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for the

Teaching of Mathematics in China

by

Yanming Wang

Suzhou Railway Teachers College

Suzhou

China

Yanming Wang

1.

Changes in schooling

First we look at some historical facts. Before 1949, most schools were run by either the

state or private sectors. The curriculum content and systems of schools were almost

identical. After 1949, the Chinese school system was similar to the USA scheme; that is

there were

*

The junior schools and senior schools together comprised the middle schools. There were

also various technical, commercial, vocational and teacher training schools where students

usually spent three years.

Students could enter the technical, commercial, vocational and teacher training schools

when they had graduated from junior school and passed the entrance examination. Students

could enter college or university when they had graduated from senior school and passed

the entrance examination.

A large number of schools were government maintained. They belonged to the country or

local provinces. The whole education system in China achieved excellent results during the

1949 to 1966 period. But in 1966, when the cultural revolution began in China, the

education system and teaching methods were changed and the students went to the

factories and countryside to work, so their basic scientific education was much reduced.

In 1978, the pre-1996 education system was reintroduced. Students had to pass an

entrance examination before entering college or university. Education again became an

important characteristic in China. This period is called the Spring of Science.

In the 1990's, the education system was completely reformed so that there is now a 9-year

compulsory education system with

*

If students want to enter senior schools and receive higher education, they must pay for

part of the tuition.

Private elementary schools and middle schools have been established and there are also

some private colleges and universities. During the 1980's some industrially-supported

schools were founded. So there are various types of schools in China, but most schools are

still government maintained.

The colleges and universities offer masters degrees and doctorates as well as undergraduate

courses, but most of the educational research programs and experiments are controlled by

the Education Ministry.

Yanming Wang

2.

After 1949, the general schools had curricula issued by the Education Ministry. They

were similar to the USSR curricula. The elementary schools and middle schools changed

their curricula content about every four years. In addition there were some complementary

curricula issued for special mathematical classes.

After 1978, the curricula content and teaching methods were reformed and innovations

were brought in. A new curriculum was issued by the Education Minister which was

followed by new mathematics textbooks and other teaching and learning materials.

Currently the new textbooks for the 9-year compulsory education period published by the

People's Education Press are used by about 70% of elementary and middle schools whilst

some elementary and middle schools use their own resources.

3.

(a)

Numbers and Operations

Measurements

Basic Algebra

Basic Geometry

Basic Application of Mathematics

(b)

Algebra:

Equations and Inequalities: first degree, quadratic, systems of equations (linear and

quadratic), irrational, logarithmic;

Sequences and Series: arithmetic, geometric;

Geometry: congruency and similarity, notable lines and points of triangle, angles of

triangle, relation between the angles and sides, Pythagorean theorem, circle - Thales

theorem, circumferential and central angles, chord quadrangle, tangent quadrangle;

Probability and Statistics

(c)

Functions:

Transformations.

Sets Theory:

Trigonometry:

Relations of trigonometric functions;

Sine theorem, Cosine theorem;

Sin(A+B), Cos(A+B), Tan(A+B), Cotan(A+B);

Proof of Tangent theorem.

2

Yanming Wang

Operation with vectors;

Coordinates of a sharing point of a section;

Equations of straight line, circle, parabola;

Centroid of tetrahedron;

Distance between point and line, between parallel lines;

Equations of bisectrix;

Equations of ellipse and hyperbola;

General features of the conical sections;

Standard equation of plane;

Equations of sphere, cylinder, rotation surface.

Space Geometry:

Concepts of points and lines and planes in space;

Property of points and lines, lines and lines, lines and planes;

Planes and planes;

Property of Cube, Cuboid and cylinder and Sphere.

Complex Numbers:

Concept of complex numbers, representation, conjugation;

Operations with complex numbers;

Trigonometric form of complex numbers;

De Moivre's theorem;

Extraction of roots of complex numbers;

Roots of Unity

Analysis:

Limit of functions in the finite and infinite;

Continuity of functions;

Rules of differentiation.

Series:

Geometric series, sum of convergent geometric series.

