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ALFURAT PETROLEUM COMPANY ( AFPC )

STANDARD LITHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION


This document covers the Standard Lithological Description as used in AFPC over the Euphrates Graben,
starting from Upper Fars formation until Mulussa E formation.
The description are based on microscopic analysis of mud cuttings. This document in general is useful for all,
and particularly for staff.
However it can be developed/expanded in the future according to comments, suggestions and additional data
gratefully recevied.
There are many geological and mechanical anomalies & variables that can guide the geologist to a wrong
geological interpretation of cuttings. The following examples are some of this cases:
1- During drilling of the following formations cutting anomalies have been recorded which can be attributed
to geological variability:
** At the very top of the Derro formation is an Anhydrite in the Isba field.
Else where this is non seen.
** The differential description of the Sand & Sandstone within the Derro formation from area to area,
due to the quality and the properties of the sand.
(Note:Derro formation is producer in Galban field, but in general is non-reservoir).
** Dolomite Limestone or Dolomite within Shiranish formation.
** Very fine-fine rounded Sand grain within Lower Shiranish formation.
** In some cases particular things(mineral or color andROP, etc.)prove to be a specific signature
to identify a formation:
Red-brown Claystone, it most probable that the formation is Deero or MulussaF,(rarely U.Rutba).
Spherolite good indication that the formation is Mulussa F2.1 only
While drilling Lower Fars formation the ROP is an indication of the Lithology eg.:

* Salt

50-90 m/h

* Claystone

20-40 m/h

* Anhydrite

less than 20 m/h

The ROP as lithology indicator may not work specially in deeper formations or when the bit is dull.

2- Further known anomalies can be attributed to mechanical aspects.


** L.Rutbah formation: the cuttings show some 80%-100% claystone, whilst the L.Rutbah should
approximately be 80-100% sandstone. This apparently false result can happen due to:
* Sieve Size
* Drilling parameters(RPM,WOB,etc.)
* Hole condition (Tight hole).
* Bit Type(Diamond bit can make rock flour).
* Mud Materials(LCM=Chert, Lime=Crystalline Limestone,etc.).

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3- Experience ( of the WSG )

Upper Fars Formation


Upper Fars Formation is of Pliocene and upper part of Miocene Age and consists of:
Claystone: Light gray, off white, gray-mediume gray, light green, red-brown, medium induration,
occasionally poorly induration, occasionally sticky, occasionally washable, highly calcareous,
slightly dolomitic, occasionally sandy.

Lower Fars Formation


Lower Fars Formation is of upper Miocen Age. The Lower Fars Formation is divided to two major zones:
* Main Lower Fars Zone ( including salt section ).
* Lower Fars Transition Zone Carbonate.
* Main Lower Fars Zone:
The main Lower Fars Zone consists of anhydrite and claystone couplets with minor halite:
Anhydrite: White, milky white, occasionally smoky, medium-well induration, very fine crystalline,
occasionally crypto crystalline, occasionally fractured with argillaceous/carbonate filling.
Claystone: Brown, light gray, off white, occasionally red-brown, occasionally green-gray, poorly induration,
occasionally washable, occasionally silty, occasionally dolomitic.
* Lower Fars Transition Zone Carbonate:
This Zone consists of claystone, anhydrite and carbonate.( carbonate at top ):
Claystone: Light gray, green, green-gray, poorly-medium induration, occasionally silty, occasionally
calcareous and dolomitic.
Limestone/Mdstn: Light gray, off white, poorly-medium induration, medium argillaceous, occasionally
with black materials and calcite inclusions.

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Dolomite/Wkstn/Mdstn: Light gray, off white, occasionally green-gray, medium induration, slightly-medium
argillaceous, oocasionally vugy.

