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STRUCTURA

AL STEELWORK & TIMBER DESIGN


N - ECS328
STEEL COLU
UMN DESIGN
NOV13 MAC14
M

C
Clause

R
Remarks
Example
E
of Pinned Co
olumn w/o Intermediatte Restrain
The
T
column
n shown in figure
f
below
w is pin-end
ded about both axes
was design
and
a
has no
o intermedia
ate restraintt. Column w
n using S355
5
steel
s
and design comp
pression forrce, NEd = 3
3500 kN

NEd = 3500 kN

1.
1 SELECTION OF SECTION
Required
R
Area, A = NEdd / (fy / MO )
6.1
1 (1)

Partial
P
facto
or for partic
cular resista
ance, M
Resistance
R
of cross-sec
ctions whattever the c lass, MO = 1
1.0

Ta
able 3.1

Assume
A
the
e nominal th
hk. of flange
e and web
b is less than
n 40mm and
d
2
advance
a
UKB S355 to be used, .: yield streng
gth, fy = 355
5N/mm
.:
. Required Gross Area
a , A = NEd / (fy / MO )
3
=3500
=
x 10 / (355 / 1.0
0)
=98.60
=
cm2
From
F
Table of Propertie
es, select 356 x 368 x 1
129 UKC in SS355 steel
2
provided
p
16
64 cm of Area
A

356 x 368 x 129


UKC

MAT

STRUCTURAL STEELWORK & TIMBER DESIGN - ECS328


STEEL COLUMN DESIGN
NOV13 MAC14

From section property tables, section properties for 356 x 368 x 129
UKC:
Depth ,h
Width, b
Web thickness, tw
Flange thickness, tf
Root radius, r
Depth between fillets, d
Ratio for Local Buckling (flange), cf/tf
Ratio for Local Buckling (web), cw/tw
Radius of gyration y axis, iy
Radius of gyration z axis, iz
Torsional constant, IT
Warping constant, Iw
Area, A
Modulus of elasticity, E
Shear modulus, G

= 355.6 mm
= 368.6 mm
= 10.4 mm
= 17.5 mm
= 15.2 mm
= 290.2 mm
= 9.4
= 27.9
= 15.6 cm
= 9.43 cm
= 153 cm4
= 4.18 dm6
= 164 cm2
= 210 000 N/mm2
81 000 N/mm2

2. CLASIFICATION OF SECTION
Table 3.1

Take steel grade as S355 and tw = 10.4 mm < 40 mm


.: fyw = 355 N/mm2

fyw = 355N/mm2

Web
Table
5.2(1)

= 0.81 and cw/tw = 27.9 < 38


.: Web section was Class 2

Table 3.1

Take steel grade as S355 and tf = 17.5 mm < 40 mm


.: fyf = 355 N/mm2

fyf = 355 N/mm2

Flange
Table
5.2(2)

= 0.81 and cf/tf = 9.4 < 14


.: Flange section was Class 3
.: Section was Class 3 under compression

Section was Class


3 under
compression

MAT

STRUCTURAL STEELWORK & TIMBER DESIGN - ECS328


STEEL COLUMN DESIGN
NOV13 MAC14

3.RESISTANCE OF CROSS- SECTION SUBJECT TO COMPRESSION


6.2.4

Compression

6.2.4(1)

The design value of the compression force NEd at each cross-section


shall satisfy:
NEd /Nc,Rd 1 (eq. 6.9)

6.2.4(2)

Nc,Rd = A fy / MO (eq 6.10)


= 164 x 102 (355) / 1.0
= 5,822kN

Nc,Rd = 5,822kN

NEd /Nc,Rd = 3,500kN/5,822kN


= 0.6 <1
.: Cross-section is adequate for compression resistance
6.3

Buckling resistance of members

6.3.1

Uniform Members in Compression

6.3.1.1

Buckling resistance

6.3.1.1(1)

A compression member should be verified against buckling as


follows:
NEd /Nb,Rd 1 (eq. 6.46)

6.3.1.1(3)

The design buckling resistance of a compression member should be


taken as:
Nb,Rd = (X A fy ) / M1 (eq. 6.47)
where X is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode

MAT

STRUCTURAL STEELWORK & TIMBER DESIGN - ECS328


STEEL COLUMN DESIGN
NOV13 MAC14

6.3.1.2

Buckling Curves
For axial compression in members the value of X for the appropriate
non-dimensional slenderness should be determined from the
relevant buckling curve according to:

6.3.1.2(1)

