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MAE 3293

Compressible Fluid Flow


August 19th, 2015

Outline
Chapter 1
Review
Fluids
Thermodynamics

Control Volume Theory


Mass
Momentum

Chapter1: Review
Fluid
Substance that cannot sustain a shear stress
Liquids & Gases

Liquid
Assumed to have constant density
Incompressible

Review
Gases
Change in density with pressure
State Equation

p RT

Compressible
The focus of this course

Review
Ideal Gas Law

p RT
RR

MM air

kg
28.97

MM

kg mole

Rair .287 kJ

R 8314.3 J

kg K

Appendix H for other gases

kg mole K

Review
Coefficient of Viscosity ()
Relates shearing stress applied to fluid to the
resulting shearing strain
is small for most fluids (gases)

Viscous layer (BL)


Outside BL
inviscid

Review
From Fluid Mechanics
Internal Energy (u)
Based on temperature
Perfect gas
cv

u u(T )

u
T

du cv dT

u2 u1 cv dT cv T2 T1
2

InternalE e

E 1 2 cvT
2v
2

Review
From Fluid Mechanics cont
Enthalpy (h)
p
hu

cp

dh du d

h
T

p
du RdT

h2 h1 c p dT c p T2 T1
2

c p c R

cp
c

Recap/Questions

What do we need?
To solve compressible fluid problems
Need set of equations to supplement those
used for incompressible flow
Variable density & temperature

Control Volume
Lagrangian approach
Fixed mass of fluid

Eulerian approach
Fixed volume in flow field
Relates movement of mass, momentum, &
energy across boundaries to changes within the
control volume

Control Volume

Control Volume
Reynolds Transport Theory

Where
X = mass/momentum/energy of the fluid
x = unit/mass

What do we need?
To solve compressible fluid problems
Need set of equations to supplement those
used for incompressible flow

Continuity
Momentum
1st & 2nd Law of Thermo
State Equation

Conservation of Mass
Conservation of Mass
A.K.A Continuity Equation

Substitute total mass of the system


Assume fixed mass system
X=m
x = m/m = 1

Conservation of Mass
Rate of increase of mass within the control
volume must equal the net rate of mass flux
into the control volume (Book)
Time rate of increase of mass inside Vol is
equal to the net mass inflow thru surface of
Vol

u 0

Conservation of Mass
Remember
VA
m
If SS

Conservation of Momentum
Conservation of Momentum
Recall Force Equation

Conservation of Momentum
Time rate of change of the linear momentum is
equal to the sum of all external forces acting on
the system (Book)
Time rate of change of increase of momentum
inside Vol is equal to the sum of exterior forces
plus the net momentum inflow thru Sur by a
fluid

u u u p
tt

Conservation of Momentum
If SS

Next time
Continue Chapt 1
Review
Control Volume Approach
Conservation of Mass/Momentum
Example

Conservation of Energy

Thermodynamics
The basics of Compressible Flow