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POTENTIAL OF MUNICIPAL SOLID

WASTE FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY


PRODUCTION AND REDUCTION OF
GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN
THESSALONIKI, GREECE
N.D. CHARISIOU*,**, M.A. GOULA*
* Laboratory of Alternative Fuels and Environmental Catalysis (LAFEC),
Department of Environmental Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of
Western Macedonia (TEIWM), Koila, Kozani, 50100, Greece
** Department of Environmental & Natural Resources Management, University of
Western Greece, Agrinio, Greece

SUMMARY: Municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Greece lags behind the practices
adopted by most of the EU-17 countries. The predominant method for managing MSW remains
land disposal, with 92% of the total being disposed without prior treatment in both controlled
landfills and open dumps, and only approximately 8% recycled at source. Thessaloniki is the
second largest city in Greece, with a population that exceeds one million inhabitands (in the
greater metropolitan area) and it can be considered as a typical, large Mediterranean city. The
average rate of solid waste generation rate per capita per day has been estimated at 1.5 kg/cap.d,
based on records of populations and weight of refuse accepted. It should be noted that the MSW
produced in the prefecture, correspond to approximately 9% of the total MSW produced in
Greece. The present study investigates the difference that the implementation of Directive
1999/31/EC will have on LFG production and the possible energy exploitation of Thessalonikis
landfill sites.
1. INTRODUCTION
The Sixth Environmental Action Programme (2002-2012) sets out key environmental objectives
to be attained. One of the overall aims is to decouple the use of resources and the generation of
waste from the rate of economic growth (Article 2). The Thematic Strategy on Prevention and
Recycling of Waste stated that The long-term goal is for the EU to become a recycling society
that seeks to avoid waste and uses waste as a resource. With high environmental reference
standards in place the internal market will facilitate recycling and recovery activities. (European
Commission, 2005a; 2005b). The amended Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) includes
new recycling targets on waste from households and construction and demolition waste and says

Proceedings Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium
S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 30 September 4 October 2013
2013 by CISA Publisher, Italy

Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium

in its preamble 28 that the Directive should help move the EU closer to a recycling society,
seeking to avoid waste generation and to use waste as a resource. Before 2008, the Packaging
and Packaging Waste Directive of 1994 and 2004 created incentives for recycling MSW as well
since a great part of packaging waste can be found in the municipal waste stream. Further, the
Landfill Directive (99/31/EC) has set targets for the level of biodegradable MSW that is allowed
to be landfilled according to a specific timetable.
Landfill of municipal solid waste has been the predominant option in the EU-27 + Norway
and Switzerland on aggregated level for several years but this is changing. In 1995 the average
landfill rate was 68% but in 2007 this had fallen to 40%. The diversion of MSW away from
landfill is expected to continue, so that only 28% of MSW would be landfilled in 2020.
Recycling of municipal waste is assumed to reach a level of 49% and incineration of waste with
energy recovery 23% in 2020. This future distribution of landfill, incineration with energy
recovery and recycling represents a business-as-usual scenario that is based on an assessment
taking into account previous developments in municipal waste management and the implementation of planned policy measures. Still, the projection shows that due to the considerable
increase in waste amounts, a slight increase in the absolute amount of landfilled waste is seen
from 2017 (ETC/SCP working paper 4/2011).
Electricity generation from landfill gas is a well established and proven technology in the EU.
In most schemes the gas is burned in a reciprocating engine which turns a generating set,
although a dual fuel or gas turbine can be used. Reciprocating engines tend to have a lower cost
and are available in smaller unit sizes; they suffer from corrosion caused by acidic species in the
landfill gas, although the lubricating oils used in spark-ignited engines do provide some
protection against acidic combustion products. Gas turbines have less corrosion problems, but
are more expensive and need a consistent gas quality; they also need a much higher gas delivery
pressure, so that installation and operation of the gas compressors is also more expensive. There
is generally no use for the power generated on the landfill site itself so that a connection to the
electricity distribution network is necessary. Electricity generation plant for landfill gas is
available in modular units that are installed as turnkey packages (Bates et al, 2001)
Landfill gas has too low a calorific value to enable it to be fed directly into the natural gas
network, but it is possible to produce a synthetic natural gas from it. A number of techniques are
available that can achieve this by removing non-combustible components such as carbon
dioxide, and trace gases such as hydrogen sulphide. The main cleaning techniques include: (i)
water scrubbing, (ii) solvent extraction, (iii) membrane separation, (iv) pressure swing
absorption, (v) iron oxide beds, (vi) activated carbon adsorption. The gas must then be
pressurised before being fed into the gas distribution network. This option is only feasible if
there is an extensive natural gas distribution system, so that the gas does not have to be
transported long distances from the landfill site. Thus while this option is relatively costeffective in terms of methane abatement and would be profitable for a landfill owner, it is only
feasible at landfill sites located close to a gas pipeline. This limits the applicability of this option.
The GHG direct emissions from municipal waste management consist mainly of methane
emissions from landfill and energy-related GHG emissions from the collection and management
of waste. There are also avoided GHG emissions from energy consumption due to recycling of
secondary materials compared to the production of virgin materials, incineration or the use of
collected landfill gas for energy recovery. Life-cycle information allows a calculation to be made
of these avoided emissions that represent the benefit of recycling for manufacturing materials
and for incineration or landfilling producing energy instead of using fossil fuels and virgin
materials. At least 50 to 60 % of MSW consists of materials of biogenic origin (like food and

Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium

garden waste, wood, paper and cardboard and partly textiles). Because of the assumption that
biogenic CO2 emissions are climate neutral, CO2 emissions from waste incineration plants,
measured per produced energy unit, are much lower than from a fossil fuel-fired power plant
(ETC/SCP working paper 4/2011).
Municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Greece lags behind the practices adopted by
most of the EU-17 countries. The predominant method for managing MSW remains land
disposal, with 92% of the total being disposed without prior treatment in both controlled landfills
and open dumps, and only approximately 8% recycled at source. Thessaloniki is the second
largest city in Greece, with a population that exceeds one million inhabitands (in the greater
metropolitan area) and it can be considered as a typical, large Mediterranean city. The average
rate of solid waste generation rate per capita per day has been estimated at 1.5 kg/cap.d, based on
records of populations and weight of refuse accepted. It should be noted that the MSW produced
in the prefecture, correspond to approximately 9% of the total MSW produced in Greece. The
present study investigates the difference that the implementation of Directive 1999/31/EC will
have on LFG production and the possible energy exploitation of Thessalonikis landfill sites.

2. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MSW


2.1 Estimation of MSW generation
For the estimation of the future municipal solid waste generation, a major factor is the population
growth. Population growth is affected by both local and national conditions. Its widely accepted
that as a population increases and/or standards of living improve, waste generation increases too.
In this study the compound interest method (exponential curve) is used to predict the growth of
the population over the next 38 years in the Prefecture of Thessaloniki. It was estimated that the
mean populations growth rate would be equal to 7x10-3 for the period 2001-2037, which can be
characterized as a slow rate. Therefore, this study predicts that the population in Thessaloniki
County will increase from 1.12 million in 2012 to 1.24 million in 2037 (estimation).
For the estimation of the quantity of municipal solid wastes that will be produced, it is
essential to determine the solid waste generation rate per capita per day (kg/cap.d). This figure
depends on various economic and social parameters and the type of area characterization (urban,
rural and tourist). The average rate of solid waste generation rate per capita per day for the
Tagarades landfill was estimated at 0.8 kg/cap.d in 1987 and 1.25 kg/cap.d in 1998 (Papachristou
et al., 2002). For 2005, the average rate of solid waste generation rate per capita per day was
determined at 1.5 kg/cap.d, based on records of populations and weight of refuse accepted,
according to the Department of Sanitary Landfill & Equipment Services, Association of Local
Municipal Authorities in Thessaloniki (2005). Arguably, the production rate increases over time,
as the population's living conditions improve and their consumption patterns change. Thus, the
trend in the per capita generation rate can be supposed to be a linear dependence of time.
Therefore, the waste generation rate per capita per day in 2037 is expected to reach 2.75
kg/cap.d, assuming that the linear dependence will continue up to that year. Interestingly, this
rate is expected to reach 2.06 kg/cap.d in 2019, equalling that of the USA in 2005 (EPA, 2005).
When the generation rate per capita per day and population projections are known, the
projected total MSW generation can be calculated. In 2005, the annual MSW generation was
about 610 Ktn/y, while this number will be expected to be doubled in 2037. For the purpose of
this study, it is assumed that the amount of total MSW generation is the same to the total MSW

Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium

landfilling.
2.2 Composition of MSW
Several composition studies have been conducted in Greece in the past years. Unfortunately,
they were not carried out using the same methodology or under organized regional solid waste
management planning (Alexaki and Agapitidis, 1995). Studies on MSW composition results,
referring to the urban area of the Prefecture of Thessaloniki, are shown in Table 1.
According to the figures presented in table 1, the OFMSW fraction was found to be over at
approximately 30% (Poulios and Papachristou, 2005). It should also be noted that the quantities
of paper send for landfilling equals to 37%, despite the recycling efforts of the local and regional
authorities. Therefore, biodegradables (organics and paper) account for over 50% of the total
MSW, according to the latest available studies.
Table 1: MSW composition (%)
Year
2005-2006 (1)
2007 (2)

Organic
s
28.8
30.0

Paper
23.2
37.0

Plastic

Glass

19.2
19.0

Metals

3.6
2.0

3.5
3.0

Inert
7.1
2.0

Other
5.8
4.5

L.W.T.R.
8.8
2.5

LWTR, leather-wood-textile-rubber
Adapted from Association of Local Municipal Authorities on Thessaloniki
(2)
Adapted from Hellenic Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and public Work

(1)

It would be safe enough to assume that the percentage of digestives in MSW will continue to
increase in the future, despite the intensification of recycling efforts. For the purposes of the
present study, the authors have used 54% as the maximum biodegradable percentage in MSW for
the time period 2008-2037. Thus, the maximum biodegradable generation rate per capita per day
for the Thessaloniki Prefecture and for the time period 2008-37 is estimated at 1.15 kg/cap.d
while the total quantity of biodegradables for this 30 year period will expected to be 15.5 Mtn

2.3 Composition of biomass in MSW and methane generation


Table 2 shows the elemental analysis of the OFMSW in the Prefecture of Thessaloniki. The
molecular type of the organic fraction was derived by using the atomic weights of these elements
and was found to be C24.32 H40.6 O15.98 N. The moisture and ash content of the biodegradable wastes
has an average value of 29.20% and 31.25% respectively (Association of Local Municipal
Authorities in Thessaloniki, 2006). Thus the total dry weight of the organic fraction in MSW is
approximately 214 kg (C24.32 H40.6 O15.98 N) / tn. Using the stoichiometry it can be concluded that
the biogas produced will contain 53% of methane and 47% of carbon dioxide.
Table 2: Elemental analysis of the organic fraction
Element
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen (1)

Atomic Weight
12.0
1.01
16.0

Percentage (%) Weight (g) Moles


42.9
429
35.7
6.03
60.3
59.7
37.6
376
23.5

Atomic percentage (N=1)


24.3
40.6
15.9

Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium

Nitrogen
(1)

14.0

2.06

20.6

1.47

1.00

Adapted from Tchobanoglous et al., 1993

3. DIVERSION OF THE ORGANIC FRACTION FROM THE LANDFILL


As has been mentioned above, the Directive 1999/31/EC demands that a portion of the
biodegradable fraction of MSW should be diverted from land filling. The Directive envisages
that this diversion will take place gradually and that the base year will be 1995. The authors of
this study have determined that the MSW generation in 1995 in the Prefecture of Thessaloniki
was about 405 Ktn, while 58.5 % (264 Ktn) of that figure consisted of biodegradable materials.
Figure 1 shows the tn/year of the OFMSW that will be disposed of in landfills up to 2038 with
and without diversion.
800.000

Biodegradable MSW (tn/y)

700.000

w ithout diversion

600.000
500.000
400.000
after diversion

300.000
200.000

100.000

25%

25%

15%

0
2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

Year

Figure1 Estimation of OFMSW disposed of in landfills with and without diversion (2008 2037)

3.1 Estimation of landfill gas production


For the estimation of the produced biogas, the authors used the Landfill Gas Emissions Model
(LandGEM), which has been developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the
USA. he model is based on a first-order decomposition rate equation which estimates annual
emissions from the decomposition of landfilled wastes in MSW landfills over a time period, and
is expressed as seen in:
n

