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WATER STEAM CYCLE in POWER PLANT

Steam
Generator

HP & IP Turbines

LP Turbines
and
Condensers 1 & 2

Water Treatment

Main Steam:
CC,Si
Saturated
Steam:
CC,Si,Na

Reheaters:
CC,Si

Hotwells 1 & 2

Boiler Water:
SC,CC,Si,PO4

Main Condensate:
CC,Si,Na
Feadwater Tank
Feadwater:
SC,CC,DO,pH

Cooling
Water:
NH2Cl, ORP
Makeup
Water:
CC,Si,Na

Condensate
Polishing:
SC,CC,Si,Na,

Point : Feed Water


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Feed Water Treatment Type

Process

AVT( All Volatile Treatment)

Feedwater pH is maintain between 9 ~ 10 with


addition of Ammonia. Dissolved oxygen has to be
removed by adding oxygen scanveger (Hydrazine) or
with the use of degasifier.

CWT ( Combined Water Treatment)

Feedwater pH is maintain between 8 ~ 9 in addition of


Ammonia. Dissolved Oxygen content between 150 to
300 ppb.

OT ( Oxygenated Treatment)

OT ( Oxygenated Treatment) Feedwater is not


condition to raise the pH. The pH value is keep
between 7 ~ 8. Controlled injection of oxygen
maintains at a level of 150 to 300 ppb.

Point : Feed Water measuring parameters


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Parameters

Purpose

Cation Conductivity (CC)

For identifying low level contamination by potentially


corrosive anion contaminants such as chlorides,
sulfates, and organic acids

pH

Monitor and controlling the alkalization process control


function

Dissolved Oxygen

1.Controlled injection of oxygen for OT


2.Monitor the removal of dissolved O2 for AVT
3.To determine dissolved oxygen removal is in the
deaerator

Oxygen Scavenger

Monitor and control injection of oxygen scavenger

Point : Boiler Water

Treatment Type

Process

EPT ( Equilibrium Phosphate Treatment)

Phosphate residual is maintain at 0.2 to 2.5 ppm.


pH range at 9.0 to 9.7

Caustic treatment

Addition of sodium hydroxide to the boiler water.


Boiler water pH controlled at 9.4 to 9.6.
Maintain NaOH level at 1.0 to 1.5 ppm.

Point : Boiler Water measuring parameters


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Parameters

Purpose

pH

Low pH in the water attacks the steel, thus the pH


conditioning process has to be closely monitored.

Specific Conductivity ( SC)

Controlling and monitoring of the chemical treatment

Silica

To monitor silica contaminants level in boiler water

Phosphate

To monitor the residual phosphate in boilers water

Point : Main Steam measuring parameters


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Parameters

Purpose

Cation Conductivity (CC)

For identifying low level contamination by potentially


corrosive anion contaminants such as chlorides,
sulfates, and organic acids

Degassed Conductivity (DC)

Measurement of CO2 contamination


1.To determine air or cooling water leakage
2.To reduce the startup time especially for cold
start up by achieving the conductivity level
determine by turbine manufacturer

Silica

Sodium

To monitor silica carry over in saturated steam to


protect turbine blades

To detect solids (sodium salts) present in steam.


Sodiums deposits settle on turbine blades will cause
vibration and lead to damage

Point : Condensate Polishing


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Treatment Type

Process

Deep-bed Condensate Polishing

Hydrogen-hydroxide form, mixed bed polishing

Powdered-Resin Condensate Polishing

cation-anion resin, mixed bed polishing

Parameters

Purpose

Cation Conductivity ( CC)

For identifying low level contamination by potentially


corrosive anion contaminants such as chlorides,
sulfates, and organic acids

Silica

To detect ion exchanger exhaustion at polisher

Sodium

1.To detect sodium ion ( impurities) break through


and ensure product water is pure.
2. Use for condenser leakage detection

Discussion
8

For what (sampling points /


parameters) are SWAN instruments
mainly used ?
What are your selling arguments ?
Power plant industries: who is your
contact (contractor / end user)
Which parameters are in demand ?

Thanks for your information


9

Instrumentation in power plant


10

Who is your customer?


Bestsellers and door openers
Selling arguments
Wish list

Swan International Distributor Meeting 2011

Who is your customer / contact?


11

End-user (90%):
Problems with existing installation
Maintenance / handling is an argument
Interested in technical specification

Contractor (10%):
Prize, prize, $$$$
Only a chance, it customer specifies the
installation

Swan International Distributor Meeting 2011

But..
12

there are other ways


Turbine manufacturer had specified the
degassed conductivity as control parameter
Is there a manufacturer of steam cycle
components in your region?
Do you know him?

Swan International Distributor Meeting 2011

Bestsellers and door openers


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AMI Deltacon DG
No competitor around
Short installation time
Return of investment within 2-3 start ups

AMI Sodium P
Easy to handle
Grab sample function

Swan International Distributor Meeting 2011

USPs
14

SWAN analysers are robust / easy to


handle
Short installation time / run in period
Verification is possible
Low maintenance costs
Well established service network

Swan International Distributor Meeting 2011

Wish list
15

Hydrogen (H2)
Indicator of corrosion (low level 0 50 ppb) in
supercritical steam
Nuclear power plants: Primary cycle of a light
water reactor (saturation: ~2ppm)

Water hardness
Control of mixed bed
General parameter in water treatment

Swan International Distributor Meeting 2011

Wish list part 2


16

Chloride (Cl-)
Detection of contamination

Particle counter
Detection of corrosion products

Swan International Distributor Meeting 2011

Thanks for your information


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