Jeribe Formation
Jeribe Formation is of middle Miocene Age, and consists of carbonate ( mainly limestone and dolomite
as minor Lithology ):
Limestone/Mdstn/Wkstn: Off white, light brown, creamy, medium-occasionally poorly induration,
slightly-medium argillaceous, oocasionally vugy.
Dolomite/Wkstn/Mdstn: light brown, creamy, medium induration, slightly argillaceous, oocasionally vugy.

Dhiban Formation
Dhiban Formation is of lower Miocene Age and comprises varied evaporate and cabonate rocks,
( with anhydrite at top ):

Limestone/Wkstn/Mdstn: Tan, light gray, off white, tan-gray, medium induration, medium argillaceous
Dolomite/Wkstn: Tan, off white, light brown, medium-well induration, slightly argillaceous, oocasionally vugy.

Euphrates Formation
Euphrates Formation is of lower Miocene Age, directl underlying the Dhiban anhydrite. Its consists of
Limestone with evaporate at the base:
Limestone/Pakstn/Wkstn: White, light tan, tan-gray, creamy, well-medium induration, occasionally very
fine crystalline, slightly argillaceous, occasionally fractured, occasionally fossils, occasionally
pellets.
Anhydrite: White, glassy-white, well induration, occasionally sticky, very fine crystalliny, occasionally
crypto crystalline.

Chilou Formation
Chilou Formation is of Oligocene Age, and directly underlies the euphratws anhydrite:
Limestone/Mdstn/Wkstn: Tanish brown, tan, light gray, off white, medium induration, slightly-medium
argillaceous, occasionally fossils, occasionally chalky like.

Jaddala Formation
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Jaddala Formation is of Eocene Age, and consists of Limestone and Chert


Limestone/Mdstn/Wkstn: Light brown, brownish gray, Chert starts at the lower part of the Jaddala
Formation with ( light brown, hony-translucent, hony ) description. And Limestone becoming:
off white, tanish gray, and less argillaceous, occasionally glauconitic, occasionally fossils.

Aaliji Formation
Aaliji Formation is of Paleocene Age. It consists of limestone and chert:
Limestone/Mdstn/Wkstn: Light gray, medium gray, dark gray, medium-well induration, highly
argillaceous, occasionally glauconitic, pyretic, occasionally with calcite inclusions.
With Chert at top of the formation, occasionally with claystone.

Upper Shiranish Formation


U. Shiranish Formation is of Late Cretaceous (Mastrichtian) Age, and consists of limestone only:
In the upper part of the formation light colors comparing with Aaliji Formation, light gray, light brown-light
gray, slightly-medium argillaceous, after approximately 40 m the dark colors dominate and the argillaceous
become high.
Limestone/Wkstn/Mdstn: primary light gray, light brown-light gray, and becoming dark brown, mediumdark grayish brown, medium-well induration, pyretic, occasionally glacounitic, commonly with
black material inclusion.
occasionally pale yellow fluorescence, fast stream bright yellow cut fluorescence.

Lower Shiranish Formation


The Lower Shiranish Formation is of Late Cretaceous(Mastrichtian&upper Camparian) Age.
And consists of limestone.
The upper part of the formation is light colors: off white, light gray, tanish brown, medium argillaceous,
after approximately 30 m the color becoming darker and the argillaceous becoming higher.
Limestone/Wkstn/Mdstn: initially light gray, off white, tanish brown, becoming dark gray,medium-well
induration, occasionally medium argillaceous, highly argillaceous, pyretic, glacounitic, pellets,
occasionally with black material inclusion.
occasionally pale yellow fluorescence, fast stream bright yellow cut fluorescence.

Erek Formation
The Erek Formation is of Late Cretaceous(Camparian&Santonian) Age, and consists of limestone(light
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colors) or crystalline limestone, (with dolomite at the lower part of the formation, e.g.{Thayyem Field}).
Limestone/Wkstn/Mdstn: Tanish gray, off white, creamy, light gray, medium-well induration, slightly
argillaceous.
Crystaline Limestone: Light gray, creamy, tan, well-occasionally medium induration, rarely-slightly
argillaceous.

