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VMware4.1Questions
1.WhatisHA?
VMwareHAdeliverstheavailabilityneededbymanyapplicationsrunninginvirtualmachines,independentoftheoperating
systemandapplicationrunninginit.VMwareHAprovidesuniform,costeffectivefailoverprotectionagainsthardwareand
operatingsystemfailureswithinyourvirtualizedITenvironment.
Monitorsvirtualmachinestodetectoperatingsystemandhardwarefailures.
Restartsvirtualmachinesonotherphysicalserversintheresourcepoolwithoutmanualinterventionwhenserverfailureis
detected.
Protectsapplicationsfromoperatingsystemfailuresbyautomaticallyrestartingvirtualmachineswhenanoperatingsystem
failureisdetected.
2.HowHAworks?
VMwareHAcontinuouslymonitorsallserversinaresourcepoolanddetectsserverfailures.Anagentplacedoneachserver
maintainsaheartbeatwiththeotherserversintheresourcepoolandalossofheartbeatinitiatestherestartprocessofall
affectedvirtualmachinesonotherservers.VMwareHAensuresthatsufficientresourcesareavailableintheresourcepoolat
alltimestobeabletorestartvirtualmachinesondifferentphysicalserversintheeventofserverfailure.Restartofvirtual
machinesismadepossiblebytheVirtualMachineFileSystem(VMFS)clusteredfilesystemwhichgivesmultipleESX
Serverinstancesreadwriteaccesstothesamevirtualmachinefiles,concurrently.VMwareHAiseasilyconfiguredfora
resourcepoolthroughVirtualCenter.
KeyFeaturesofVMwareHA
Automaticdetectionofserverfailures.Automatethemonitoringofphysicalserveravailability.HAdetectsserverfailures
andinitiatesthevirtualmachinerestartwithoutanyhumanintervention.
Resourcechecks.Ensurethatcapacityisalwaysavailableinordertorestartallvirtualmachinesaffectedbyserverfailure.
HAcontinuouslymonitorscapacityutilizationandreservesspare
capacitytobeabletorestartvirtualmachines.
Automaticrestartofvirtualmachines.Protectanyapplicationwithautomaticrestartinadifferentphysicalserverinthe
resourcepool.
Intelligentchoiceofservers(whenusedwithVMwareDistributedResourceScheduler(DRS)).Automatetheoptimal
placementofvirtualmachinesrestartedafterserverfailure.
TheVMwareHASolution
WithVMwareHA,asetofESXServerhostsiscombinedintoaclusterwithasharedpoolofresources.VMwareHA
monitorsallhostsinthecluster.Ifoneofthehostsfails,VMwareHAimmediatelyrespondsbyrestartingeachaffected
virtualmachineonadifferenthost.
UsingVMwareHAhasanumberofadvantages:
Minimalsetupandstartup.TheNewClusterwizardisusedforinitialsetup.Hostsandnewvirtualmachinescanbeadded
usingtheVirtualInfrastructureClient.
Reducedhardwarecostandsetup.Inatraditionalclusteringsolution,duplicatehardwareandsoftwaremustbeavailable,
andthecomponentsmustbeconnectedandconfiguredproperly.WhenusingVMwareHAclusters,youmusthavesufficient
resourcestoaccommodatethenumberofhostsforwhichyouwanttoguaranteefailover.However,theVirtualCenterServer
takescareofallotheraspectsoftheresourcemanagement.
VMwareHAdemocratizeshighavailabilitybymakingitavailableandcostjustifiableforanyapplication,regardlessof
hardwareandoperatingsystemplatform.VMwareHAisfocusedonhardwarefailure,notonoperatingsystemorsoftware
failure.Ifyouneedgreaterlevelsandguaranteesofavailabilitytohandlethosesituations,youcanconsiderusingboth
VMwareHAandtraditionalhighavailabilityapproachestogether.

