltage
equal

transistor

will

be

Vin.

Transformer
not

as

utilization
good

as

transferred

during

forward

the

single

Additional
are

the

Current
Push-Pull
Figure

of
control

their

core

at

often

when

mode

small

turns.

The

reset

on

cycles,
half

but
cycles

symmetrical
seconds
be

half

these
must

alternate
be quite

or
not

papers
best

by

been

method

UC1B46,

which

is
senses

automatically

.
Flgure

in

by

Push-Pull

core

symmetry

a current
in

the

or
IC

such

current

pulse

Vce(sat).

circuits,

control

primary

the

Symmetry

times

correction

mode

changing

Centertap

saturation.

storage

on

unbalance

corrects

5.

transistor

use

::::IJ

.~.

written

to

current.

unequal

have

because

..

the
voltcancel,
resulting

spoiled

KW

output

used

ripple

core

alternate

will

~~:!

drive

provides

always

inductor

will
to

push-pull

less.

! II C-::---I

secondary

automatically

the

to

two

voltages
according

not

advantageous.

the

with

whose

up

multiple

is

is

is

However,

levels
costs

used

definitely

converter
power

reset.

power

circuitry

continuous
the

is

for

drive

are

of

respective

half

base

filtering

regulator

the

popular

version

outputs
proportion

Many

allowed

The

forward
because

Center-tac
(Buck)
5 shows
a push-pull

centertap

can

time
very

required.

mode

single-ended
converter,

is
ended

ease

the
pull

secondaries

voltages

buck

push

the

converter

because

of

in

in

but
as

the

waveform

widths

of

and

alternate

cycles.

Transistor
doubling
voltage

voltage
effect
may

drive

circuits

Buck

regulators

driven

from

ratings
of

be

the
or

are

must

be

centertap

times

times

primary.
Vo.

Vin
Peak

assuming

2:1

because
rever5e

Vin

of

the

rectifier

range.

Dual

base

required.

are

inherently

voltage

source

"voltage-fed",
and

there

that
are

only

is
low

they

are

impedance

1-9
UNITRODE

CORPORATION.

5 FORBES

ROAD.

LEXINGTON,

MA 02173.

TEL,

(617) 861-6540

.TWX

(710) 326-6509

.TELEX

95-1064

elements

in

damage
of

or

the

input

a temporary

of

due

to

characteristics,
events,

often

power
are
In

supply

any

buck

changes
extremely

occur,

poor

because

placing

drops

will

the

component

selection.

outputs,

when

each

cause

high
to

circulating

output.
on

with

caused
This

little

the

may

coupling

Perfect
voltage
forward

currents.

Design
This
of

be

them

core.

inductance.

impairment

is

by

problem

a common

ripple
leakage

step

outputs

however,
because
slight
as unmatched
rectifier

1D-2D%

currents

problems

unbalanced

inductors,

circulating

have

These

isolation

windings

not
be sought,
due
to such
things

inductor

prove.

These

switching

between

individual

inductor

many

hard

dynamic

storage

IC.

and

with

to

control

cross-regulation

the

recovery

for

to

of

event

transformer
due

are

the

series

the

should

coupled

of

the

responsible

multiple

eliminating

all

coupling
differentials

they

dynamic

in

by

been

as

the

rectifier
overlap

by

risk

in

such

provided

design
with

load

inductors

corrected
by

proper

regulator

in

filter

and

by

substantial

poor

conduction

have

failures,

eliminated

condition,

deadband

transitory,

transformers

asymmetry,

transistor

inadequate

creates

switching
fault

drive
or

with

This

the

downstream

saturation
time

circuit.

destruction

the

controls

dynamic

cross-

regulation.(2J
With

any

change

topology,
from

the

short

the

full

Half

light
circuit

load

bridge

pull

version

of

the
shown

two

the

The

is
be

---0
II~

PWM

-0---

Figure

center-tap
of

half

ratings
has

the

complementary

seldom

are.

The

6.