Probability:

Elements of classical probability;

Probability fields;

Elements of statistics including mean and standard deviation

Yanming Wang

4.

There are elementary teacher training schools and middle teacher training colleges or

universities in China.

Students can enter the elementary teacher training schools after they finish study in

junior schools, but they must pass the entrance examination. Students must study three

years in the elementary teacher training school. They learn Chinese, mathematics, history,

art and music and some ICT. Before graduating, they go to the elementary schools for

teaching practice for about six months. Emphasis is placed on the experience of teaching.

In the elementary schools, students first observe lessons and then teach the pupils and

check homework. Some students have contact with the parents of the pupils and help the

pupils to make more progress.

Students can enter the middle teacher training college or normal university after they

finish their study in senior schools, but they must pass the entrance examination like those

who want to enter other colleges and universities. At teacher training colleges, maths

teachers are trained at university level in mathematical subjects. But the mathematical

teaching methodology, its training system and practice is stronger at these colleges than in

universities. The students usually have 6 to 8 weeks teaching practice in middle schools.

They first observe and then teach pupils, and must complete a report about their practice.

5.

Chinese mathematics teachers in general agree that the teaching and learning of

mathematics must:

*

for pupils' future needs.

The good practice of teaching involves the pupils being active in the process and makes

them respect and, hopefully, enjoy mathematics, recognizing its usefulness and

appreciating the subject in its own right.

We would like to give all our pupils a depth of mathematical understanding because we

think it is a worthwhile and necessary part of their culture. But alongside the traditional

teaching approaches, teachers are now innovating with whole class interactive teaching

with the focus on the teacher.

Our interactive teaching means that the teachers try to instruct pupils in discovering

mathematical facts by themselves. We call it the method of discovery. We like this method

and use it in class teaching. Many teachers now also do their best to introduce new

teaching methods, such as "flexible teaching" and "different degree teaching" in which the

content is differentiated according to the ability of the pupils.

Yanming Wang

So they try to help make pupils more interested in learning mathematics. For example, by:

*

using computers.

They try to get pupils motivated, wanting to learn mathematics by themselves. They want

to develop the mathematical skills and abilities of pupils and encourage their creativity in

mathematics.

Pupils gain excellent results for their hard work. The mathematical abilities of Chinese

pupils are comparatively at a high level. They have, for example, good results in the

Mathematical Olympiad.

6.

In general, pupils have to pass a mathematics test, set by their teacher, at the end of every

term. As an example, Appendix 1 gives a sample of the end of elementary school test in

mathematics (for pupils age 12+).

There are also two important examinations in China. The first examination is a test for

pupils entering senior school after they have finished their studies at junior school (at

age 15+) . This is a local (not national) examination and a sample paper is given in

Appendix 2.

The second and the most important examination is the national entrance examination for

college or university. If pupils want to enter higher education institutions, they must take

the examination of mathematics. It is difficult for pupils but parents want their children to

go to good universities and pupils need to get high scores in mathematics for this.

Appendix 3 gives a sample test for ALL pupils at the end of Senior school (age 18+) and

Appendix 4 gives a sample national test paper in mathematics for University entrance.

7.

There are a number of issues and concerns in mathematics education presently; these

include:

(1)

some teachers feel that the textbooks are too difficult for the pupils and need

rewriting in a more motivational style;

(2)

some people hope for more reform and innovation in the teaching of mathematics;

(3)

there is tremendous pressure from parents and society for pupils to achieve high

levels of attainment in both primary and middle schools;

and

(4)

the biggest pressure on both pupils and parents is that of entry to higher education,

where there are not nearly enough places for the demand and only the highest

attainers get places.

Overall though, we are proud of our maths teaching and the levels of attainment achieved

by most pupils at school in China.

5

APPENDIX 1

CHINA

July 1999

(Age 12+)

PART A

1

hours in hours and minutes.

3

1.

Express 4

2.

3 tons 50 kilograms =

4.

tons

: 8 = 0.75 =

3.

hrs

A = 20, B = 50.

15

A is

% =

16

% of B.

B is more than A by

5.

%.