Reduction factor, X = 1 / ( + 2 - 2 ) but X 1 (eq.6.49)


Where:

6.3.1.3(1)

= Afy / Ncr = (Lcr / i) x (1 / 1) (eq. 6.50) for class 1,2,3 cross section
1 = 93.9
= 93.9 (0.81)
= 76.06
Lcr = 6000mm

Lcr = 6000mm (see additional notes)

.: z = (Lcr / iz) x (1 / 1)

= (6000/94.3) x (1/76.06)
= 0.84

z = 0.84

= 0.5 ( 1 + ( 0.2) + )
6.3.1.2(2)

Where imperfection factor, corresponding to the appropriate


buckling curve should be obtained from
Table 6.1 and Table 6.2.
h/b = 355.6/368.6
= 0.96

Table 6.2

For rolled section grade S355 with h/b < 1.2 and tf 100mm, buckling
about z-z axis .: buckling curve c

Table 6.1

For buckling curve c .: Imperfection factor , = 0.49


2

.: = 0.5 (1 + ( 0.2) + )
= 0.5 (1 + 0.49 (0.84 -0.2) + 0.842)
= 1.01
.: Reduction factor, X = 1 / ( + 2 - 2 )
= 1 / (1.01 + 1.012 - 0.842)
= 0.64 < 1

X =0.64

MAT

STRUCTURAL STEELWORK & TIMBER DESIGN - ECS328


STEEL COLUMN DESIGN
NOV13 MAC14

.: Buckling resistance Nb,Rd = (X A fy ) / M1 (eq. 6.47)


= (0.64 x 16400 x 355) / 1.0
= 3726.08 kN

Nb,Rd = 3726.08 kN

NEd /Nb,Rd 1 (eq. 6.46)


3500 / 3726.08 = 0.94 < 1 .: section is satisfactory for buckling
resistance

MAT

STRUCTURAL STEELWORK & TIMBER DESIGN - ECS328


STEEL COLUMN DESIGN
NOV13 MAC14

Example of Pinned Column with Intermediate Restrained


The column shown in figure below is pin-ended about both axes
and has a tie at mid-height providing restraint about the z-z axis.
Column was used S355 steel and design compression force, NEd =
3,500 kN

NEd = 3,500 kN

1. SELECTION OF SECTION
Required Area, A = NEd / (fy / MO )
6.1 (1)

Partial factor for particular resistance, M


Resistance of cross-sections whatever the class, MO = 1.0

Table 3.1

Assume the nominal thk. of flange and web is less than 40mm and
advance UKB S355 to be used, .: yield strength, fy = 355N/mm2
.: Required Plastic Modulus , A = NEd / (fy / MO )
=3500 x 103 / (355 / 1.0)
=98.60 cm2
From Table of Properties, select 356 x 368 x 129 UKC in S355 steel
provided 164 cm2 of Area

356 x 368 x 129


UKC

MAT

STRUCTURAL STEELWORK & TIMBER DESIGN - ECS328


STEEL COLUMN DESIGN
NOV13 MAC14

From section property tables, section properties for 356 x 368 x 129
UKC:
Depth ,h
Width, b
Web thickness, tw
Flange thickness, tf
Root radius, r
Depth between fillets, d
Ratio for Local Buckling (flange), cf/tf
Ratio for Local Buckling (web), cw/tw
Radius of gyration y axis, iy
Radius of gyration z axis, iz
Torsional constant, IT
Warping constant, Iw
Area, A
Modulus of elasticity, E
Shear modulus, G

= 355.6 mm
= 368.6 mm
= 10.4 mm
= 17.5 mm
= 15.2 mm
= 290.2 mm
= 9.4
= 27.9
= 15.6 cm
= 9.43 cm
= 153 cm4
= 4.18 dm6
= 164 cm2
= 210 000 N/mm2
81 000 N/mm2

2. CLASIFICATION OF SECTION
Table 3.1

Take steel grade as S355 and tw = 10.4 mm < 40 mm


.: fyw = 355 N/mm2

fyw = 355N/mm2

Web
Table
5.2(1)

= 0.81 and cw/tw = 27.9 < 38


.: Web section was Class 2

Table 3.1

Take steel grade as S355 and tf = 17.5 mm < 40 mm


.: fyf = 355 N/mm2

fyf = 355 N/mm2

Flange
Table
5.2(2)