Half

input

bridge

are

become

more

because

the

Bridge

two

in

less

half

base-emitters

not

transistor

problem

with

that
the

with

drive

do

push-pull

is

(although

important
Base

NPN/PNP
same

the

previously

cut

available.

supply.

against

discussed

voltage
This

of

the

configuration

unless

This

current

the

advantage

potentially

::~

Dllr-

are

DC

transistors

used

than

primary

from

doubledJ.

rating

greater

capacitors

AC.

transistor

step

startup,

bulk

currents

drawn
big

substantially

connect
the
primary

and

centertap

large

load

PWM

The

The

not

full

+0---

-y--

provide

two

symmetrical

with

during

be

in

source.

alternately.

is

must

buck

series

two
transistors
single
transformer

voltages

limit

response

and

a push-

As

input

across

dynamic
load,

The

also

capacitors

tapped

good
full

current

is

6,

filter

to

(Buck).

regulator.
Figure

get

current.

Bridqe

half

to
load

higher

voltage

transformers
have
are

transformer

common
used,

must
reference
which

drive

the

current

they

asymmetry

exists.

configuration

has

1983,

most

designers

power

levels

under

been
would

extremely
question

popular
its

in

the

past.

cost-effectiveness

In
at

KW.
1-10

UNITRODE

CORPORATION.

5 FORBES

ROAD.

LEXINGTON,

MA 02173.

TEL.

(617) 861-6540

.TWX

(710) 326-6509

.TELEX

95-1064

Full

B ri dae

extension
6 except

(Buck).

transistors
For

that

The

full

bridge

(not

of the
half
bridge.
the
the
two
series
capacitors
identical
given

of

power

the

voltage

to
level,

half

are

Sincle-Ended
first
glance,

which

transformer

and

the

the

same,

are

halved.

currents

two

the
Flvback.
circuit

there

At
cf

higher
by

the

voltage

is

halved.

are

twice

power

to
Figure
two
more

complete

primary

current

but

is

is identical
replaced

are

first

the

bridge

ratings

transistor

the

shown)

circuit

The
as

bridge.
is

many,

+0

double

transistor
and

the

"i~
PWM

Figure

forward

locks

However,
4

is

to

The

to

inductor

transistor
same
core

The

[and
output

turns

off,

the

[or

multiple
peak

and

the

to

primary
flyback

in

order

as

with

provide
to

is

quite
with

each

increasing,
and

secondary

and

the

the

previous

buck

regulators,

the

opportunity

and
the

duty

energy

cycle

the

maintains

maintain

isolation

during

When

reverses
the

"on",

but

biased.

through

the

is

the

stored

and

in
the
to

minimize

amenable

good,

because

output

care

to

must

spoil

the

applied

multiple

outputs

appropriate
these
multiple

there

However,
hurt

be

to

withthe
between

is

no

dynamic

turns

filter

the

coupling,

design

is

inductor
as

leakage
inductance
the
cross-regulation,
to

by

ratios.
outputs

of

in

in

the

between

the
and

inductor

in

the

respect.
single

levels

ended
because

disadvantage
current
capacitor

in
in

cut

such
as
transient
this

opposite

to

optimize

quite

circuits.
can
severely

considerable

quite

flyback

transistor

reverse
voltage

line

ratio

is

is

inductor

Just

topology

buck
regulator
secondaries

The

energy,

the

current.

theoretically

this

couple
of

polarity
the

energy)

rectifer

applying
additional
secondaries
The
dynamic
cross-regulation
series

have
When

amDere-turns

turns

Flyback

directly

inductor

secondary

the

gap).

to

shunt

inductor

output,

windings
the

is

transformer.

instantaneous

rectifier

adjust

is

.
Slngle-Ended

7.

1.

primary

time

Flgure

energy.
transformer

Figure

current

this

primary.
Its

This

converter

primary

the

it.)
in

\--0-1

tr~nsformer,

store
a true

of
as

forward

4.
in

with
windings.

store

topology,

the

an inductor
secondary

not

the

Figure

transformer

not

purpose
is
(The
purpose

like

cf

the

Figure
but
and

much

converter

flyback

circuit

of

simplicity

the

its

the

peak

RHP zero
response.

flyback

technique

CORPORATION.