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VMwareHAFeatures
UsingaclusterenabledforVMwareHAprovidesthefollowingfeatures:
AutomaticfailoverisprovidedonESXServerhosthardwarefailureforallrunningvirtualmachineswithintheboundsof
failovercapacity.
VMwareHAprovidesautomaticdetectionofserverfailuresandinitiatesthevirtualmachinerestartwithoutanyhuman
intervention.
VMwareHAcantakeadvantageofDRStoprovidefordynamicandintelligentresourceallocationandoptimizationof
virtualmachinesafterfailover.Afterahosthasfailedandvirtualmachineshavebeenrestartedonotherhosts,DRScan
providefurthermigrationrecommendationsormigratevirtualmachinesformoreoptimumhostplacementandbalanced
resourceallocation.
VMwareHAsupportseasytouseconfigurationandmonitoringusingVirtualCenter.HAensuresthatcapacityisalways
available(withinthelimitsofspecifiedfailovercapacity)inordertorestartallvirtualmachinesaffectedbyserverfailure
(basedonresourcereservationsconfiguredforthevirtualmachines.)
HAcontinuouslymonitorscapacityutilizationandreservessparecapacitytobeabletorestartvirtualmachines.Virtual
Machinescanfullyutilizesparefailovercapacitywhentherehasntbeenafailure.
3.WhatisDRS?
AlignResourcestoMeetBusinessNeeds
VMwareDRScontinuouslymonitorsutilizationacrossresourcepoolsandintelligentlyalignsresourceswithbusinessneeds,
enablingusto:
DynamicallyallocateITresourcestothehighestpriorityapplications.Createrulesandpoliciestoprioritizehowresources
areallocatedtovirtualmachines.
GiveITautonomytobusinessorganizations.ProvidededicatedITinfrastructuretobusinessunitswhilestillachievinghigher
hardwareutilizationthroughresourcepooling.
EmpowerbusinessunitstobuildandmanagevirtualmachineswithintheirresourcepoolwhilegivingcentralITcontrolover
hardwareresources.
BalanceYourComputingCapacity
VMwareDRScontinuouslybalancescomputingcapacityinresourcepoolstodelivertheperformance,scalabilityand
availabilitynotpossiblewithphysicalinfrastructure.VMwareDRSallowsusto:
Improveservicelevelsforallapplications.VMwareDRScontinuouslybalancecapacitywillensurethateachvirtual
machinehasaccesstoappropriateresourcesatanypointintime.
Easilydeploynewcapacity.VMwareDRSwillseamlesslytakeadvantageoftheadditionalcapacityofnewserversadded
toaresourcepoolbyredistributingvirtualmachineswithoutsystemdisruption.
Automateplannedservermaintenance.VMwareDRScanautomaticallymigrateallvirtualmachinesoffphysicalserversto
enablescheduledservermaintenancewithzerodowntime.
Dramaticallyincreasesystemadministratorproductivity.Enablesystemadministratorstomonitorandeffectivelymanage
moreITinfrastructure.
ReduceEnergyConsumptionintheDatacenter
VMwareDistributedPowerManagement(DPM)continuouslyoptimizespowerconsumptioninthedatacenter.Whenvirtual
machinesinaDRSclusterneedfewerresources,suchasduringnightsandweekends,DPMconsolidatesworkloadsonto
fewerserversandpowersofftheresttoreducepowerconsumption.Whenvirtualmachineresourcerequirementsincrease
(suchaswhenuserslogintoapplicationsinthemorning),DPMbringspowereddownhostsbackonlinetoensureservice
levelsaremet.
VMwareDistributedPowerManagementallowsITorganizationsto:
Cutongoingpowerandcoolingcostsbyupto20%inthedatacenterduringlowutilizationtimeperiods.
Automatemanagementofenergyefficiencyinthedatacenter
VMwareDRS(withDPM)isincludedintheVMwarevSphereEnterpriseandEnterprisePlusedition.DRSandDPM
leverageVMwarevMotion(livemigration)tobalanceloadandoptimizepowerconsumptionwithnodowntime.
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Features
ThefollowingisalistofthekeyfeaturesofVMwareDRS.
Aggregationofphysicalserverresources.ManageCPUandmemoryacrossagroupofphysicalserversasauniform
sharedpoolofresources.
Flexiblehierarchicalorganization.OrganizeresourcepoolshierarchicallytomatchavailableITresourcestothebusiness
organization.VMwareDRSensuresthatresourceutilizationismaximizedwhilebusinessunitsretaincontrolandautonomyof
theirinfrastructure.Resourcepoolscanbeflexiblyadded,removed,orreorganizedasbusinessneedsororganization
change.
PrioritySettings.Assignprioritiesintheformofsharesorreservationstovirtualmachineswithinresourcepoolsandtosub
resourcepoolstoreflectbusinesspriorities.Forexample,theproductionsubresourcepoolcanhavehighersharesofthe
totalresourcesinaclusterandbusinesscriticalapplicationswithintheproductionresourcepoolcanhavefixed
guarantees(reservations)ofCPUbandwidthandmemory,
Managementofsetsofvirtualmachinesrunningadistributedapplication.Optimizetheservicelevelofdistributed
applicationsbycontrollingtheaggregateallocationofresourcesfortheentiresetofvirtualmachinesrunningthedistributed
application.
AffinityRules.Createrulesthatgovernplacementofvirtualmachinesonphysicalservers.Forexample,agroupofvirtual
machinescanbesettoalwaysrunonthesameserverforperformancereasons.Alternatively,certainvirtualmachinescanbe
settoalwaysrunondifferentserverstoincreaseavailability.NewinvSphere4.1istheabilitytorestrictplacementofvirtual
machinestoagroupofphysicalserversinacluster.Thisisusefulforcontrollingthemobilityofvirtualmachinesthatrun
softwarelicensedforaspecificgroupofphysicalservers.Inaddition,thisfeaturecanbeusedtokeepsetsofvirtual
machinesondifferentracksorbladesystemsforavailabilityreasons.
PowerManagement.ReduceenergyconsumptioninthedatacenterbyusingtheDistributedPowerManagement(DPM)
featureofDRStoconsolidateworkloadsandpoweroffserverswhentheyarenotneededbythevirtualmachinesinthe
cluster.Whenresourcerequirementsofvirtualmachinesincrease,DPMbringshostsbackonlinesoservicelevelscanbe
met.
ManualandAutomaticMode.VMwareDRScollectsresourceusageinformationfromserversandvirtualmachines,and
thengeneratesrecommendationstooptimizevirtualmachineallocation.Theserecommendationscanbeexecuted
automaticallyormanually.
oInitialplacement.Whenavirtualmachineisfirstpoweredon,VMwareDRSeitherautomaticallyplacesthevirtualmachine
onthemostappropriatephysicalserverormakesarecommendation.
oContinuousoptimization.VMwareDRScontinuouslyoptimizesresourceallocationsbasedondefinedresourceallocation
rulesandresourceutilization.Theresourceallocationchangescanbeautomaticallyexecutedbyperforminglivemigrationof
virtualmachinesthroughvMotion.Alternatively,inmanualmode,VMwareDRSprovidesexecutionrecommendationsfor
systemadministrators.
Maintenancemodeforservers.Performmaintenanceonphysicalserverswithoutdisruptiontovirtualmachinesandend
users.Whenaphysicalserverisplacedinmaintenancemode,VMwareDRSidentifiesalternativeserverswherethevirtual
machinescanrun.Basedonautomationmodesettings,thevirtualmachinesareeitherautomaticallymovedtousethe
alternativeservers,orthesystemadministratorperformsthemovemanuallyusingtheVMwareDRSrecommendationsasa
guideline.
Largescalemanagement.ManageCPUandmemoryacrossupto32serversand1280virtualmachinesperDRScluster.
4.WhatisvMotion?
ExperienceGamechangingVirtualMachineMobility
VMwarevMotiontechnology,leveragesthecompletevirtualizationofservers,storageandnetworkingtomoveanentire
runningvirtualmachineinstantaneouslyfromoneservertoanother.VMwarevMotionusesVMwaresclusterfilesystemto
controlaccesstoavirtualmachinesstorage.DuringavMotion,theactivememoryandpreciseexecutionstateofavirtual
machineisrapidlytransmittedoverahighspeednetworkfromonephysicalservertoanotherandaccesstothevirtual
machinesdiskstorageisinstantlyswitchedtothenewphysicalhost.SincethenetworkisalsovirtualizedbytheVMware
host,thevirtualmachineretainsitsnetworkidentityandconnections,ensuringaseamlessmigrationprocess.
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VMwarevMotionallowsyouto:
Performlivemigrationswithzerodowntime,undetectabletotheuser.
Continuouslyandautomaticallyoptimizevirtualmachineswithinresourcepools.
Performhardwaremaintenancewithoutschedulingdowntimeanddisruptingbusinessoperations.
Proactivelymovevirtualmachinesawayfromfailingorunderperformingservers.
ReliablyManageLiveMigrationswithEase
Benefitfromthereliabilityandmanageabilityderivedfromaproductionprovenproductusedbythousandsofcustomersfor
years.Livemigrationofvirtualmachinesacrossyourinfrastructureissurprisinglysimplewithfunctionalitythatletsyou:
PerformmultipleconcurrentmigrationstocontinuouslyoptimizeavirtualITenvironment.
Identifytheoptimalplacementforavirtualmachineinsecondswithamigrationwizardprovidingrealtimeavailability
information.
MigrateanyvirtualmachinerunninganyoperatingsystemacrossanytypeofhardwareandstoragesupportedbyvSphere,
includingFibreChannelSAN,NASandiSCSISAN.
Prioritizelivemigrationstoensurethatmissioncriticalvirtualmachinesmaintainaccesstotheresourcestheyneed.
Schedulemigrationstohappenatpredefinedtimes,andwithoutanadministratorspresence.
Maintainanaudittrailwithadetailedrecordofmigrations.
HowDoesVMwareVMotionWork?
LivemigrationofavirtualmachinefromonephysicalservertoanotherwithVMwareVMotionisenabledbythree
underlyingtechnologies.
First,theentirestateofavirtualmachineisencapsulatedbyasetoffilesstoredonsharedstoragesuchasFibreChannelor
iSCSIStorageAreaNetwork(SAN)orNetworkAttachedStorage(NAS).VMwarevStorageVMFSallowsmultiple
installationsofVMwareESXtoaccessthesamevirtualmachinefilesconcurrently.
Second,theactivememoryandpreciseexecutionstateofthevirtualmachineisrapidlytransferredoverahighspeed
network,allowingthevirtualmachinetoinstantaneouslyswitchfromrunningonthesourceESXhosttothedestinationESX
host.VMotionkeepsthetransferperiodimperceptibletousersbykeepingtrackofongoingmemorytransactionsina
bitmap.
OncetheentirememoryandsystemstatehasbeencopiedovertothetargetESXhost,VMotionsuspendsthesourcevirtual
machine,copiesthebitmaptothetargetESXhost,andresumesthevirtualmachineonthetargetESXhost.Thisentire
processtakeslessthantwosecondsonaGigabitEthernetnetwork.
Third,thenetworksbeingusedbythevirtualmachinearealsovirtualizedbytheunderlyingESXhost,ensuringthatevenafter
themigration,thevirtualmachinenetworkidentityandnetworkconnectionsarepreserved.VMotionmanagesthevirtual
MACaddressaspartoftheprocess.Oncethedestinationmachineisactivated,VMotionpingsthenetworkroutertoensure
thatitisawareofthenewphysicallocationofthevirtualMACaddress.
SincethemigrationofavirtualmachinewithVMotionpreservesthepreciseexecutionstate,thenetworkidentity,andthe
activenetworkconnections,theresultiszerodowntimeandnodisruptiontousers.
KeyFeaturesofvMotion.
Reliability.
Provenbythousandsofcustomersinproductionenvironmentssince2004,VMotioncontinuestosetthestandardforthe
mostdependablelivemigrationcapabilities.
Performance.
Performlivemigrationswithdowntimeunnoticeabletotheendusers.OptimaluseofCPUandnetworkresourcesensures
thatthelivemigrationsoccurquicklyandefficiently.
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Interoperability.
MigratevirtualmachinesrunninganyoperatingsystemacrossanytypeofhardwareandstoragesupportedbyVMware
ESX.
SupportforFibreChannelSAN.
Implementlivemigrationofvirtualmachinesutilizingawiderangeofupto4GBFibreChannelSANstoragesystems.
NASandiSCSISANsupport.Implementlivemigrationofvirtualmachineswithlowercost,
moreeasilymanagedsharedstorage.
CustomizableCPUcompatibilitysettings.Ensurethatvirtualmachinescanbemigratedacrossdifferent
versionsofhardware.EnablevirtualmachinestobenefitfromthelatestCPUinnovations.
NewEnhancedVMotionCompatibility.Livemigratevirtualmachinesacrossdifferentgenerationsof
hardware.Migratevirtualmachinesfromolderserverstonewoneswithoutdisruptionordowntime.
Manageability
Migrationwizard.
Quicklyidentifythebestdestinationforavirtualmachineusingrealtimeinformationprovidedbymigrationwizard.
Multipleconcurrentmigrations.
Performmultipleconcurrentmigrationstocontinuouslyoptimizevirtualmachineplacementacrosstheentire
ITenvironment.
Prioritylevels.
Assignaprioritytoeachlivemigrationoperationtoensurethatthemostimportantvirtualmachinesalwayshaveaccesstothe
resourcestheyneed.
Scheduledmigrationtasks.
Automatemigrationstohappenatpredefinedtimes,andwithoutanadministratorspresence.
Migrationaudittrail.
Maintainadetailedrecordofmigrationoperations,includingdate/timeandtheadministratorsresponsibleforinitiatingthem.
5.WhatisVMwareStorageVMotion?
VMwareStorageVMotionisacomponentofVMwarevSpherethatprovidesanintuitiveinterfaceforlivemigrationof
virtualmachinediskfileswithinandacrossstoragearrayswithnodowntimeordisruptioninservice.StorageVMotion
relocatesvirtualmachinediskfilesfromonesharedstoragelocationtoanothersharedstoragelocationwithzerodowntime,
continuousserviceavailabilityandcompletetransactionintegrity.StorageVMotionenablesorganizationstoperform
proactivestoragemigrations,simplifyarraymigrations,improvevirtualmachine
storageperformanceandfreeupvaluablestoragecapacity.StorageVMotionisfullyintegratedwithVMwarevCenter
Servertoprovideeasymigrationandmonitoring.
HowisVMwareStorageVMotionUsedintheEnterprise?
CustomersuseVMwareStorageVMotionto:
Simplifyarraymigrationsandstorageupgrades.
Thetraditionalprocessofmovingdatatonewstorageiscumbersome,timeconsuminganddisruptive.WithStorage
VMotion,ITorganizationscanacceleratemigrationswhileminimizingoreliminatingassociatedservicedisruptions,makingit
easier,fasterandmorecosteffectivetoembracenewstorageplatformsandfileformats,takeadvantageofflexibleleasing
models,retireolder,hardtomanagestoragearraysandtoconductstorageupgradesandmigrationsbasedonusageand
prioritypolicies.StorageVMotionworkswithanyoperatingsystemandstoragehardwareplatformsupportedbyVMware
ESX,enablingcustomerstouseaheterogeneousmix
ofdatastoresandfileformats.
DynamicallyoptimizestorageI/Operformance.
OptimizingstorageI/Operformanceoftenrequiresreconfigurationandreallocationofstorage,whichcanbea
highlydisruptiveprocessforbothadministratorsandusersandoftenrequiresschedulingdowntime.WithStorage
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VMotion,ITadministratorscanmovevirtualmachinediskfilestoalternativeLUNsthatareproperlyconfiguredto
deliveroptimalperformancewithouttheneedforscheduleddowntime,eliminatingthetimeandcostassociatedwith
traditionalmethods.
Efficientlymanagestoragecapacity.
Increasingordecreasingstorageallocationrequiresmultiplemanualsteps,includingcoordinationbetweengroups,scheduling
downtimeandaddingadditionalstorage.Thisisthenfollowedbyalengthymigrationofvirtualmachinediskfilestothenew
datastore,resultinginsignificantservicedowntime.StorageVMotionimprovesthisprocessbyenablingadministratorsto
takeadvantageofnewlyallocatedstorageinanondisruptivemanner.StorageVMotioncanalsobeusedasastoragetiering
toolbymovingdatatodifferenttypesofstorageplatformsbasedthedatavalue,performancerequirementsandstorage
costs.
HowDoesVMwareStorageVMotionWork?
VMwareStorageVMotionallowsvirtualmachinestoragediskstoberelocatedtodifferentdatastorelocationswithno
downtime,whilebeingcompletelytransparenttothevirtualmachineortheenduser.
Beforemovingavirtualmachinesdiskfile,StorageVMotionmovesthehomedirectoryofthevirtualmachinetothenew
location.Thehomedirectorycontainsmetadataaboutthevirtualmachine(configuration,swapandlogfiles).Afterrelocating
thehomedirectory,StorageVMotioncopiesthecontentsoftheentirevirtualmachinestoragediskfiletothedestination
storagehost,leveragingchangedblocktrackingtomaintaindataintegrityduringthemigrationprocess.Next,thesoftware
queriesthechangedblocktrackingmoduletodeterminewhatregionsofthediskwerewrittentoduringthefirstiteration,and
thenperformsaseconditerationofcopy,wherethoseregionsthatwerechangedduringthefirstiterationcopy(therecanbe
severalmoreiterations).
Oncetheprocessiscomplete,thevirtualmachineisquicklysuspendedandresumedsothatitcanbeginusingthevirtual
machinehomedirectoryanddiskfileonthedestinationdatastorelocation.BeforeVMwareESXallowsthevirtualmachine
tostartrunningagain,thefinalchangedregionsofthesourcediskarecopiedovertothedestinationandthesourcehomeand
disksareremoved.
Thisapproachguaranteescompletetransactionalintegrityandisfastenoughtobeunnoticeabletotheenduser.
KeyFeaturesofVMwareStorageVMotion
Completetransactionintegrity.
Nointerruptionordowntimeforusersandapplicationsduringvirtualmachinestoragediskmigrations.
Interoperability.
StorageVMotioncanmigratestoragediskfilesforvirtualmachinesrunninganyoperatingsystemacrossanytypeof
hardwareandstoragesupportedbyVMwareESX.
1)Howwemanagethelicenses,i.e.timelyupdatinglicenses,brieflyexplain?

