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# SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

 INTRINSICS SEMICONDUCTOR:

## IN THE SECTION OF SEMICONDCUTORS, THE PURE SEMICONDUCTORS ARE

KNOWN AS THE INTRINSIC SEMICONDCUTOR.

IN INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR

n e = n h = ni

## Where ne = Number of electrons per unit volume or electron density

nh = Hole density

Here,
𝑬𝒈
(− )
ne = 𝑵 𝒆 𝟐𝑲𝑻

## Eg = Forbidden energy gap

K = Boltzman Constant

When the thermal energy is applied, a few electrons from valence band jump
into conduction band by leaving hole in valence band. That is the reason ne = nh

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

## The conduction which is done in intrinsic semiconductor is due to the thermal

excitation of electrons and holes so it’s very small.

## The conductivity is in intrinsic semiconductor is given by,

𝝈 = nee. µ𝐞 + nh e. µ𝒉
Where,

ne = Number of electrons

nh = Number of holes

e = Charge of electrons

µ𝐞 = Mobility of electrons

µ𝒉 = Mobility of holes

##  Fermi level in Intrinsic Semiconductor:

 The Fermi level for the intrinsic semiconductor lies between the
mid- way of conduction band and the valence band.
 At any Temperature T > 0K

## ne = Number of electrons in conduction band

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

We have,

(𝑬𝒄−𝑬𝒇)

ne = Nc 𝒆 𝑲𝑻

(𝑬𝒇−𝑬𝒗)

nv = Nv 𝒆 𝑲𝑻

## For intrinsic Semiconductor:

3/ 2
 2 me*kT   E  Ec 
n  2   exp F 
 kT 
2
 h 

## The number of holes per unit volume in an intrinsic

semiconductor is

p=
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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

or

## Taking log on both sides,

or Ef =

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

If we assume that,

[ since loge1 = 0]

 EXTERINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR:

##  In an extrinsic semiconducting material, the charge carriers

originate from impurity atoms added to the original material is
called impurity [or] extrinsic semiconductor.

##  This Semiconductor obtained by doping TRIVALENT and

PENTAVALENT impurities in a TETRAVALENT semiconductor.
The electrical conductivity of pure semiconductors may be
changed even with the addition of few amounts of impurities.

 DOPING

##  The method of adding impurities to a pure semiconductor is

known as DOPING, and the impurity added is called the doping
agent (Ex-Ar,Sb,P,Ge and Al).

##  The addition of impurity would increases the no. of free

electrons and holes in a semiconductor and hence increases its
conductivity.

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

##  TYPES OF SEMICONDUCTOR according to ADDITION OF

IMPURITIES

 n-type semiconductor
 p-type semiconductor

 n- type semiconductor:
 Semiconductor material doped with donors.

##  Concentration of holes in n-type material is very low.

 Contains POSITIVELY charged donors (immovable) and
NEGATIVELY charged free electrons.

 Total charge = 0

 p-type semiconductor:
 Semiconductor material doped with acceptors is known as
p-type semiconductor.

concentration

##  Contains NEGATIVELY charged acceptors (immovable) and

POSITIVELY charged holes (free).

 Total charge = 0

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

SEMOCONDUCTOR:

##  The addition of the impurity an allowed energy level ED at

a very small distance below the conduction band as
shown in the figure below:

Ec C.B
ED 0.05 ev
1.12ev

Ev
V.B

##  The other additional levels lie in the forbidden energy

gap. An Electron which is situated at the donor level will
have to acquire an energy equal to the (Ec-ED) only, as
against the energy ( Ec-Ev = Eg) required by an electron
located in valence band to jump into the conduction band
at the moderate temperature.
 In this type of semiconductor the conductivity is due to
the electrons, hence it is given by the

𝝈 = n.e. µ𝐞

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

##  The concentration of the electron will be governed by the

Boltzmann factor.

(𝑬𝒄−𝑬𝐃)

n α 𝒆 𝑲𝑻

(𝑬𝒄−𝑬𝐃)

𝝈o = 𝝈o. 𝒆 𝑲𝑻

SEMOCONDUCTOR:

##  The addition of the impurity an allowed energy level EA at

a very small distance above the valence band as shown in
the figure below:

Ec C.B

1.12ev
EA 0.05 ev
V.B

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY
Ev

##  At T = 0 K all acceptor level at EA are vacant and valence

band if full but the conduction band is empty.

##  When the increase, electrons from the valence band and

jump into the acceptor level and live behinds the holes.

##  In this way the generators of holes is not followed by the

simultaneous generation of electrons.

##  Therefore, the majority carriers in the p-type

semiconductor is holes and minority carrier as electrons

𝝈 = p.e. µ𝒉

## And the Hole concentration is governed by Boltzman law

as

(𝑬𝒗−𝑬𝐀)
𝝈p = 𝒆− 𝑲𝑻
The conductivity of the p-type semiconductor is given by the,

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SEMICONDUCTOR FERMILEVEL IN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY

(𝑬𝒗−𝑬𝐀)

𝝈p = 𝝈o . 𝒆 𝑲𝑻

## Effect of impurity concentration on Fermi level

 As impurities are added to a semiconductor electrical
conduction is dominated by one type of charge i.e. electrons in
n-type and holes in p-type.

##  The Fermi level is an indicator of majority carriers. Hence, as

impurities are added, the Fermi level shifts from its central
position.

##  In either material, the shift of Fermi level from the central

position is directly proportional to the logarithm of donor or
acceptor concentration it is given by,

## Above effect is shown in the diagram below,

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