5 FORBES

operating

and
the
painful.

current

in

to

output
The

half,

and
difficult
In
1983,
up

quite

popular

and

discontinuous

the
transistor
problem
quite

the

is

cost.

mode

is

which
continuous

but

brings

the

low

power

Its

big

high

peak

makes
the
filter
mode
does
not
in

compensation
many
sophisticated

200-300

at

low

other

problems

methods
with
designers

poor
use

Watts.

1-11
UNITRODE

ROAD.

LEXINGTON,

MA 02173.

TEL.

(617) 861-6540.

TWX (710) 326-6509

.TELEX

95-1064

Push-Pull

Boost.

This

example--compare
pull

boost

Figure

with
input

to

primary
Where

is

tor

in

1.

and

the
shunt

transis-

Figure

boost

"recharges"
The

transistors
of
the

the

in
transformer
them

when

it

which

is

never

both

Like

All

to

boost

need

as
the

core

the

boost
so

are

can
shrug
saturation,

off

overlap.
the

RECOMMENDATIONS:
and
for
isolated

For

developing
DC
supply

post

For

step-down:

Buck,

For

step-up:

Boost,

For

reverse

For
applications
isolation
and/or
Under

200

200

W--1

Over

that
multiple

W:

Flyback,

kW:

Forward

kW:

Half

no

filter

is

help

Continuous,

recharge

the

less

EMI

small

AC

content.

of

load

at

regulation

existing

line

CM

Discontinuous,

FF

Discontinuous,

or
FF

transformer

CM
or

coupled

Discontinuous,
Full

the

boost

much

from
an
= FeedforwardJ:

FF

of

conditions
transistor

or

has

in
good.

this,

fault

point

voltages
mode,

little

inductor

of

is

waveform

Converter

because

do

two

necessary.

generate

regulation,

require
outputs:

Bridge,

is

downstream
recovery,
also

Flyback,

polarity:

the

regulators.

Because

things

additional
(CM
= Current

method,
Theyare

"current-fed",

current

primary,

this

cross-regulation

input.

these

input

In

individually.

has

converters

the

transistor,

buck

dynamic

deliberately

out

technique

temporary
poor
rectifier

All

on

regulator
the

the

Boost

because

or

inherently

with

current.

input

shunt

drive

the

series

conduction
inductor

a third,

push-pull

output,

topologies

regulators
such
as

inductor.

on,

Boost

by

shorting

the

control-base

each

in

for

Push-Pull

function

thus

both

in

B.

switching

recharge

either

flyback,
with

inductor

the

the

off,

the

this

desired

in

series

primary
provide

simultaneously,

are

innovation

.
Flgure

two

conduct

eliminates

transistors

"2

outputs.

regulator
that
the
inductor?

making

PWM

transformer

the
the

., ...

Np

inductor

the

::c
...

alternately

the

current

~IIE:
PWM

in

Figure

transistors

apply

push-

regulator

The

last

the

FF

or

CM
circuits

for

CM

(BuckJ,

Continuous,

CM

Bridge,

Continuous,

CM

REFERENCES:

L.
with

H.

Dixon,

Jr.,

International,

2.

H.

"Pulse

Complementary

Matsuo

Converter
Conversion,

January
and

Width

Modulator

Control

Optimization,"

K.

1982,
Harada,

with
Multiple
Nov./Oec.
1978,

pp

Methods

Powerconversion
14-21.

"New

Energy

Outputs,"
pp 54-5fi.

Storage

Solid

State

OC-OC
Power

1-12
UNITRODE

CORPORATION.

5 FORBES

ROAD.

LEXINGTON,

MA 02173.

TEL.

(617) 861-6540

.TWX

(710) 326-6509

.TELEX

95-1064

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