2)IfwefoundHAissue,whatarestepsweshouldfollowtoresolvetheissues?
TotroubleshootHAerrors:
Note:MostofthesetroubleshootingstepsaredoneontheESXconsole.
1.Runthiscommandtoverifythathostnameisinlowercaseandisfullyqualified:
hostname
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2.Runthiscommandtoverifythathostnameisshortnameonlyandisinlowercase:
hostnames
3.RunthiscommandtoverifythatthecorrectserviceconsoleIPisdisplayed:
hostnamei
4.Verifythatthehostnamein/etc/hostsislowercaseandbothFQDNandshortnamearepresent.
5.Verifythatthesearchdomainispresentinthe/etc/resolv.conffileandisinlowercase.
6.Verifythatthehostnamein/etc/sysconfig/networkisFQDNandisinlowercase.
7.Verifythatthehostnameinthe/etc/vmware/esx.conffileisFQDNandisinlowercase.
8.Verifythatthesystemnamereturnedbytheunameacommandisinlowercase.
9.VerifythatthehostnameisinyourDNSserverandisinlowercase.Todothis,runthesecommands:
a.nslookup
Whereisthenameofthehost.
ThiscommandshouldreturntheserviceconsoleIP.
b.nslookup
WhereistheFQDNnameofthehost.
ThiscommandshouldreturntheserviceconsoleIP.
c.nslookup
WhereistheIPaddressofthehost.
ThiscommandshouldreturntheFQDNofthehost
10.Makesuretheroutefortheserviceconsoleiscorrect.Todothis,fromeachhost,pingtheotherhostsinthe
environment.
11.Verifythatallprimaryserviceconsoleshavethesamename.
12.VerifythatallprimaryserviceconsolesareinthesameIPsubnet.
13.IfthevmkernelportgroupofvMotionisonsamevSwitchasprimaryServiceConsoleportgroup,add
das.allowVmotionNetworks=1totheadvancedsettingsof
HA.
14.Ifthehosthasmultipleserviceconsoles,adddas.allowNetwork0totheAdvancedHASettingsoftheclustertoensure
thatonlytheprimaryservice
consoleisallowed.Formoreinformation,seeIncompatibleHANetworksappearingwhenattemptingtoconfigureHA(High
Availability)(1006541).
15.VerifythatyouhavetheappropriatelicensesavailableforHA.Todothis,inLMTools,performastatusenquiryand
verifythatyouhaveVC_DASlicenses
available.
IfyouareunabletoconfigureHAafterverifyingthesetroubleshootingsteps:
1.RunthiscommandontheESXhosttostopvpxa:
servicevmwarevpxastop
ThehostappearsasnotrespondinginthevCenterServerafterawhile.

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2.Runthesecommandstouninstallaam:
1.rpmqa|grepaam
2.rpme(packagenamesoutputfromcommandabove)
3.rpme(otherpackagenamesoutputfromcommandabove)
4.find/nameaam
Note:Ensuretodeletethedirectorieslistedbythiscommand.
3.DisconnecttheESXhostfromthevCenterServer.
4.ReconnectthehosttothevCenterServer.ThisforcestheVPXApackageandthetheHApackagestoredeploy.
5.ReconfigureallthehostsforHA.
6.UpgradetoESX3.5U4orlaterandvCenterServer2.5U4orlater.
7.Afterupgrading,adddas.bypassNetCompatCheck=truetotheAdvancedHASettingsofthecluster,ifitcontinuestohave
issues.
Ifyourissuecontinuestoexistafterperformingthesesteps,contactyournetworkorstorageadministrator.

3)RedundancybetweenNICsinanESXserver&howmanyminimumNICsrequiredforesx

4)MinimumrequirementsforVMotionconfigure?

5)Howlicensescalculated/purchasedforVMwareenvironment?