= 0.81 and cf/tf = 9.4 < 14


.: Flange section was Class 3
.: Section was Class 3 under compression

Section was Class


3 under
compression

MAT

STRUCTURAL STEELWORK & TIMBER DESIGN - ECS328


STEEL COLUMN DESIGN
NOV13 MAC14

3.RESISTANCE OF CROSS- SECTION SUBJECT TO COMPRESSION


6.2.4

Compression

6.2.4(1)

The design value of the compression force NEd at each cross-section


shall satisfy:
NEd /Nc,Rd 1 (eq. 6.9)

6.2.4(2)

Nc,Rd = A fy / MO (eq 6.10)


= 164 x 102 (355) / 1.0
= 5,822kN

Nc,Rd = 5,822kN

NEd /Nc,Rd = 3,500kN/5,822kN


= 0.6 <1
.: Cross-section is adequate for compression resistance
6.3

Buckling resistance of members

6.3.1

Uniform Members in Compression

6.3.1.1

Buckling resistance

6.3.1.1(1)

A compression member should be verified against buckling as


follows:
NEd /Nb,Rd 1 (eq. 6.46)

6.3.1.1(3)

The design buckling resistance of a compression member should be


taken as:
Nb,Rd = (X A fy ) / M1 (eq. 6.47)
where X is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode

MAT

STRUCTURAL STEELWORK & TIMBER DESIGN - ECS328


STEEL COLUMN DESIGN
NOV13 MAC14

6.3.1.2

Buckling Curves
For axial compression in members the value of X for the appropriate
non-dimensional slenderness should be determined from the
relevant buckling curve according to:

6.3.1.2(1)

Reduction factor, X = 1 / ( + 2 - 2 ) but X 1 (eq.6.49)


Where:

6.3.1.3(1)

= Afy / Ncr = (Lcr / i) x (1 / 1) (eq. 6.50) for class 1,2,3 cross section
1 = 93.9
= 93.9 (0.81)
= 76.06

1 = 76.06

The member is effectively held in position at both ends, but not


restrained in direction at either end. The tie provides restraint in
position only for buckling about the z-z axis (i.e. the member is not
restrained in direction by the tie. Therefore the buckling lengths are:
About the y-y axis Lcr,y= 6000 mm
About the z-z axis Lcr,z = 3000 mm

.: y = (Lcr,y / iy) x (1 / 1)

= (6000/156) x (1/76.06)
= 0.51

Lcr,y= 6000 mm
Lcr,z = 3000 mm

.: z = (Lcr,z/ iz) x (1 / 1)

= (3000/94.3) x (1/76.06)
= 0.42

y = 0.51
z = 0.42

= 0.5 ( 1 + ( 0.2) + )
6.3.1.2(2)

Where imperfection factor, corresponding to the appropriate


buckling curve should be obtained from
Table 6.1 and Table 6.2.
h/b = 355.6/368.6
= 0.96

Table 6.2

h/b = 0.96

For rolled section grade S355 with h/b < 1.2 and tf 100mm, buckling
about y-y axis .: buckling curve b
For rolled section grade S355 with h/b < 1.2 and tf 100mm, buckling
about z-z axis .: buckling curve c

MAT

STRUCTURAL STEELWORK & TIMBER DESIGN - ECS328


STEEL COLUMN DESIGN
NOV13 MAC14

Table 6.1

For buckling curve b .: Imperfection factor , y = 0.34


For buckling curve c .: Imperfection factor , z = 0.49
2

y= 0.5 (1 + ( 0.2) + )
= 0.5(1+0.34(0.51-0.2)+0.512)
= 0.68

y = 0.34
z = 0.49
2

z= 0.5 (1 + ( 0.2) + )
= 0.5(1+0.49(0.42-0.2)+0.422)
= 0.64

y = 0.68
z = 0.64

.: Reduction factor, X = 1 / ( + 2 - 2 )
Xy= 1 / ( + 2 - 2 )
= 1 / (0.68 + 0.682 - 0.512)
= 0.8851

Xz = 1 / ( + 2 - 2 )
= 1 / (0.64 + 0.642 - 0.422)
= 0.8905

Xy= 0.8851
Xz = 0.8905

In case of different value of reduction factor, take the more onerous


effect.
.: Buckling resistance Nb,Rd = (X A fy ) / M1 (eq. 6.47)
= (0.8851 x 16400 x 355) / 1.0
= 5,153.05 kN

Nb,Rd = 5,153.05 kN

NEd /Nb,Rd 1 (eq. 6.46)


3,500 / 5,153.05 = 0.68 < 1 .: section is satisfactory for buckling
resistance

10

MAT