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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

 INTRINSICS SEMICONDUCTOR:

IN THE SECTION OF SEMICONDCUTORS, THE PURE SEMICONDUCTORS ARE


KNOWN AS THE INTRINSIC SEMICONDCUTOR.

IN INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR

n e = n h = ni

Where ne = Number of electrons per unit volume or electron density

nh = Hole density

ni = Intrinsic carrier concentration.

Here,
𝑬𝒈
(− )
ne = 𝑵 𝒆 𝟐𝑲𝑻

Where, N = Possible states per unit volume

Eg = Forbidden energy gap

K = Boltzman Constant

When the thermal energy is applied, a few electrons from valence band jump
into conduction band by leaving hole in valence band. That is the reason ne = nh

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

The conduction which is done in intrinsic semiconductor is due to the thermal


excitation of electrons and holes so it’s very small.

The conductivity is in intrinsic semiconductor is given by,

𝝈 = nee. µ𝐞 + nh e. µ𝒉
Where,

ne = Number of electrons

nh = Number of holes

e = Charge of electrons

µ𝐞 = Mobility of electrons

µ𝒉 = Mobility of holes

 Fermi level in Intrinsic Semiconductor:

 The Fermi level for the intrinsic semiconductor lies between the
mid- way of conduction band and the valence band.
 At any Temperature T > 0K

ne = Number of electrons in conduction band

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

nh = Number of holes in Valence band

We have,

(𝑬𝒄−𝑬𝒇)

ne = Nc 𝒆 𝑲𝑻

Where, Nc = Effective density of states in conduction band

(𝑬𝒇−𝑬𝒗)

nv = Nv 𝒆 𝑲𝑻

Where, Nv = Effective density of states in valence band

Let suppose that Nc = N v …….. (For best approximation)

For intrinsic Semiconductor:

3/ 2
 2 me*kT   E  Ec 
n  2   exp F 
 kT 
2
 h 

The number of holes per unit volume in an intrinsic


semiconductor is

p=
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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

 Since n = p in intrinsic semiconductors

or

Taking log on both sides,

or Ef =

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

If we assume that,

[ since loge1 = 0]

 EXTERINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR:

 In an extrinsic semiconducting material, the charge carriers


originate from impurity atoms added to the original material is
called impurity [or] extrinsic semiconductor.

 This Semiconductor obtained by doping TRIVALENT and


PENTAVALENT impurities in a TETRAVALENT semiconductor.
The electrical conductivity of pure semiconductors may be
changed even with the addition of few amounts of impurities.

 DOPING

 The method of adding impurities to a pure semiconductor is


known as DOPING, and the impurity added is called the doping
agent (Ex-Ar,Sb,P,Ge and Al).

 The addition of impurity would increases the no. of free


electrons and holes in a semiconductor and hence increases its
conductivity.

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

 TYPES OF SEMICONDUCTOR according to ADDITION OF


IMPURITIES

 n-type semiconductor
 p-type semiconductor

 n- type semiconductor:
 Semiconductor material doped with donors.

 Material has high concentration of free electrons.

 Concentration of holes in n-type material is very low.


 Contains POSITIVELY charged donors (immovable) and
NEGATIVELY charged free electrons.

 Total charge = 0

 p-type semiconductor:
 Semiconductor material doped with acceptors is known as
p-type semiconductor.

 P-type semiconductor Material has high hole


concentration

 Concentration of free electrons in p-type material is very low.

 Contains NEGATIVELY charged acceptors (immovable) and


POSITIVELY charged holes (free).

 Total charge = 0

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

 EFFETC OF ERMI LEVEL ON THE n-type


SEMOCONDUCTOR:

 The addition of the impurity an allowed energy level ED at


a very small distance below the conduction band as
shown in the figure below:

Ec C.B
ED 0.05 ev
1.12ev

Ev
V.B

Donor-level in n -type semiconductor

 The other additional levels lie in the forbidden energy


gap. An Electron which is situated at the donor level will
have to acquire an energy equal to the (Ec-ED) only, as
against the energy ( Ec-Ev = Eg) required by an electron
located in valence band to jump into the conduction band
at the moderate temperature.
 In this type of semiconductor the conductivity is due to
the electrons, hence it is given by the

𝝈 = n.e. µ𝐞

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

 The concentration of the electron will be governed by the


Boltzmann factor.

(𝑬𝒄−𝑬𝐃)

n α 𝒆 𝑲𝑻

 And hence he conductivity is given by the,

(𝑬𝒄−𝑬𝐃)

𝝈o = 𝝈o. 𝒆 𝑲𝑻

 EFFETC OF ERMI LEVEL ON THE p-type


SEMOCONDUCTOR:

 The addition of the impurity an allowed energy level EA at


a very small distance above the valence band as shown in
the figure below:

Ec C.B

1.12ev
EA 0.05 ev
V.B

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY
Ev

 At T = 0 K all acceptor level at EA are vacant and valence


band if full but the conduction band is empty.

 When the increase, electrons from the valence band and


jump into the acceptor level and live behinds the holes.

 In this way the generators of holes is not followed by the


simultaneous generation of electrons.

 Therefore, the majority carriers in the p-type


semiconductor is holes and minority carrier as electrons

 Thus, the conductivity is given by the,

𝝈 = p.e. µ𝒉

And the Hole concentration is governed by Boltzman law


as

(𝑬𝒗−𝑬𝐀)
𝝈p = 𝒆− 𝑲𝑻
The conductivity of the p-type semiconductor is given by the,

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

(𝑬𝒗−𝑬𝐀)

𝝈p = 𝝈o . 𝒆 𝑲𝑻

Effect of impurity concentration on Fermi level


 As impurities are added to a semiconductor electrical
conduction is dominated by one type of charge i.e. electrons in
n-type and holes in p-type.

 The Fermi level is an indicator of majority carriers. Hence, as


impurities are added, the Fermi level shifts from its central
position.

 In either material, the shift of Fermi level from the central


position is directly proportional to the logarithm of donor or
acceptor concentration it is given by,

Ei is called the “intrinsic level’ or the midway position

Above effect is shown in the diagram below,

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