6)WhatarethepartitionsofanESXserver?
ServiceConsolePartitionsandSizesforEachESXServerHost
MountPointPartitionSizeDescription
/dev/sda(Primary)
/bootext3250MBChangeforadditionalspaceforupgrades
N/Aswap1600MBChangeformaximumserviceconsoleswapsize
/ext35120MBChangeforadditionalspaceinroot
/dev/sda(Extended)
/varext34096MBCreatepartitiontoavoidoverfillingrootwithlogfiles
/tmpext31024MBCreatepartitiontoavoidoverfillingrootwithtemporaryfiles
/optext32048MBCreatepartitiontoavoidoverfillingrootwithVMwareHAlogfiles
/homeext31024MBCreatepartitiontoavoidoverfillingrootwithagent/userfiles
vmkcore100MBPreconfigured
FreeSpace(Optional)AutoconfiguredandusedforlocalVMFS3volume(neededforvirtualmachinesrunning
MicrosoftsClusteringSoftware.
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7)WhetherweneedlicensesforHA,DRSfeature?
Yes,

8)Whatshouldbethemainreasonforpurplescreenerrors?
PurpleScreenofDeath
APurpleScreenofDeathasseeninVMwareESXServer3.0Intheeventofahardwareerror,thevmkernelcancatcha
MachineCheckException.Thisresults
inanerrormessagedisplayedonapurpleconsolescreen.ThisiscolloquiallyknownasaPSOD,orPurpleScreenofDeath.
UpondisplayingaPSOD,thevmkernelwritesdebuginformationtothecoredumppartition.Thisinformation,togetherwith
theerrorcodesdisplayedonthe
PSODcanbeusedbyVMwaresupporttodeterminethecauseoftheproblem.

9)Howtoconfigurevirtualswitches&whatisportgroup&whatisVLAN?

10)WhetherHAuseVMotionornot?
No,itrequiresDRS.

11)WhetherDRSuseVMotionornot?
yes

12)Whatareprocesses&portnumbersforvirtualcenter,HArunninginESX?
Portsanddescriptions:
80RequiredfordirectHTTPconnections.Port80redirectsrequeststoHTTPSport443.
443ListensforconnectionsfromthevSphereClient,vSphereWebAccessClient,andotherSDKclients.Openport443
inthefirewalltoenablethevCenter
ServersystemtoreceivedatafromthevSphereClient.
389ThisportisusedforLightweightDirectoryAccessProtocol(LDAP)services.WhosaysLDAP,saysActive
DirectoryServicesforthevCenterServer
group.
636SSLportofthelocalinstanceforvCenterLinkedMode.ItstheportofthelocalvCenterServerADAMInstance.
902Usedtosenddatatomanagedhosts.TosenddatatoyourESXorESXihosts.Alsothisportisusedforremote
consoleaccesstovirtualmachinesfrom
vSphereClient.Thisportmustnotbeblockedbyfirewallsbetweentheserverandthehostsorbetweenhosts.
902/903UsedbythevSphereClienttodisplayvirtualmachineconsoles.
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8080vCenterManagementWebservicesHTTP.
8443SecureconnectionsforvCenterManagementWebservicesHTTPS.
60099UsedtostreaminventoryobjectchangestoSDKclients.FirewallrulesforthisportonthevCenterServercanbe
settoblockall,exceptfromand
tolocalhostsiftheclientsareinstalledonthesamehostasthevCenterServerservice.
VariousservicesareinstalledwhenyoudeployvCenter,intotal5servicesareinstalled
1.VMwareVirtualCenterServer:HeartofvCenter
2.VMwaremountserviceforVirtualCenter:usedduringcloningoperationorwhiledeployingfromtemplate
3.VMwareVirtualCentermanagementwebservices:Webmanagementservicesrunonit.
4.VMwareVCMSDS:ADAMservicesforlinkedmode
5.VMwarevCenterorchestratorconfiguration:useforvCenterorchestrator

13)InESX2.5.2howwetakebackupsofvmfiles?

14)ExplainthepurposeofRedologfiles?

15)VMisnotabletopoweroff,howtotroubleshootdissues?
Poweringoffthevirtualmachine
Todetermineifyoumustusethecommandline,attempttopoweroffthevirtualmachine:
1.ConnectVMwareInfrastructure(VI)ClienttotheVirtualCenterServer.Rightclickonthevirtualmachineandclick
Poweroff.
2.ConnectVIClientdirectlytotheESXhost.RightclickonthevirtualmachineandclickPoweroff.
Ifthisdoesnotwork,youmustusethecommandlinemethod.
Determiningthevirtualmachinesstate
1.Determinethehostonwhichthevirtualmachineisrunning.ThisinformationisavailableinthevirtualmachinesSummary
tabwhenviewedintheVIClient
page.
2.LoginasroottotheESXhostusinganSSHclient.
3.Runthefollowingcommandtoverifythatthevirtualmachineisrunningonthishost:
#vmwarecmdl
TheoutputofthiscommandreturnsthefullpathtoeachvirtualmachinerunningontheESXhost.Verifythatthevirtual
machineislisted,andrecordthe
fullpathforuseinthisprocess.Forexample:
#/vmfs/volumes///.vmx
4.RunthefollowingcommandtodeterminethestateinwhichtheESXhostbelievesthevirtualmachinetobeoperating:
#vmwarecmdgetstate
Iftheoutputfromthiscommandisgetstate()=on,theVirtualCenterServermaynotbecommunicatingwiththehost
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properly.Thisissuemustbeaddressedin
ordertocompletetheshutdownprocess.
Iftheoutputfromthiscommandisgetstate()=off,theESXhostmaybeunawareitisstillrunningthevirtualmachine.This
articleprovidesadditional
assistanceinaddressingthisissue.
Poweringoffthevirtualmachinewhilecollectingdiagnosticinformationusingthevmsupportscript
Usethefollowingprocedurewhenyouwanttoinvestigatethecauseoftheissue.Thiscommandattemptstopoweroffthe
virtualmachinewhilecollecting
diagnosticinformation.Performthesestepsinorder,astheyarelistedinorderofpotentialimpacttothesystemifperformed
incorrectly.
Performthesestepsfirst:
1.DeterminetheWorldIDwiththecommand:
#vmsupportx
2.Killthevirtualmachinebyusingthefollowingcommandinthehomedirectoryofthevirtualmachine:
#vmsupportX
Thiscantakeupwardsof30minutestoterminatethevirtualmachine.
Note:Thiscommandusesseveraldifferentmethodstostopthevirtualmachine.Whenattemptingeachmethod,the
commandwaitsforapredeterminedamountof
time.Thetimeoutvaluecanbeconfiguredtobe0byaddingd0toswitchtothevmsupportcommand.
Iftheprecedingstepsfail,performthefollowingstepsforanESX3.xhost:
1.ListallrunningvirtualmachinestofindtheVMIDoftheaffectedvirtualmachinewiththecommand:
#cat/proc/vmware/vm/*/names
2.DeterminethemasterworldIDwiththecommand:
#lessS/proc/vmware/vm/####/cpu/status
3.Scrolltotherightwiththearrowkeysuntilyouseethegroupfield.Itappearssimilarto:
Group
vm.####
4.RunthefollowingcommandtoshutthevirtualmachinedownwiththegroupID:
#/usr/lib/vmware/bin/vmkload_appk9####
Iftheprecedingstepsfail,performthefollowingstepsforanESX4.xhost:
1.ListallrunningvirtualmachinestofindthevmxCartelIDoftheaffectedvirtualmachinewiththecommand:
#/usr/lib/vmware/bin/vmdumperl
2.Scrollthroughthelistuntilyouseeyourvirtualmachinesname.Theoutputappearssimilarto:
vmid=5151pid=1cfgFile=/vmfs/volumes/4a16a48ad807aa7ee674001e4ffc52e9/mdineeen_test/vm_test.vmx
uuid=564da6db0ae2e53ea92b314b69
291519displayName=vm_testvmxCartelID=####
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3.RunthefollowingcommandtoshutthevirtualmachinedownwiththevmxCartelID:
#/usr/lib/vmware/bin/vmkload_appk9####
Poweringoffthevirtualmachineusingthevmwarecmdcommand
ThisprocedureusestheESXcommandlinetool,andattemptstogracefullypoweroffthevirtualmachine.Itworksifthe
virtualmachinesprocessisrunning
properlyandisaccessible.Ifunsuccessful,thevirtualmachinesprocessmaynotberunningproperlyandmayrequirefurther
troubleshooting.
1.FromtheServiceConsoleoftheESXhost,runthefollowingcommand:
vmwarecmdstop
Note:isthecompletepathtotheconfigurationfile,asdeterminedintheprevioussection.Toverifythatitisstopped,runthe
command:
#vmwarecmdgetstate
2.FromtheServiceConsoleoftheESXhost,runthecommand:
#vmwarecmdstophard
Note:isthecompletepathtotheconfigurationfile,asdeterminedintheprevioussection.Toverifythatitisstopped,runthe
command:
#vmwarecmdgetstate
3.Ifthevirtualmachineisstillinaccessible,proceedtothenextsection.
UsingtheESXcommandlinetokillthevirtualmachine
Ifthevirtualmachinedoesnotpoweroffusingthestepsinthisarticle,ithaslikelylostcontrolofitsprocess.Youneedto
manuallykilltheprocess
atthecommandline.
Caution:ThisprocedureispotentiallyhazardoustotheESXhost.Ifyoudonotidentifytheappropriateprocessid(PID),
andkillthewrongprocess,itmay
haveunanticipatedresults.Ifyouarenotcomfortablewiththefollowingprocedure,contactVMwareTechnicalSupportand
openaServiceRequest.Please
refertothisarticlewhenyoucreatetheSR.
1.TodetermineifthevirtualmachineprocessisrunningontheESXhost,runthecommand:
#psauxwww|grepi.vmx
Theoutputofthiscommandappearssimilartothefollowingifthe.vmxprocessisrunning:
root30930.00.32016860?S<Jul300:17/usr/lib/vmware/bin/vmkload_app/usr/lib/vmware/bin/vmwarevmx
ssched.group=host/user#name=VMwareESX
Serverversion=3.5.0licensename=VMwareESXServerlicenseversion=2.0build158874@pipe=/tmp/vmhsdaemon
0/vmx569228e44baf49d1/vmfs/volumes/49392e30
162037d017c6001f29e9abec//.vmx
TheprocessID(PID)forthisprocessisinbold.Inthisexample,thePIDis3093.Takenoteofthisnumberforuseinthe
followingsteps.
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Caution:Ensurethatyouidentifythelinespecificonlytothevirtualmachineyouareattemptingtorepair.Ifyoucontinuethis
processforanother
virtualmachinetheoneinquestion,youcancausedowntimefortheothervirtualmachine.
Ifthe.vmxprocessislisted,itispossiblethatthevirtualmachinehaslostcontroloftheprocessandthatitmustbestopped
manually.
2.Tokilltheprocess,runthecommand:
#kill
3.Wait30secondsandcheckfortheprocessagain.
4.Ifitisnotterminated,runthecommand:
#kill9
5.Wait30secondsandcheckfortheprocessagain.
6.Ifitisnotterminated,theESXhostmayneedtoberebootedtocleartheprocess.Thisisalastresortoption,andshould
onlybeattemptedifthe
precedingstepsinthisarticleareunsuccessful.