R'mah Formation
The R'mah Formation is of Late Cretaceous(Camparian&Santonian, and Coniacian) Age,
consists of limestone, chert and rarely with sandstone, primary start with chert or silicified (cherty)
limestone.
Limestone/Mdstn: Dark brown, dark gray-brown, well induration, highly argillaceous, occasionally slightly
dolomitic, occasionally fractured.
Cherty Limestone: Dark gray, dark brown-gray, occasionally black, well-very well induration, sandy,
highly argillaceous, slightly dolomitic.
Chert: Dark brown, honey, very well induration, sharp edges.
Limestone Crystaline : medium brown, medium gray-tan, well induration.
Sandstone: Brown, tan, light gray, medium induration, very fine-medium grain, occasionally medium sorted,
sub rounded-rounded, occasionally siliceous/calcareous cement, occasionally clay matrix.

Derro Formation
The Derro Formation is of Late Cretaceous (lower Coniacian&Turonian) Age, and consists of:
different type of lithology, claystone, different type of volcanic, occasionally carbonate, occasionally sand,
and anhydrite at the very top of the formation.
Claystone: Red-brown, green-gray, varicolored, medium-well induration, occasionally poorly induration,
occasionally sandy, occasionally silty, occasionally calcareous, occasionally dolomitic,
occasionally pyritic, blocky-sub blocky.
Sand: Loss, brown, light gray, occasionally yellow, occasionally pink, fine-coarse grain, occasionally
angular, sub rounded, elongated.
Volcanic: different type of volcanic, weathering/ash/volcanic clay/igneous, commonly described varicolored
well-medium induration, occasionally poorly induration, calcareous-dolomitic, occasionally
sandy-silty, occasionally fractured with carbonate filling and siliceous matter filling, occ glassy.

Post Judea Sandstone Formation


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The PJS Formation is of Early Cretaceous(Lower Turonian&Cenomanian) Age.


This formation consists of claystone and sandstone.
The upper part of thePJS is mainly Sandstone and minor Claystone:
Sandstone: Light brown, tan, poorly-medium induration, very fine-fine grain, occasionally medium grain,
medium sorted, sub angular, sub rounded, rounded, occasionally dolomitic.
Claystone: Tan, tan-brown, tan-light gray, poorly-medium induration, sub blocky-blocky, non calcareous,
occasionally slightly dolomitic.
The lower part of PJS consists of Claystone in general:
Claystone: Red-brown, green-gray, medium gray, medium induration, non calcareous, non dolomitic, sandy.

Judea Carbonate Formation


JC Formation is of Early Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Age, and recognise by crystalline carbonate
(Limestone/Dolomite):
Dolomite Crystalline: Creamy, tan, off white, light gray, well-medium induration, non argillaceous,
occasionally fractured, rarely glauconitic, occasionally sucrosic like.

Upper Rutbah Formation


U.Rutbah Formation is of Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) Age, and consists of Claystone and
minor Sandstone:
Claystone: Medium gray, greenish gray, brownish gray, medium induration, occasionally poorly induration,
occasionally washable, occasionally slightly calcareous, occasionally sandy and silty.
Sandstone: Light brown, light grayish tan, transparent, medium induration, occasionally poorly induration,
very fine-medium grain, medium sorted, sub angular-sub rounded, occasionally rounded,
occasionally pyretic, occasionally calcareous cement, occasionally clay matrix.

Lower Rutbah Formation


L.Rutbah Formation is of Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) Age, and consists of mainly Sandstone
with minor Claystone:
Sandstone: Light brown, light gray, tan-white, medium-occasionally poorly induration, occasionally friable,
very fine-medium grain, rarely coarse grain, fair sorted, sub rounded-rounded, sub angular, rarely
pyretic, occasionally siliceous cement, occasionally clay matrix, occasionally microfractured.
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Claystone: Brownish gray, light gray, off white, tan, poorly-medium induration, occasionally washable,
sub blocky, highly silty, occasionally sandy, occasionally pyretic, occasionally with Liginte.