1

, 3.14, 3 , 3.15%

8

is

(a)

the largest ?

(b)

the smallest ?

6.

1 0.2 =

7.

mins

8.

9.

The surface area of the cube =

cm 2

cm 3

The area of the playground =

10.

m2

The ratio A : B =

PART B

For each of the following statements, write in the box whether it is TRUE or FALSE.

2

4

3

and is .

5

5

5

1.

2.

are in the ratio of their heights.

3.

put together to form a parallelogram.

4.

For a cone and a cylinder, both with the same height and base

1

area, the volume of the cone is the volume of the cylinder.

3

PART C

Calculate:

1.

101 65

2.

73

3.

5.4 + 1

4.

5.

6.

4 25

7.

(4 0.5) (0.5 4)

8.

3

5

=

=

1

5

1

8

3

3

4

1

8

PART D

Solve for x:

2

3

1.

x : 5 = 0.6 : 1

x =

2.

1 3 x 0.75 4 = 32

4

x =

3.

x =

PART E

Calculate:

1.

2.

25 1.25 4 8 =

3.

12

4.

765+

5.

1

2

2

13 1 + 6.5 2 1 =

5

3

3

3

7

7.25 1

=

5

20

3

2 =

4

PART F

1.

Circumference =

Area =

2.

Distance =

cars

the same task.

If A and B work together, how many days will it take them to

1

complete of the task?

3

6.

days

250 toys per day he can complete the order in 12 days.

How many days will it take him to complete the order if he

makes 300 toys per day?

7.

tons

per day

to be 7200. In fact, 15% more cars than this were made.

What was the total number of cars made?

5.

km

It produces 80 tons of goods per day for the first 3 days.

How many tons of goods must be produced per day in the final two days?

4.

cm 2

At the same time, train B leaves station D and travels to station C at a

speed of 45 km/h.

The trains cross when they have been travelling for 4 hours.

What is the distance between stations C and D?

3.

cm

days

of the base of the bucket is 7.5 m 2 . Water is poured into

3

the bucket until it is full. What height is the top of the

4

bucket above the surface of the water?

10

dms

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Entry to Senior School (Age 15+) 1999

APPENDIX 2

CHINA

July 1999

(Age 15+)

1.

4 = ?

(a) 2

(b)

(c)

(d)

16

(4 marks)

2.

(a)

64

(b)

54

(c)

144

(d)

36

(4 marks)

3.

What are the coordinates of point P', if P' and P (1, 2) have rotational symmetry?

(a)

( 1, 2)

(b)

( 1, 2)

(c)

( 2, 1)

(d)

(1, 2)

(4 marks)

4.

1

,

x2

In function y =

(a)

x2

(b)

x ?

x>2

(c)

x > 2

(d)

x2

(4 marks)

5.

(a)

rhombus

(b)

rectangle

(c)

equilateral triangle

(d)

circle

(4 marks)

6.

(a)

19.99 10 3

(b)

199.9 10 2

(c)

1.999 10 4

(d)

1.999 10 4

(4 marks)

7.

(a)

a 2 a 3 =a 6

(b)

( 5) = 5

(c)

1 1

2

+ =

a b a+b

(d)

3 2 =

1

9

(4 marks)

8.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

1

(4 marks)

11

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Entry to Senior School (Age 15+) 1999

9.

If the radii of two circles are 3 cm and 5 cm, and the distance between the

centres of the two circles is 2 cm, what can you say about the two circles?

(a)

(b)

(c)

they intersect

(d)

(4 marks)

10.

(a)

120

(b)

60

(c)

40

(d)

30

A

D

E

B

11.

What is the function?

20

(a) y =

(b)

x

(4 marks)

k

passes through the point ( 4, 5).

x

y=

x

20

(c)

y=

20

x

(d)

y=

x

20

(4 marks)

12.

of its exterior angles, how many sides does it have?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

6

(4 marks)

13.

and fourth quadrants, which statement is correct?

(a)

k > 0, b > 0

(b)

k > 0, b < 0

(c)

k < 0, b > 0

(d)

k < 0, b < 0

(4 marks)

14.

what is the area of the curved surface of the cylinder?