16)Whyweusetwodifferentportsforlicenses,andwhatrthoseportNo.?
27000LicensetransactionsfromESXServer3itothelicenseserver(lmgrd.exe).|OutgoingTCP|
27010LicensetransactionsfromESXServer3itothelicenseserver(vmwarelm.exe).|OutgoingTCP|

17)VCserverisnotcomingup,howtotroubleshoot?

18)DifferencebetweenESX3.5&4.0?

19)BrieflydescribeaboutupdateManager,isitpossibletoupdatethepoweredoffvmsbyupdatemanager?

20)ExplainVMwareSnapshot&whatisdcommandtotakeasnapshot?

21)Supposewehave3portgroupsconfiguredinasingleVswitch(connectedtosinglephysicalNICoftheesxhost)with3
differentVLANssohowdVMsfrom
oneVLANwillcommunicatetoanotherVMofdifferentVLAN?

22)WhatisdcommandtolistalltherunningVMs&registeredVMs?
RunthevmsupportxcommandtoshowwhichvirtualmachinesarecurrentlyrunningontheESXhost.
Runthevmwarecmdlcommandtodisplaythenamesofthevirtualmachinesregisteredonthishost.

23)WhatisdcommandtolistdHBAs?
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esxcfgscsidevsa(a|hbasPrintHBAdeviceswithidentifyinginformation)
esxcfgscsidevsA(A|hbadevicelistPrintamappingbetweenHBAsandthedevicesitprovidespathsto.)

24)WhatrdP2Vconversionprocesses/toolsavailable,howwecanperformdP2VofaLinuxserverwithdhelpofCLI
commands(incasenospecifictools
available)?
ConvertingapoweredonWindowsoperatingsystem(P2V)
SourceDestinationTCPPortsUDPPortsNotes
ConverterservertoSourcecomputer445,139,9089,9090137,138IfthesourcecomputerusesNetBIOS,port445is
notrequired.IfNetBIOSisnotbeing
used,ports137,138,and139arenotrequired.Ifindoubt,makesurethatnoneoftheportsareblocked.
Note:UnlessyouhaveinstalledConverterservertothesourcecomputer,theaccountusedforauthenticationtothesource
computermusthaveapassword,the
sourcecomputermusthavenetworkfilesharingenabled,anditcannotbeusingSimpleFileSharing.
ConverterservertoVirtualCenter443OnlyrequirediftheconversiontargetisVirtualCenter.
ConverterclienttoConverterserver443OnlyrequiredifacustominstallationwasperformedandtheConverterserverand
clientportionsareondifferent
computers.
SourcecomputertoESX443,902IftheconversiontargetisVirtualCenterthenonlyport902isrequired.
ConvertingapoweredonLinuxoperatingsystem(P2V)
SourceDestinationTCPPortsNotes
ConverterservertoSourcecomputer22TheConverterservermustbeabletoestablishanSSHconnectionwiththesource
computer.
ConverterclienttoConverterserver443OnlyrequiredifacustominstallationwasperformedandtheConverterserverand
clientportionsareondifferent
computers.
ConverterservertoVirtualCenter443OnlyrequirediftheconversiontargetisVirtualCenter.
ConverterservertoESX443,902,903IftheconversiontargetisVirtualCenter,onlyports902and903arerequired.
ConverterservertoHelpervirtualmachine443
HelpervirtualmachineSourcecomputer22ThehelpervirtualmachinemustbeabletoestablishanSSHconnectionwiththe
sourcecomputer.Bydefaultthe
helpervirtualmachinegetsitsIPaddressassignedbyDHCP.IfthereisnoDHCPserveravailableonthenetworkchosen
forthetargetvirtualmachineyou
mustmanuallyassignitanIPaddress.
Convertinganexistingvirtualmachine(V2V)
SourceDestinationTCPPortsUDPPortsNotes
ConverterservertoFilesharepath445,139137,138Thisisonlyrequiredforstandalonevirtualmachinesourcesor
destinations.
IfthecomputerhostingthesourceordestinationpathusesNetBIOS,port445isnotrequired.IfNetBIOSisnotbeing
used,ports137,138,and139arenot
required.Ifindoubt,makesurethatnoneoftheportsareblocked.
ConverterclienttoConverterserver443OnlyrequiredifacustominstallationwasperformedandtheConverterserverand
clientportionsareondifferent
computers.
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ConverterservertoVirtualCenter443OnlyrequiredifthetargetisVirtualCenter.
ConverterservertoESX443,902IftheconversiontargetisVirtualCenter,onlyport902isrequired.

25)WhatisdcommandtocheckdstatusofaVM?
vmwarecmdgetstate
RetrievethelistofVMsininventorywiththefollowingcommand:
vmwarevimcmdvmsvc/getallvms
[root@ESXSRV94/]#vmwarevimcmdvmsvc/getallvms
VmidNameFileGuestOSVersionAnnotation
160VMVXP1[SANSTORE2]VMVXP1/VMVXP1.vmxwinXPProGuestvmx07
240Ubuntu[ESXStorage942]Ubuntu/Ubuntu.vmxubuntuGuestvmx07
ThenqueryeachVMwiththeirVMID:
vmwarevimcmdvmsvc/power.getstate
Forexample:
vmwarevimcmdvmsvc/power.getstate160
[root@ESXSRV94/]#vmwarevimcmdvmsvc/power.getstate160
Retrievedruntimeinfo
Poweredon

26)WhatisdcommandtorescantheHBAs?
esxcfgrescan

27)HowtofindtheworldIDofaparticularVMandwhatisdVMwareproprietarycommandtokillthesame?
vmsupportx
esxclivmsvmlist
ListallrunningvirtualmachinesonthesystemtoseetheWorldIDofthevirtualmachineyouwantto
stop.
esxclivmsvmlist
2Stopthevirtualmachinebyrunningthefollowingcommand.
esxclivmsvmkilltypeworldid
Thecommandsupportsthreetypeoptions.Trythetypessequentially(softbeforehard,hardbefore
force).Thefollowingtypesaresupportedthroughthetypeoption:
.softGivestheVMXprocessachancetoshutdowncleanly(likekillorkillSIGTERM)
.hardStopstheVMXprocessimmediately(likekill9orkillSIGKILL)
.forceStopstheVMXprocesswhenotheroptionsdonotwork.
Ifallthreeoptionsdonotwork,rebootyourESX/ESXihosttoresolvetheissue.