Mulussa ( G ) Formation
Mulussa G Formation is of Jurassic Age, and consists of Crystalline Dolomite and Dolomite Mudstone,
occasionally at the top of the formation the Paleosoil is exist:
Crystalline Dolomite : Light brown, brown-gray, tan, medium-well induration, very fine-fine crystalline,
occasionally pyretic.
Dolomite/Mdstn: Medium-dark gray, well-occasionally medium induration, rarely fine grain text,
occasionally slightly argillaceous.
Soil (Shale): Dark gray, poorly-medium induration, non calcareous, occasionally slightly dolomitic, rarely
fissile, blocky.

Mulussa ( F ) Formation
Mulussa F Formation is of Late Triassic Age, and its sub divided to three main zones
(depending on NGT log):
* Mulussa F1 ( 1.0 ).
* Mulussa F2 ( 2.0, 2.1, 2.2 ).
* Mulussa F3 ( 3.1{K3}, 3.2{DM}).

**

Mulussa F1
Interbeds of Claystone and Sandstone.

Claystone: Redish brown, green-gray, light gray, medium induration, occasionally poorly
induration, occasionally washable, sub blocky, occasionally pyretic, sandy and silty,
occasionally with black matrial inclusion, occasionally gradually changes to Siltstone highly
clay matrix.
Sandstone: Transparent, light brown, light gray, medium induration, occasionally poorly induration,
fine-medium grain, occasionally coarse grain, medium sorted, sub angular-sub rounded,
occasionally rounded , rarely pyretic, occasionally with black matrial inclusion, rarely
calcareous cement, occasionally with clay and silt matrix.

**

Mulussa F2
consists of Sandstone and Claystone.

Sandstone: Light brown, tan-light gray, transparent, rarely pink, rarely yellow, medium induration, in the
lower part occasionally well induration, fine-coarse grain,
fine-medium grain, occasionally coarse grain, medium sorted, sub angular-sub rounded,
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occasionally rounded , rarely pyretic, occasionally with black matrial inclusion, rarely
calcareous cement, occasionally with clay and silt matrix.
Claystone: Light gray, brown-gray, red-brown, green-gray, off white, medium induration, pyretic, silty,
occasionally sandy, sub blocky, occasionally with black matrial inclusion, non calcareous,
non dolomitic

N.B: In general Mulussa F ( F2.2 ) consists of Spherolite, Volcanic rocks and Siltstone.

**

Mulussa F3
F 3.1
consists of Claystone and minor Dolomite streaks.

Claystone: Tan-gray, brown, green-gray, red-brown, medium -dark gray, medium induration, occasionally
well induration, blocky, slightly pyretic, slightly-medium dolomitic, occasionally slightly calcareous.
Dolomite/Wkstn: Brown, tan-gray, medium-occasionally well induration, slightly-highly argillaceous.
N.B: In the Mulussa F3.1 rarely ther are Sandstone.

F 3.2
consists of Claystone and Dolomite.
Claystone: Brown, green-gray, Tan-gray, medium induration, occasionally well induration, blocky,
occasionally laminated, medium-highly dolomitic, occasionally slightly calcareous.
Dolomite/Wkstn: Brown, beige-tan, gray-brown, medium-well induration, slightly argillaceous, rarely sucrosic,
gradually change to crystalline Dolomite.

Mulussa ( E ) Formation
Mulussa E Formation is of Late Triassic Age and is consists of Dolomite and very minor Claystone.
Dolomite: Light-dark tan, creamy, brown-gray, well-occasionally medium induration, slightly argillaceous,
occasionally sucrosic, rarely pyretic, rarely with veins.
Claystone: Dark gray-dark brown, medium-well induration, laminated, occasionally blocky, highly dolomitic.

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with my best wishes, your brother Samir Dahy

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