(a)

(b)

(c)

16

(d)

8

(4 marks)

15.

PB = BC.

(a)

(c)

3 2

3

(b)

(d)

2 3

(4 marks)

12

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Entry to Senior School (Age 15+) 1999

16.

(a)

3

5

(b)

5

4

(c)

3

, cot B = ?

5

3

4

(d)

4

3

(4 marks)

17.

(a)

2a

(b)

2a

(c)

(d)

2b

(4 marks)

18.

can you say about x 1, x 2 ?

(a)

(c)

x l x 2 x 1, x 2

x l x 2

(b)

(d)

xl= x2

x 1, x 2

uncertain

(4 marks)

19.

following is true?

(a)

b+ca=0

(b)

b+ca>0

(c)

b+ca<0

(d)

uncertain

(4 marks)

20.

1

+ ( 5) +

sin 30

2

= ?

2 +1

(4 marks)

21.

mid-point of CD.

A

(4 marks)

22.

Solve

3 x 2 + 15 x 2 + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 1 = 0

(6 marks)

13

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Entry to Senior School (Age 15+) 1999

23.

At 0600 hours, James leaves A to walk to B.

20 minutes later, Rachel leaves B to cycle to A.

Rachel stays at A for 40 minutes and then cycles back to B, arriving there at the same time as

James.

If Rachel's speed is 10 km per hour faster than James' speed, at what time do they arrive at B ?

(6 marks)

24.

AD has length m and BD has length n. AC 2 : BC 2 = 2 : 1.

The roots of the equation

1 2

x + 2 (n 1) x + m 2 = 12 and x 1 and x 2 and ( x 1 x 2 ) 2 < 192 .

4

(8 marks)

25.

y = x 2 + ( a 3) x + 2b 2 1

pass through the points M and N, where M and N are on the x-axis?

What are the true values of a and b ?

(7 marks)

26.

1

circle, centre O, and cos APB = .

3

Explain why there exists a triangle APB with

maximum area.

What is the maximum area of triangle APB ?

O

A

P

(9 marks)

14

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Graduation from Senior School (Age 18+) 1999

APPENDIX 3

CHINA

July 1999

(Age 18+)

1.

tan 405 = ?

(a)

(b)

(c)

1

2

(d)

1

2

(3 marks)

2.

log 2 5 + log 2

(a)

1

= ?

10

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

(3 marks)

3.

If =

13

,

7

then

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(3 marks)

4.

f 2 ( x) = 2 x ,

f 1 ( x ) = log 1 x ,

2

f 4 ( x) = x 2 3,

f 2 ( x ) = 3 x + 1,

(a)

f 1 ( x)

(b)

f 2 ( x)

(c)

f 3 ( x)

(d)

f 4 ( x)

(3 marks)

5.

Which of the following lines passes through the point (0, 1) and is perpendicular

to y = 2 x + 3 ?

(a)

2x y 1= 0

(b)

x 2y + 2 = 0

(c)

2x y +1= 0

(d)

x 2y 2 = 0

(3 marks)

6.

(a)

30

(b)

45

(c)

60

(d)

150

(3 marks)

15

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Graduation from Senior School (Age 18+) 1999

7.

What is the size of angle B ?

(a)

60

(b)

120

(c)

30

(d)

150

(3 marks)

8.

x +1 < 5 ?

(a)

( , 4)

(b)

( ,

24)

(c)

[ 1, 4)

(d)

[ 1, 24)

(3 marks)

9.

( x

(a)

(b)

no rotational symmetry

(c)

(d)

symmetric about y = x

x 0) , has

(3 marks)

10.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

(3 marks)

11.

satisfies the following conditions:

3

F 1 and F 2 are focus points; F 1 F 2 = 6 ; eccentricity e = .

5

(a)

x2 y2

+

=1

4

5

(b)

x2 y2

+

=1

16 25

(c)

x2 y2

+

=1

5

4

(d)

x2 y2

+

=1

5

16

y

F1

F2

(3 marks)

12.