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28)whatisdcommandtoaddarouteinesxtocommunicatetodifferentnetworksegment?
Configuretherouteusingthecommand:
#routeaddnet142.121.56.0netmask255.255.254.0gw224.58.175.1Addthefollowinglineto/etc/rc.localsothatroute
issetonboot:
#/sbin/routeaddnet142.121.56.0netmask255.255.254.0gw224.58.175.1Toensuretherouteholdsonreboot,create
anexecutablefile.
Tocreateanexecutablefile:
1.LogintotheESXhostusingaSSHclient.
2.Changethedirectoryto/etc/init.d.
3.Runthiscommandtocreateafilecalledroutes:
#viroutes
4.Addthiscodetothefile:
##!/bin/bash#case$1instart)echoAddingadditionalroutes
/sbin/routeaddnet172.31.3.0netmask255.255.255.0gw172.31.8.1echo*)echoUsage:$0{start}esac
5.Savethefileandexitthevieditor.
6.Runthiscommandtomakethefileexecutable:
#chmod777routes
7.Changethedirectoryto/etc/rc3.d.
8.Runthiscommandtocreateasymboliclinktothatfile:
#ln/etc/init.d/routes
9.ReboottheESXhostforthechangestotakeeffect.

29)Whatisddefaultsizeoftheswappartition&SCMEMORY?
1600MBSWAP,400MB(MAX800MB)

30)HowtoincreaseSCmemoryaftertheesxbuild?
ESXHost8GBRAM>DefaultallocatedServiceConsoleRAM=300MB
ESXHost16GBRAM>DefaultallocatedServiceConsoleRAM=400MB
ESXHost32GBRAM>DefaultallocatedServiceConsoleRAM=500MB
ESXHost64GBRAM>DefaultallocatedServiceConsoleRAM=602MB
ESXHost96GBRAM>DefaultallocatedServiceConsoleRAM=661MB
ESXHost128GBRAM>DefaultallocatedServiceConsoleRAM=703MB
ESXHost256GBRAM>DefaultallocatedServiceConsoleRAM=800MB

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cp/etc/vmware/esx.conf/etc/vmware/esx.conf.old
cp/boot/grub/grub.conf/boot/grub/grub.conf.old
/bin/sedies/272/800//etc/vmware/esx.conf
/bin/sedies/512/800//etc/vmware/esx.conf
/bin/sedies/272M/800M//boot/grub/grub.conf
/bin/sedies/512M/800M//boot/grub/grub.conf
/bin/sedies/277504/818176//boot/grub/grub.conf
/bin/sedies/523264/818176//boot/grub/grub.conf

31)WhatrdportNo.forVmotion&VMwareconverter?
ESX4.x8000TCPESX/ESXiHost(VMTarget)TOESX/ESXiHost(VMSource)VMotionCommunicationon
VMKernelInterface
ESX4.x8000TCPESX/ESXiHost(VMSource)TOESX/ESXiHost(VMTarget)VMotionCommunicationon
VMKernelInterface
ESXi4.x8000TCPESX/ESXiHost(VMTarget)TOESX/ESXiHost(VMSource)VMotionCommunicationon
VMkernelInterface
ESXi4.x8000TCPESX/ESXiHost(VMSource)TOESX/ESXiHost(VMTarget)VMotionCommunicationon
VMkernelInterface
Converter4.x22TCPHelperVirtualMachineSourceComputertobeconvertedRequiredforconversionofLinuxbased
sourcecomputers(dataflowsfromsource
toVM)
Converter4.x22TCPvCenterConverterServerSourceComputertobeconvertedRequiredforconversionofLinux
basedsourcecomputers
Converter4.x137UDPvCenterConverterServerSourceComputertobeconvertedForhotmigration.Notrequiredifthe
sourcecomputerdoesnotuseNetBIOS
Converter4.x138UDPvCenterConverterServerSourceComputertobeconvertedForhotmigration.Notrequiredifthe
sourcecomputerdoesnotuseNetBIOS
Converter4.x139TCPvCenterConverterServerSourceComputertobeconvertedForhotmigration.Notrequiredifthe
sourcecomputerdoesnotuseNetBIOS
Converter4.x443TCPvCenterConverterClientvCenterConverterServerOnlyrequirediftheConverterClientand
ConverterServerwereinstalledon
differentsystems
Converter4.x443TCPSourceComputertobeconvertedESX/ESXiHostRequiredfordestinationVMaccesswhen
targetisESX/ESXi/vCenter
Converter4.x443TCPSourceComputertobeconvertedvCenterServerRequiredifvCenterServeristheconversion
target
Converter4.x443TCPvCenterConverterServervCenterServerRequiredifvCenterServeristheconversiontarget
Converter4.x443TCPvCenterConverterServerESX/ESXiHostRequiredforsystemconversion
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Converter4.x443TCPvCenterConverterServerHelperVirtualMachineRequiredforconversionofLinuxbasedsource
computers
Converter4.x445TCPvCenterConverterServerSourceComputertobeconvertedRequiredforsystemconversion.Not
requiredifthesourcecomputeruses
NetBIOS
Converter4.x902TCPSourceComputertobeconvertedESX/ESXiHostRequiredfordatatransportduringcloningof
systemtobeconvertedtotargetESX/ESXi
Host
Converter4.x9089,9090TCPvCenterConverterServerSourceComputertobeconvertedRequiredforsystem
conversion.Remoteagentdeployment

32)HowtocreateVmkcorepartitionaftertheesxbuild?
usingpartedwecancreatevmkcorepartitionifthereisfreespaceavailabeelsefirstfreeupabout100MBspaceondiskby
resizingtherootoranyother
partiononthediskandthencreatenewvmkcorepartionwithfcfilesystemandrebootthehost.

33)Whatrdagentswillinstall,afteraddinganesxinVCserver?
VmwarevcenterAgent

34)WhatrdportNo.forVMwaremanagementservice?
8080,8443VMwarevCenter4ManagementWebServicesHTTPandHTTPS

35)WhatisdmaxNoofVMscanrunperhost?
320

36)Whatralldfilesgoingtobcreateafteravmbuild?
.vmx,.vmfx,.vmsd,.vmdk(whenstart3morefilesarecreated.log,vswp,.nvram)

37)WhatrdlocationofVCserverlogfiles?
C:\ProgramData\VMware\VMwareVirtualCenter\Logs

38)WhatrdnecessarylogfilesinESXserver?
esxserverlogs
VMWareESXServerLogs
1)Vmkernel
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a.Location:/var/log/
b.Filename:vmkernel
c.Thislogrecordsinformationrelatedtothevmkernelandvirtualmachines
2)VmkernelWarnings
a.Location:/var/log/
b.Filename:vmkwarning
c.Thislogrecordsinformationregardingvirtualmachinewarnings
3)VmkernelSummary
a.Location:/var/log/
b.Filename:vmksummary
c.ThislogrecordsinformationusedtodetermineuptimeandavailabilitystatisticsforESXServer.Thislogisnoteasily
readablebyhumans,import
intoaspreadsheetordatabaseforuse.
d.Forasummaryofthestatisticsinaneasilyviewedfile,seevmksummary.txt
4)ESXServerBootLog
a.Location:/var/log
b.Filename:boot.log
c.LogfileofallactionsthatoccurredduringtheESXserverboot.
5)ESXServerHostAagentLog
a.Location:/var/log/vmware/
b.Filename:hostd.log
c.ContainsinformationontheagentthatmanagesandconfigurestheESXServerhostanditsvirtualmachines(Searchthe
filedate/timestampstofind
thelogfileitiscurrentlyoutputtingto).
6)ServiceConsole
a.Location:/var/log/
b.Filename:messages
c.ContainallgenerallogmessagesusedtotroubleshootvirtualmachinesonESXServer.
7)WebAccess
a.Location:/var/log/vmware/webAccess
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b.Filename:variousfilesinthislocation
c.VariouslogsonWebaccesstotheESXServer.
8)AuthenticationLog
a.Location:/var/log/
b.Filename:secure
c.Containstherecordsofconnectionsthatrequireauthentication,suchasVMwaredaemonsandactionsinitiatedbythe
xinetddaemon.
9)VirtualCenterHAAgentLog
a.Location:/var/log/vmware/aam/
b.Filename:aam_config_util_*.log
c.Thesefilescontaininformationabouttheinstallation,configuration,andconnectionstootherHAagentsinthecluster.
10)VirtualCenterAgent
a.Location:/var/log/vmware/vpx
b.Filename:vpxa.log
c.ContainsinformationontheagentthatcommunicateswiththeVirtualCenterServer.
11)VirtualMachineLogs
a.Location:Thesamedirectoryasthevirtualmachinesconfigurationfilesareplacedin.
b.FileName:vmware.log
c.Containsinformationwhenavirtualmachinecrashesorendsabnormally.
VirtualCenterInstallationLogs
1)Thefollowinginstalllogsarelocatedinthe%TEMP%directoryoftheuserthatinstalledVirtualCenter
a.vmlic.logi.Containsvarioustestresultsforprovidedlicensefileduringtheinstallation.
b.redist.logi.ContainsMDAC/MCADQFErollupinstallationinformation
c.vmmsde.logi.ContainsMSDEinstallationinformation
d.vmls.logi.TheLicenseserverinstallationlog.
e.vmosql.logi.TheVirtualCenterdatabasecreationlogfile
f.vminst.logi.VirtualCenterinstallationlogfile
g.VCDatabaseUpgrade.logi.ResultsonupgradingtheVCDatabase.
h.vmmsi.logi.TheVIclientinstallationlog.Vpxd0.logisasmalllogfromthestartingtheclientthefirsttime.
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VirtualCenterLogs
1)Location:
a.C:\DocumentsandSettings\AllUsers\ApplicationData\VMware\VMwareVirtualCenter\Logs
2)Name:vpxd#.log(#isonedigit,09)
a.vpxdindexcontainsthe#ofthecurrentlyactivelogfile
3)Logsrotateeachtimevpxdisstarted,andalsowhenitreaches5MBinsize
VIClientLogs
1)Location:User%TEMP%\vpx
2)Name:viclient#.log(#isonedigit,09)
3)LogsrotateeachtimeVIClientisstarted,andisshouldbeusedforclientspecificdiagnostics
MiscellaneousLogs
1)CoreDump
a.Location:%USERPROFILE%\ApplicationData\VMware
2)LicenseServerDebugLog
a.Location:%SystemRoot%\Temp
b.Filename:lmgrd.logi.Thisfileisoverwritteneachtimetheservicestarts
c.Thisfilecontainsvariousinformationaboutthelicensefileandserver.
3)WebAccess(Tomcat)Logs
a.Location:C:\ProgramFiles\VMware\Infrastructure\VirtualCenterServer\tomcat\logs
b.Filename:variousfiles
c.AlltheTomcatlogsarehere
esxconsolelogs
sysbootvmkernelboot.log,sysbootdmesgboot.log,sysbootvmkernellate.log,sysbootdmesglate.og,sysboot.log
cd/vmfs/volumes/ESXStorage941/esxconsole4c44398f4238b888226e001e0bcd236a/logs/
Coredumplocation
cdvmfs/volumes/ESXStorage941/esxconsole4c44398f4238b888226e001e0bcd236a/coredumps