QCH 4

i 1

M i kti , j
kL
j 0,1 o 10 e

Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium

where QCH4 = annual methane emission rate (m3/year); n = the number of years of waste
placement; i =1 year time increment; j = 0.1 year time increment; k = methane generation rate
constant, (year-1); Lo = methane generation potential; (m3/Mg), Mi = mass of solid waste placed in
year, (Mg); ti,j = the age of the jth section of waste mass Mi in the ith year
The mean, annual rainfall for the area where the landfill of Mavrorahi site (western sector) is
located is 619 mm, according to the Association of Local Municipal Authorities in Thessaloniki,
Main Planning Study - Total Management of Western-Eastern Sector (2000), so it should be
considered as semi arid. The values of the parameters that have been used in order to calculate
the biogas production are K = 0.03 year-1, Lo = 102.3 m3/Mg, CH4 = 53 %

3.2 Evaluation of the Energy Potential


It is assumed that all MSW for the period 2008-2037 will be disposed of at Mavrorahi site.
Figure 2 shows the total biogas production as calculated using the LandGEM method with (as
provided by 1999/31/EC) and without diversion. In the former case, the reduction in the
production of methane (and thus of biogas), is approximately 59.6%. Therefore, the energy
potential that remains is approaching 40.84% of the total theoretical potential that would be
achieved without the diversion of the organic fraction. The maximum values for methane
production are reached in 2038 (24.6 and 60.7 Mm 3 with and without diversion respectively), the
year that the landfill will seize operating.

Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium

CH4 Emission (m /y)

7,0E+07
6,0E+07

w ithout
dive rs ion

5,0E+07

afte r dive rsion

4,0E+07
3,0E+07
2,0E+07
1,0E+07
0,0E+00
2000

2050

2100

2150

2200

Year

Figure 2. Estimation of the rate for methane produced with and without diversion (2008 2037)

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


4.1 Capture of landfill gas

Total CH

4 production(m

Several practical factors influence the possibility of capturing the total volume of LFG
generated. The most important are: a) LFG losses to the atmosphere through the surface, b)
losses through lateral gas migration, c) pre-closure loss due to the decomposition of organic
material under aerobic conditions, d) internally stored in the landfill volume and e) other losses
such as wash out of organic carbon via leachate (Spokas and Bogner, 1993; Johanessen, 1999).
Even with well-designed cover, few landfills are thought to recover more than 60% of the
available LFG. Normally recovery rates are considered to be in the range of 40-50% by volume
(Johanessen, 1999). Gas recovery efficiencies have been estimated to be in the range of 50-75%,
based on measured gas extraction rates divided by modelled gas generation rates (IPCC
Guidelines, 2006). There have been various attempts to measure efficiencies at gas recovery
projects. However, the results vary enormously as the efficiencies reported range between 10 and
85%. A more conservative approach is to estimate total recovery at 35% of the installed
capacities. Based on Dutch and US studies recovered amounts varied from 35 to 70 percent of
capacity rates (IPCC Guidelines, 2006). Experience suggests that these values are closer to
Greek practice and therefore have been adopted in this study. Figure 3 presents the estimated
volume of methane to be captured with and without diversion.
Even though the present study is concerned with the development of biogas production for a
period of 20 years, it should be mentioned that biogas generation will continue beyond this time
period. It can be proven that if the landfill was to be operational from 2008 to 2037 the optimum
3,5E+09
period for biogas production
would be from 2030 to 2049. In the case that the use of biogas
began at the beginning
3,0E+09of the landfill's operation, lasting for a period
100% of 20 years (2010-2029,
project 1), then the 2,5E+09
total biogas to be utilised would be 55.12% less, in comparison with the best
20 year period (2030-2049).
70%
2,0E+09
1,5E+09
35%
70%