2

Lim 1 n + 2 n ?

n 4 + n 2

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

1

4

(3 marks)

13.

3

4

If sin = , cos = and < , < ,

5

5

then cos( ) = ?

(a)

25

(b)

7

25

(c)

(d)

0

(3 marks)

16

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Graduation from Senior School (Age 18+) 1999

14.

If complex numbers z 1 = 1 + 2 i, z 2 1 3 i

then the complex conjugate of z 1 + z 2 is

(a)

2i

(b)

2+i

(c)

2 i

(d)

2+i ?

(3 marks)

15.

then b = ?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

17

2

(3 marks)

16.

statements below is correct?

(a)

1

f < f (1) < f (3)

2

(b)

1

f < f (3) < f (1)

2

(c)

1

f (1) < f < f (3)

2

(d)

1

f (1) < f (3) < f

2

(3 marks)

17.

(a)

and b is perpendicular to plane , then a is parallel to b.

(b)

If the straight line a is parallel to the plane , then all straight lines, l,

lying in the plane are parallel to a.

(c)

a straight line, l, in , such that l is perpendicular to .

(d)

to and , then is parallel to .

(3 marks)

18.

In an arithmetic series

{ a n } , if

a 4 + a 5 = 12

then S 8 = ?

(a)

12

(b)

24

(c)

36

(d)

48

(3 marks)

19.

If x > 1 and y = x + 2 +

1

,

x +1

then y min = ?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3

(3 marks)

17

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Graduation from Senior School (Age 18+) 1999

20.

of the curved surface is 8 .

(a)

17

(b)

(c)

2 5

(d)

h=4

5

C

20

(3 marks)

21.

(a)

27 10 C 6

(b)

(x 3)

10

27 40 C 4

(c)

9 10 C 6

9 10 C 4

(d)

(3 marks)

22.

In a batch of 100 lights, 2 are defective. You choose three lights at random from the

batch of 100. In how many ways can you make your choice to include exactly one

defective light?

(a)

100

P3

(b)

100

(c)

C3

P1

98

P2

(d)

C1

98

C 21

(3 marks)

23.

EF = 5 m and BC = 2 m .

A car of height 4 m and width 3 m, is to pass through the

ABCDE shape.

What is the least value of AB for which this can happen?

Give your answer to one decimal place.

(a)

5.0 m

(b)

5.2 m

(c)

5.4 m

(d)

5.6 m

5m

D

A

C

2m

B

(3 marks)

24.

D1

C1

E is the midpoint of D1 D.

(a)

(b)

A1

of the triangle-based pyramid EACD ?

B1

E

C

B

(10 marks)

18

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Graduation from Senior School (Age 18+) 1999

25.

of g ( x ) and the graph of y =

2

1

10 + 1

x

4 2x

are symmetric about y = x 1 .

x 1

Write F ( x ) = f ( x ) + g ( x ).

(a) What is F ( x ) and its domain?

(b) A and B are two points on the graph of F ( x ).

The straight line A B and the y-axis are vertical. Why?

(11 marks)

26.

y-axis as its right directrix and its right focus, F, lies on

( x 1) 2 + ( y 2) 2 = 4 ( x > 0).

(a)

(b)

MF is parallel to the x-axis?

(c)

of the line MF and the right part of the hyperbola, C ?

(10 marks)

19

APPENDIX 4

CHINA

July 1999

(for College or University Entrance)

1.

The shaded part of the diagram is:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(M P ) S

(M P ) S

(M P ) S

(M P ) S

P

S

I

(4 marks)

2.

A = { 3, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3 4}

If map f : A B a A f ( a) = a B

and set B is the image of A under f, how many members are there in set B?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

7

(4 marks)

3.

then g (b) =

(a)

(b)

a 1

(c)

(d)

b 1 ?

(4 marks)

4.

Function f ( x ) = m sin ( w x + q ) ,

f ( a) = m f (b) = m .

( w > 0)

(a) increase

(b)

decrease

(c)

(d)

(4 marks)

5.

(a) sin x

(b)

cos x

(c)

sin 2x

(d)

cos2x ?