39)WhatisESXTOPcommandandhowtousethiscommand(withallthefields/options)?
Esxtopversion4.1.0
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SecuremodeOff
Esxtop:topforESX
Thesesinglecharactercommandsareavailable:
^Lredrawscreen
spaceupdatedisplay
hor?helpshowthistext
qquit
Interactivecommandsare:
fFAddorremovefields
oOChangetheorderofdisplayedfields
sSetthedelayinsecondsbetweenupdates
#Setthenumberofinstancestodisplay
WWriteconfigurationfile~/.esxtop41rc
kKillaworld
eExpand/RollupCpuStatistics
VViewonlyVMinstances
LChangethelengthoftheNAMEfield
lLimitdisplaytoasinglegroup
Sortby:
U:%USEDR:%RDYN:GID
Switchdisplay:
c:cpui:interruptm:memoryn:network
d:diskadapteru:diskdevicev:diskVMp:powermgmt
Hitanykeytocontinue:
9:26:17pmup9days45min,149worldsCPUloadaverage:0.02,0.06,0.06
PCPUUSED(%):2.532380.3190.50.30.42.2570.00.00.3240.350AVG:14
PCPUUTIL(%):3.434410.5261.00.70.72.7650.20.20.6290.660AVG:16
CCPU(%):0us,2sy,97id,0wacs/sec:108
IDGIDNAMENWLD%USED%RUN%SYS%WAIT%RDY%IDLE%OVRLP%CSTP%MLMTD%SWPWT
11idle161351.561497.670.000.00122.220.000.940.000.000.00
5959Ubuntu7229.64264.450.00441.370.02138.500.790.000.000.00
1111console11.652.660.0398.240.0798.230.010.000.000.00
6060VMVXP151.081.560.00500.000.10199.790.010.000.000.00
77helper770.040.050.007700.000.010.000.000.000.000.00
88drivers100.010.010.001000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
5656vmkiscsid.430320.010.010.00200.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
4949storageRM.429210.000.000.00100.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
1919vmkapimod90.000.000.00900.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
22system70.000.000.00700.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
99vmotion40.000.000.00400.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
4747FT10.000.000.00100.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
4848vobd.429160.000.000.00600.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
5252netcdp.430010.000.000.00100.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
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5353netlbt.430110.000.000.00100.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
5757vmwarevmkauthd10.000.000.00100.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
Thefollowingoptionalswitches,relevanttoesxtopinbatchmode,canbeused:
aShowsallstatisticsandnotwhatisspecifiedinthedefaultconfigurationfile,ifitexists.
bRunsesxtopinbatchmode.
cLoadsauserdefinedconfigurationfileinsteadofthe~/.esxtop310rcdefault.
dSpecifiesthedelaybetweenstatisticsupdatesthedefaultis5secondsandtheminimumis2.
nSpecifiedthenumberofstatisticsupdatestocapturebeforeexiting.
Forexample,thefollowingcommandwouldrunesxtopinbatchmode,updatingallstatisticstothefileperfstats.csvevery10
secondsfor360iterations(a
totalof60minutes)beforeexiting:
esxtopabd10n360>perfstats.csv

40)Whatisdlocationofesxdumpfileandhowtoreadit?
Coredumplocation
cdvmfs/volumes/ESXStorage941/esxconsole4c44398f4238b888226e001e0bcd236a/coredumps

41)Whatiddlocationofthelicensefile(*.LIC)inVCserverandESXserver?
C:\ProgramData\VMware\VMwareVirtualCenter\licenses\site\VMwareVirtualCenterServer\4.0\4.1.0.2

42)WhatisdcommandtochecktheVMFSversionandESXversion?
vmkfstoolsPstorageN
vmwarevand
vimshnehostsvc/hostsummary|grepfullNameOR
cat/proc/vmware/version

43)HowtoextendtheOSdriveofaguestOS(windowsVM)
vmkfstoolsX50M/vmfs/volumes/Storage2/testvm/testvm.vmdk
vmkfstoolsX50M/vmfs/volumes/Storage2/testvm/testvm.vmdk

44)WhatisdcommandtocloneaVM?
vmwarevdiskmanagerwithoptionr
#vmkfstoolsi/vmfs/volumes/Datastore04/rhel5_test_template/rhel5_test_template.vmdk
/vmfs/volumes/Datastore04/rhel5_test_clone/rhel5_test_clone.vmdk

45)Whatisdcommandtocheckalldvirtualswitchconfigurationdetails?
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ToconfigurenetworkingfromtheESXserviceconsolecommandline:
1.Ensurethenetworkadapteryouwanttouseiscurrentlyconnectedwiththecommand:
[root@serverroot]#esxcfgnicsl
Theoutputappearssimilarto:
NamePCIDriverLinkSpeedDuplexDescription
vmnic006:00.00tg3Up1000MbpsFullBroadcomCorporationNetXtremeBCM5721GigabitEthernet
vmnic107:00.00tg3Up1000MbpsFullBroadcomCorporationNetXtremeBCM5721GigabitEthernet
IntheLinkcolumn,Upindicatesthatthenetworkadapterisavailableandfunctioning.
2.Listthecurrentvirtualswitcheswiththecommand:
[root@serverroot]#esxcfgvswitchl
Theoutputappearssimilarto:
SwitchNameNumPortsUsedPortsConfiguredPortsUplinks
vSwitch032332vmnic0
PortGroupNameInternalIDVLANIDUsedPortsUplinks
VMNetworkportgroup200vmnic0
Intheexampleoutput,thereexistsavirtualmachinenetworknamedVMNetworkwithnoServiceConsoleportgroup.For
illustration,theproceedingstepsshow
youhowtocreateanewvirtualswitchandplacetheserviceconsoleportgrouponit.
3.Createanewvirtualswitchwiththecommand:
[root@serverroot]#esxcfgvswitchavSwitch1
4.CreatetheServiceConsoleportgrouponthisnewvirtualswitch:
[root@serverroot]#esxcfgvswitchAServiceConsolevSwitch1
Becausethereisaspaceinthename(ServiceConsole),youmustencloseitinquotationmarks.
Note:TocreateServiceConsolesoneattime,youmayneedtodeleteallprevioussettings.Formoreinformation,see
RecreatingServiceConsoleNetworking
fromthecommandline(1000266).
5.Uplinkvmnic1tothenewvirtualswitchwiththecommand:
[root@serverroot]#esxcfgvswitchLvmnic1vSwitch1
6.IfyouneedtoassignaVLAN,usethecommand:
[root@serverroot]#esxcfgvswitchvpServiceConsolevSwitch0
whereistheVLANnumber.AzeroherespecifiesnoVLAN.
7.Verifythenewvirtualswitchconfigurationwiththecommand:
[root@serverroot]#esxcfgvswitchl
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Theoutputappearssimilarto:
SwitchNameNumPortsUsedPortsConfiguredPortsUplinks
vSwitch032332vmnic0
PortGroupNameInternalIDVLANIDUsedPortsUplinks
ServiceConsoleportgroup501vmnic0
SwitchNameNumPortsUsedPortsConfiguredPortsUplinks
vSwitch164164vmnic1
PortGroupNameInternalIDVLANIDUsedPortsUplinks
ServiceConsoleportgroup1401vmnic1
8.Createthevswif(ServiceConsole)interface.Forexample,runthecommand:
[root@serverroot]#esxcfgvswifavswif0i192.168.1.10n255.255.255.0pServiceConsole
[Vnicwarning]GeneratedNewMacaddress,00:50:xx:xx:xx:xxforvswif0
Nothingtoflush.
9.Verifytheconfigurationwiththecommand:
[root@esx]#esxcfgvswifl
NamePortGroupIPAddressNetmaskBroadcastEnabledDHCP
vswif0ServiceConsole192.168.1.10255.255.255.0192.168.1.255truefalse