1,0E+09
5,0E+08

35%

0,0E+00
1970

2000

2030

2060

2090

YEAR

2120

2150

2180

Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium

Figure 3: Capture of CH4 without diversion and after diversion


It has been estimated that only 52% of the available biogas in the landfill's reservoir would be
utilised in the aforementioned 40 year period. If the utilisation period was to be extended by a
further 20 years (2049-2068), then this percentage would reach 76%. The biogas low heating
value (LHV) containing 53% of methane has been calculated at 18 MJ/m 3. The energy content of
the total biogas produced in the landfill for each different scenario is presented on table 3.
Table 3 shows that the difference in the energy content with and without diversion of the
OFMSW in the best and worst LFG recovery efficiencies cases respectively, is 12% for the 1 st
twenty-year period 17% for the 2nd twenty-year period, regardless of the scenario under
investigation.
Table 3 Energy content of LFG that can be utilized

Capture efficiency
Energy content 1st twenty-year
period (GWh x 10-3/20y)
Energy content 2nd twentyyear period (GWh x 10-3/20y)

Without diversion
Worst case
Best case

After diversion
Worst case
Best case

11.8

23.5

5.17

10.3

67.0

134

55.4

55.4

4.2 Power generation potential


For the landfill under investigation, the possibility to utilise the energy produced for heating
purposes cannot be considered, as the sites are located at considerable distance from possible
users. Therefore, the only viable alternative scenario is electricity production.
To convert the gas flow rates into power potential it is necessary to estimate the Gross Power
Generation Potential (GPGP). This is the installed power generation capacity that the gas flow
can support. It does not account for parasitic loads from auxiliary systems and equipment, or for
system down time. The GPGP is estimated using the following formula:
GPGP = QLFG x ECbiogas x nef
where GPGP is the gross power generation potential (MW), Q LFG is the net quantity of landfill

Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium

gas (m3/s) that is captured by the collection system, processed, and delivered to the power
generation equipment, ECbiogas is the biogas energy content which is approximately 18 MJ/m 3 and
nef is the system electrical efficiency (%), which for reciprocating IC engines the typically value
is 35%. Generally, electrical efficiency increases as engine size becomes larger.
The Net Power Generation Potential (NPGP) is the Gross Power Generation Potential less the
parasitic loads from compressors and other auxiliary equipment. Parasitic loads are estimated at
about 2% for reciprocating IC engines, which are the most widely used technology for
generating electricity at landfills. More than two-thirds of the operational landfills where
electricity is generated, use this type of equipment (IPCC Guidelines, 2006).
Annual Capacity Factor (ACF) is the share of hours in a year that the power generating
equipment is producing electricity at its rated capacity. Typical, ACFs for landfill gas projects
range between 80% and 95% and are based upon generator outage rates (4% to 10% of annual
hours), landfill gas availability, and plant design. For the purposes of this study it is assumed that
the ACF is 90%.
The Annual Electricity Generated (AEG) is the amount of potential electricity generated per
year, measured in MWh taking into account likely energy recovery equipment downtime and is
calculated using the following formula :
AEG(MWh) = NPGP(MW) x 24 hr/day x 365 days/yr x ACF

Gross Power Generation


Potential (MW)

The yearly variation of GPGP is presented at figure 4. In the case where OFMSW is diverted
the maximum gross power value (for 70% recovery) can reach 6.52 MW, while if diversion does
not occur, it can reach 16.07 MW. As biogas production increases over time, it becomes possible
to install additional electricity generating turbines in order to achieve optimal system efficiency.
25

(1)

20

(1a)
15

(1b)
(2a)

10

(2b)
5
0
2000

2050

2100

2150

Ye ars

Figure 4: Variation of gross power generation potential by year. ( 1) All wastes are disposed of at
Mavrorahi without diversion, LFG recovery rate is 100%; (1a, 1b) All wastes are disposed of at
Mavrorahi without diversion, LFG recovery rate is at 70% and 35 % respectively; (2a, 2b) All wastes are
disposed of at Mavrorahi, with OFMSW diversion, LFG recovery rate is at 70% and 35 % respectively

For 90% annual factor capacity and 2% parasitic loads about, the total electrical energy
produced that is uploaded to the grid for the scenarios under investigation is presented in table 4.
The possible mean electricity production increases by 14.2% when the landfill of the western
sector is the only one in operation, regardless of whether diversion takes place or not and
regardless of LFG recovery rate.

Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium

Table 4: Total electricity generated under various scenarios


Without diversion
Worst case
Best case

Capture efficiency
Electricity generated 1st twentyyear period (MWh x 10-6/20y)
Electricity generated 2nd twentyyear period (MWh x 10-6/20y)
Total Electricity generated
(MWh x 10-6/40y)

After diversion
Worst case
Best case

0.47

0.95

0.20

0.40

1.07

2.12

0.43

0.86

1.53

3.06

0.63

1.26

4.3 Energy recovery system


Determining the optimum size for a landfill gas power system requires a careful balance between
maximizing electricity production and landfill gas use. Gas generation increases at an open
landfill and decreases at a closed landfill. For the purposes of this study, the optimum sizing
power system based on full power capacity output for whole period of each project, maximizing
the total actual energy recovery without auxiliary fuel requirements. Based on the optimum
scenario, figure 5 shows both the energy production per year and the energy that will be needed
by the turbines for each project.

Annual electricity generated (MWh)

60.000

Potential
Project 2 required

50.000

Project 1 required
40.000
30.000
20.000
10.000
0
2000

2020

2040

2060

2080

2100

2120

2140

2160

Years

Figure 5: Annual electricity production based on optimum scenario and annual electricity needed
by the turbines (both projects).
For the second project, the mean annual electricity production for the 20 year period 2030 to
2049 that can be delivered to the grid is 37x10 3 MWh, while for the first project is 19.5x10 3
MWh. It should be pointed out that for the latter project and according to the best case scenario
the utilisation of the energy potential of LFG is 53%, while for the former project the figure is
86%, as shown on table 5. In total, the authors believe that it is possible to utilise 75% of the

Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium

LFG energy potential for the first 40 years while the remaining 25% would have to be burned.
Table 5: Total energy potential for the best case scenarios
Operating years Reciprocating ICE
LFG fuel potential (x 10-6)
Electricity exported to grid (MWh x 10-6)
LFG flared (MWh x 10-6)
Maximum utilisation of the LFG energy potential
Reciprocating ICE sizing / power capacity

Project 1
11
0.402
0.214
0.187
53%
2 x 1.3MW
= 2.6 MW

Project 2
20
0.856
0.734
0.122
86%
4 x 1.3MW

Total
31
1.258
0.949
0.309
75%

= 5.2 MW

The reciprocating internal combustion engine represents the most commonly used technology
for electric energy generation from LFG. The reason is mainly due to the compatibility of the
power with the economic feasibility of the system. In fact, a suitable system size for acceptable
economic revenue is between one to three MW, and the investment cost of the ICE for that size
is generally reasonable. Moreover, ICEs are a consolidated technology, and the related economic
risks are very low compared to the other technologies. (Bove and Lunghi, 2006).
The study for the best case scenario showed that two engines of 1,300 kW each would be
viable in 1st project and four engines of 1,300 kW each would be viable in the 2 nd project. These
engines have a lifetime between 25 and 50 years when properly managed. Therefore, for a period
of 31 years (which stretches over both projects) it is feasible to use four reciprocating engines
with an installed capacity of 1.3MW each and a further two for the rest of the time period (20
years), as shown at table 5.

5. CONCLUSIONS
The gradual diversion of the organic fraction in MSW from landfill disposal that Directive
1999/31/EC provides for, will undoubtedly have an impact on the biogas energy potential of
such sites. This study has investigated these impacts for an urban landfill site located in
Thessaloniki Prefecture that has yet to begin operating. After quantitative and qualitative
analysis of the organic fraction of MSW for the aforementioned area, it has been calculated that
the biogas to be produced will contain 53% of methane and 47% of carbon dioxide, while the
rate of methane generation has been calculated at about 102.3 m 3 per Mg of MSW landfilled.
The landfill gas to be produced has been calculated with the use of the theoretical design model
LandGEM (version 3.02), which has been developed by EPA, of the USA government. It has
been found that compliance with the Directive would lead to a total reduction of 59.16% in
biogas production. This percentage is not affected by the different scenarios that have been under
investigation. It has been calculated that for the first 42 years of the landfill's operation, the total
electrical energy that will be uploaded on to the grid could reach 950x103 Mwh.

AKNOWLEDGEMENTS (unnumbered list)


The authors of this study are grateful to the Association of Local Municipal Authorities in
Thessaloniki for making available data, without which this study would not have been possible.

Sardinia 2013, Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium

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