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0 Literature Review

The vital term of this action research is possessive pronoun. A pronoun

can function as a noun phrase used by itself and that refers either to the participants in the
discourse or to someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the discourse (Stevenson,
2010). Possessive is derived from the base word possess which means to have belonging to
one or to have ownership. In grammar, possessive pronoun is a pronoun indicating
possession. It is used to indicate who or what owns something.

In the year of 1987, two researcher, Wilkins and Rogers conducted an experiment
and research on possessive pronouns. It was done in the United Kingdom in the past few
years before the journal was accepted. Twenty-four children between the ages of two and a
half and five years were given paint boxes such that they either shared one box between two
or owned one box each. They were then asked to point to the boxes as specified by
possessive pronouns: either plural possessive pronouns or pairs of singular possessive
pronouns. The use of plural possessive pronouns adversely affected performance in all
groups, but the type of ownership of the paint boxes did not. The results also suggest that the
third-person pronouns cause fewest problems for children while second-person pronouns
cause most. The findings are discussed in terms of the order of acquisition of plural
pronouns, and the reasons that plural pronouns should cause more problems than singular
possessive pronouns. (S.J. Wilkins, 1987)

In the research by Wilkins and Rogers, it is stated that children will have more
problems in learning plural possessive pronouns than the singular possessive pronouns.
Wilkins (1980) in his other research reveals that plural pronouns occur later in acquisition
than singulars and thus might be said to be more difficult for children to grasp. In this
research, they were only able to find out the reason of why it is harder for children to learn
plural possessive pronouns than singular possessive pronouns. They did not mention any

countermeasure. (S.J. Wilkins, 1987) Based on this reserach, it is shown that possessive
pronouns also need to be take care of. When i identified that problem, I try to come out with
an intervention that will help them to remeber and understand on how to use the possessive
pronouns correctly.

The idea of using colour coding as a medium to help pupils in their

learning is very helpful. Kenneth Fehrman, co-author of the book, Color: The Secret Influence
states that, Most people are unaware of the profound effect color has on their behavior.
(R.Fehrman, 2003) Colors play a vital role in our daily lives and it has been proven that our
activities and responses are influenced by them. Colour is also an important tool in visual
thinking. It separates ideas so they can be seen more clearly; it stimulates creativity and aids
the memory. Colour captures and directs attention. Even conventionally outlined notes can
benefit from colour coding; maps, cluster maps, mandalas, and most expressive drawings
are considerably more effective in colour (Williams 1983: 107) (Gnoinska, 1998). Thus,
through colour it will help the pupils to memorize better and this will help them to easily
understand the concept of possessive pronouns.

Using colour in a number of ways produces similar results: students

concentrate better, spend more time processing a word, and find learning more interesting
and pleasant. Colour is useful in learning and revising, as well as making students and
teachers aware of the way they approach certain tasks. Neuropsychologists, for instance,
give students four pens and have them work with each pen in a specific order for a specified
period of time (red pen for three minutes, then blue for three minutes, and so on). The results
reveal a good deal about how the students did the task, what was done first, second, or third
(Williams 1986:107). This research shown that by using colour, the learning can be more
meaningful. Apart from it can help pupils to concentrate better, it also make the teaching and
learning session more interesting and pleasant.

Next, the US Navy has conducted a study on colour coordination where

they introduced the colour to the environment and the result showed a drop of accident
frequency from 6.4 to 4.6. From this study, I can say that, colour helps the pupils to stay
focus in the lesson as what is happened to the participants in above study. Colour is
demonstrated effectiveness on improving the pupils attention span as well as increase the
productivity in a classroom. (Engelbrecht, 2003).

Hence, by using the Rainbow Magic

Cards, I hope it will the pupils to enhance their understanding towards the topic. Thus by that
they will be able to use the possessive pronouns correctly.