46)WhatisdcommandtoupgradetheFSfromVMFS2toVMFS3?
ThefirstthingthatyouwillneedtodotoperformtheupgradeislogintotheESX3hostasroot.Onceloggedinthenyou
needtounloadtheESX3VMFS
driversthatarecurrentlyloaded.TheunloadingoftheVMFSdriversisforbothVMFS2andVMFS3.Toperformthisyou
needtorunthecommandsbelow.
vmkload_moduvmfs2
vmkload_moduvmfs3
YouthenneedtoloadaspecificdriverforESX3thatiscalledtheESX3AuxiliaryFSdriver.Thecommandbelowthat
loadsthisdriveralsoincludesthe
switchtoenabletheupgrademodecontainedwithinthedriver.
vmkload_modfsauxfsauxFunction=upgrade
ThenextstepistoperformtheupgradeontheVMFS2volume.Todothis,youneedtomakesurethattherearenoother
hostsaccessingthevolume.Thisis
veryimportant,asitwillgopearshapedquicklyifotherserverstrytoaccessthevolumeduringtheupgradeprocess.
vmkfstoolsT/vmfs/volumes/
Oncetheupgradeiscompleted,youneedtocheckandconfirmthatthevolumeisvmfs3.Youcandothisbyrunningthe
followingcommandwhichisonceagain
anothervmkfstoolscommand.
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vmkfstoolsP/vmfs/volumes/
Youshouldalsoconfirmthatallyourfilesareokbycheckingthefilesystem.Thecommonlyusedlistcommandforfile
systemsattheserviceconsoleisls
l.Ifyouhaveanymorevolumestoupgradeyoumayrinseandrepeatthestepsaboveuntiltheyarealldone.Onceallyour
volumesareupgradedyoudo
needtounloadtheauxiliarydriverthatweloadedbeforeandreloadthenormalVMFSdrivers.Twowaysofdoingthis,
oneistorebootandtheotheristo
runthecommandsbelow.
vmkload_modufsaux
vmkload_modvmfs2
vmkload_modvmfs3
ESX3.0.0isprovidedwith3.21(initialrelease)
ESX3.5.0isprovidedwith3.31
vSphere(ESX4.0)isprovidedwith3.33
vSphere(ESX4.1)isprovidedwith3.46

47)WhatisRDMandwhatralldFileSystems(FS)itsupports?

48)WhatisSRMandhowitworks?
VMwarevCenterSiteRecoveryManagerdeliversadvancedcapabilitiesfordisasterrecoverymanagement,nondisruptive
testingandautomatedfailover.VMware
vCenterSiteRecoveryManagercanmanagefailoverfromproductiondatacenterstodisasterrecoverysites,aswellas
failoverbetweentwositeswithactive
workloads.Multiplesitescanevenrecoverintoasinglesharedrecoverysite.SiteRecoveryManagercanalsohelpwith
planneddatacenterfailoverssuchas
datacentermigrations.
DisasterRecoveryManagement
.CreateandmanagerecoveryplansdirectlyfromVMwarevCenterServer.
.Discoveranddisplayvirtualmachinesprotectedbystoragereplicationusingintegrationscertifiedbystoragevendors.
.Extendrecoveryplanswithcustomscripts.
.Monitoravailabilityofremotesiteandalertusersofpossiblesitefailures.
.Store,viewandexportresultsoftestandfailoverexecutionfromVMwarevCenterServer.
.Controlaccesstorecoveryplanswithgranularrolebasedaccesscontrols.
.LeverageiSCSI,FibreChannel,orNFSbasedstoragereplicationsolutions.
.Recovermultiplesitesintoasinglesharedrecoverysite.
.TakeadvantageofthelatestfeaturesandtechnologiesincludedinVMwarevSphere.
NonDisruptiveTesting
.Usestoragesnapshotcapabilitiestoperformrecoverytestswithoutlosingreplicateddata.
.Connectvirtualmachinestoanexistingisolatednetworkfortestingpurposes.
.Automateexecutionoftestsofrecoveryplans.
.Customizeexecutionofrecoveryplansfortestingscenarios.
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.Automatecleanupoftestingenvironmentsaftercompletingtests.
AutomatedFailover
.InitiaterecoveryplanexecutionfromVMwarevCenterServerwithasinglebutton.
.Automatepromotionofreplicateddatastoresforrecoveryusingadapterscreatedbyleadingstoragevendorsfortheir
replicationplatforms.
.Executeuserdefinedscriptsandpausesduringrecovery.
.ReconfigurevirtualmachinesIPaddressestomatchnetworkconfigurationatfailoversite.
.ManageandmonitorexecutionofrecoveryplanswithinVMwarevCenterServer.
WhatsNewinvCenterSiteRecoveryManager4?
.ProtectmoreofyourenvironmentwithaddedsupportforNFSstoragereplication.
.Setupmanytoonefailoverusingsharedrecoverysites.
.LeveragenewfeaturesinvSphere.

49)WhatisdseriesofH/W(virtual)usedforVMsvirtualmothermother/mainboard?

50)Whatrddatestorepathselections&whatrdoptionsavailablefornetworkloadbalancing?
Youcandisplayinformationaboutpathsbyrunningvicfgmpathwithoneofthefollowingoptions:
.Listalldeviceswiththeircorrespondingpaths,stateofthepath,adaptertype,andotherinformation.
vicfgmpathlistpaths
.Displayashortlistingofallpaths.
vicfgmpathlistcompact
.Listallpathswithadapteranddevicemappings.
vicfgmpathlistmap
ManagingPathPolicieswithesxcli
ForeachstoragedevicemanagedbyNMP(notPowerPath),anESX/ESXihostusesapathselectionpolicy.By
default,VMwaresupportsthefollowingpathselectionpolicies.IfyouhaveathirdpartyPSPinstalledonyour
host,itspolicyalsoappearsonthelist.Thefollowingpathpoliciesaresupportedbydefault:
Table51.SupportedPathPolicies
PolicyDescription
VMW_PSP_FIXEDThehostalwaysusesthepreferredpathtothediskwhenthatpathisavailable.Ifthehost
cannotaccessthediskthroughthepreferredpath,ittriesthealternativepaths.Ifyouusethe
VMW_PSP_FIXEDpolicy,useesxclinmpfixedtosetorgetthepreferredpath
VMW_PSP_FIXED_APExtendstheVMW_PSP_FIXEDfunctionalitytoactivepassiveandALUAmodearrays.
VMW_PSP_MRUThehostusesapathtothediskuntilthepathbecomesunavailable.Whenthepathbecomes
unavailable,thehostselectsoneofthealternativepaths.Thehostdoesnotrevertbacktothe
originalpathwhenthatpathbecomesavailableagain.Thereisnopreferredpathsettingwith
theMRUpolicy.MRUisthedefaultpolicyforactivepassivestoragedevicesandisrequired
forthosedevices.
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VMW_PSP_RRThehostusesanautomaticpathselectionalgorithmrotatingthroughallavailablepaths.This
algorithmimplementsloadbalancingacrossalltheavailablephysicalpaths.Loadbalancing
istheprocessofspreadingserverI/Orequestsacrossallavailablehostpaths.Thegoalisto
optimizeperformanceintermsofthroughput(I/Opersecond,megabytespersecond,or
responsetimes).
Table52.PathPolicyEffects
PolicyActive/ActiveArrayActive/PassiveArray
MostRecentlyUsedAdministratoractionisrequiredtofail
backafterpathfailure.
Administratoractionisrequiredtofailback
afterpathfailure.
FixedVMkernelresumesusingthepreferred
pathwhenconnectivityisrestored.
VMkernelattemptstoresumeusingthe
preferredpath.Thiscancausepath
thrashingorfailurewhenanotherSPnow
ownstheLUN.
RoundRobinNofailback.Nextpathinroundrobinschedulingis
selected.

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