(4 marks)

20

6.

as a line of symmetry,

3

5

the straight line = as a line of symmetry,

6

3

the straight line =

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(4 marks)

7.

The same volume of water is put into a circular cone, as shown, with AB = AO = BO .

What is the value of H ?

(a)

6 3 cm

(b)

6 cm

(c)

2 18

(d)

3 3 12 cm

(4 marks)

8.

If 2 x + 3

= a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + a3 x 3 + a4 x 4 , then

(a0 + a2 + a4 ) 2 (a1 + a3 ) 2 = ?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2?

(4 marks)

9.

The area of the sector of the minor arc is equal to

(a)

6

(b)

4

(c)

3

(d)

?

2

(4 marks)

21

10.

3

EF is parallel to AB, EF = . The distance between EF and plane AC is 2.

2

The volume of the polyhedron ABCDEF is

(a)

9

2

(b)

(c)

(d)

15

?

2

F

C

D

A

(4 marks)

11.

2

2

(a)

,

2 2

(b)

, 0

4

(c)

0 ,

(d)

, ?

4 2

(5 marks)

12.

The diagram shows the frustum of a right circular cone with radius = 5.

S1 and S2 are the curved surfaces of two small frustums. S1 : S2 = 1: 2 .

What is the value of R ?

(a)

10

(b)

15

(c)

20

(d)

25

S1

S2

5

R

(5 marks)

22

13.

5

5

Points M and N are given by M 1, , N 4, and four curves have equations

4

4

x2

x2

4.

+ y2=1

y2=1

2

2

For which curves does there exist point p on the curve, such that MP = NP ?

1.

4x + 2y 1= 0

(a)

Equations 1. and 3.

(b)

Equations 2. and 4.

(c)

Equations 1. 2. and 3.

(d)

Equations 2. 3. and 4.

2.

x2+ y2= 3

3.

(5 marks)

14.

A man wants to buy at least 3 videos and a least 2 boxes of floppy disks. Videos cost

60 yuan each and a box of disks costs 70 yuan. He plans to spend no more than 500 yuan.

What is the maximum number of videos and boxes of floppy disks that he can buy?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

8

(5 marks)

15.

The ellipse

x2

y2

+

=1

a2 b2

( a > b > 0)

l1

A

F1

A B = F1 C ,

O

C

x

(4 marks)

16.

You want to plant two crops, A and B in separate strips,

so that there are at least 6 strips separating them.

In how many different ways can you do this?

at least 6

(4 marks)

23

17.

(4 marks)

18.

m , m , n , n .

We now have four results:

2.

1.

mn

3.

4.

Which of these results is correct, so that from three of them you can imply the rest?

(4 marks)

19.

Solve

3 log a x 2 < 2 log a x 1

(a > 0,

a 1)

(10 marks)

20.

then y max = ?

2

and = ? (when y = ymax ).

(12 marks)

21.

point E is on D1 D , plane EAC is parallel to D1 B.

The angle between planes E A C and A B C D is 45 .

D1

A1

AB = a.

(a)

(b)

and A C ?

(c)

C1

B1

C

B

(12 marks)

22.

(a)

If each pair of rollers reducesthe thickness

by a factor r , how many pairs of rollers

are needed?

[ i.e. r =

o o

o

o = input,

24

o = output ]

(b)

thickness of 20%. The circumference of each of the rollers is 1600 mm.

There is a fault on the nth roller, causing a black mark on the steel at regular intervals.

Let L n be the distance between each mark on the steel.

Complete this table:

Fault on Roll, n

L n (mm)

4

1600

(14 marks)

23.

The gradient of the line is b n when

n y n +1

If

(a)

(b)

(c)

(n = 0, 1,

y = f ( x)

2, ... ) .

{x n } is defined by f ( x n ) = n (n = 1, 2, ...) ,

1

f ( x ) = ? What is the domain of f ( x )

Prove that, if

( x , y)

y = f ( x ) and y = x , then x 1 .

(14 marks)

24.

is given by x = 1.

l

B

OC is a bisector of angle BOA.

AB and OC intersect at C.

(14 marks)

25

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