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The Changing Educational Framework

for the
Teaching of Mathematics in China
by

Yanming Wang
Suzhou Railway Teachers College
Suzhou
China

Changing Educational Framework in the Teaching of Mathematics in China


Yanming Wang

1.

Changes in schooling
First we look at some historical facts. Before 1949, most schools were run by either the
state or private sectors. The curriculum content and systems of schools were almost
identical. After 1949, the Chinese school system was similar to the USA scheme; that is
there were
*

6-grade elementary schools (age group 6-12, known as Years 1-6)

3-grade junior schools (age group 12-15, known as Years 7-9)

3-grade senior schools (age group 15-18, known as Years 10-12)

The junior schools and senior schools together comprised the middle schools. There were
also various technical, commercial, vocational and teacher training schools where students
usually spent three years.
Students could enter the technical, commercial, vocational and teacher training schools
when they had graduated from junior school and passed the entrance examination. Students
could enter college or university when they had graduated from senior school and passed
the entrance examination.
A large number of schools were government maintained. They belonged to the country or
local provinces. The whole education system in China achieved excellent results during the
1949 to 1966 period. But in 1966, when the cultural revolution began in China, the
education system and teaching methods were changed and the students went to the
factories and countryside to work, so their basic scientific education was much reduced.
In 1978, the pre-1996 education system was reintroduced. Students had to pass an
entrance examination before entering college or university. Education again became an
important characteristic in China. This period is called the Spring of Science.
In the 1990's, the education system was completely reformed so that there is now a 9-year
compulsory education system with
*

6-grade elementary school

3-grade junior school

If students want to enter senior schools and receive higher education, they must pay for
part of the tuition.
Private elementary schools and middle schools have been established and there are also
some private colleges and universities. During the 1980's some industrially-supported
schools were founded. So there are various types of schools in China, but most schools are
still government maintained.
The colleges and universities offer masters degrees and doctorates as well as undergraduate
courses, but most of the educational research programs and experiments are controlled by
the Education Ministry.

Changing Educational Framework in the Teaching of Mathematics in China


Yanming Wang

2.

Changes in the curriculum of mathematics education


After 1949, the general schools had curricula issued by the Education Ministry. They
were similar to the USSR curricula. The elementary schools and middle schools changed
their curricula content about every four years. In addition there were some complementary
curricula issued for special mathematical classes.
After 1978, the curricula content and teaching methods were reformed and innovations
were brought in. A new curriculum was issued by the Education Minister which was
followed by new mathematics textbooks and other teaching and learning materials.
Currently the new textbooks for the 9-year compulsory education period published by the
People's Education Press are used by about 70% of elementary and middle schools whilst
some elementary and middle schools use their own resources.

3.

The content of school mathematics


(a)

Mathematics content for 6-year (compulsory) elementary school


Numbers and Operations
Measurements
Basic Algebra
Basic Geometry
Basic Application of Mathematics

(b)

Mathematics content for 3-year (compulsory) junior school


Algebra:

identities - laws of indices, laws of square root, logarithms;

Equations and Inequalities: first degree, quadratic, systems of equations (linear and
quadratic), irrational, logarithmic;
Sequences and Series: arithmetic, geometric;
Geometry: congruency and similarity, notable lines and points of triangle, angles of
triangle, relation between the angles and sides, Pythagorean theorem, circle - Thales
theorem, circumferential and central angles, chord quadrangle, tangent quadrangle;
Probability and Statistics
(c)

Mathematics content for senior school


Functions:

Elementary functions and their features;


Transformations.

Sets Theory:

Notation of sets, property of sets, operation of sets.

Trigonometry:

Definitions of trigonometric functions;


Relations of trigonometric functions;
Sine theorem, Cosine theorem;
Sin(A+B), Cos(A+B), Tan(A+B), Cotan(A+B);
Proof of Tangent theorem.
2

Changing Educational Framework in the Teaching of Mathematics in China


Yanming Wang

Vectors, Coordinate Geometry:


Operation with vectors;
Coordinates of a sharing point of a section;
Equations of straight line, circle, parabola;
Centroid of tetrahedron;
Distance between point and line, between parallel lines;
Equations of bisectrix;
Equations of ellipse and hyperbola;
General features of the conical sections;
Standard equation of plane;
Equations of sphere, cylinder, rotation surface.
Space Geometry:
Concepts of points and lines and planes in space;
Property of points and lines, lines and lines, lines and planes;
Planes and planes;
Property of Cube, Cuboid and cylinder and Sphere.
Complex Numbers:
Concept of complex numbers, representation, conjugation;
Operations with complex numbers;
Trigonometric form of complex numbers;
De Moivre's theorem;
Extraction of roots of complex numbers;
Roots of Unity
Analysis:

Limit of Sequences, propositions of limit;


Limit of functions in the finite and infinite;
Continuity of functions;
Rules of differentiation.

Series:

Concept of series, convergence of series;


Geometric series, sum of convergent geometric series.

Probability:

Permutations and combinations;


Elements of classical probability;
Probability fields;
Elements of statistics including mean and standard deviation

Changing Educational Framework in the Teaching of Mathematics in China


Yanming Wang

4.

The training system for mathematics teachers in China


There are elementary teacher training schools and middle teacher training colleges or
universities in China.
Students can enter the elementary teacher training schools after they finish study in
junior schools, but they must pass the entrance examination. Students must study three
years in the elementary teacher training school. They learn Chinese, mathematics, history,
art and music and some ICT. Before graduating, they go to the elementary schools for
teaching practice for about six months. Emphasis is placed on the experience of teaching.
In the elementary schools, students first observe lessons and then teach the pupils and
check homework. Some students have contact with the parents of the pupils and help the
pupils to make more progress.
Students can enter the middle teacher training college or normal university after they
finish their study in senior schools, but they must pass the entrance examination like those
who want to enter other colleges and universities. At teacher training colleges, maths
teachers are trained at university level in mathematical subjects. But the mathematical
teaching methodology, its training system and practice is stronger at these colleges than in
universities. The students usually have 6 to 8 weeks teaching practice in middle schools.
They first observe and then teach pupils, and must complete a report about their practice.

5.

Teaching approaches to mathematics


Chinese mathematics teachers in general agree that the teaching and learning of
mathematics must:
*

extend pupils' ways of thinking;

develop pupils' abilities in problem handling and solving;

provide applicable mathematical knowledge, expertise and skills


for pupils' future needs.

The good practice of teaching involves the pupils being active in the process and makes
them respect and, hopefully, enjoy mathematics, recognizing its usefulness and
appreciating the subject in its own right.
We would like to give all our pupils a depth of mathematical understanding because we
think it is a worthwhile and necessary part of their culture. But alongside the traditional
teaching approaches, teachers are now innovating with whole class interactive teaching
with the focus on the teacher.
Our interactive teaching means that the teachers try to instruct pupils in discovering
mathematical facts by themselves. We call it the method of discovery. We like this method
and use it in class teaching. Many teachers now also do their best to introduce new
teaching methods, such as "flexible teaching" and "different degree teaching" in which the
content is differentiated according to the ability of the pupils.

Changing Educational Framework in the Teaching of Mathematics in China


Yanming Wang

So they try to help make pupils more interested in learning mathematics. For example, by:
*

using visual objects;

using computers.

They try to get pupils motivated, wanting to learn mathematics by themselves. They want
to develop the mathematical skills and abilities of pupils and encourage their creativity in
mathematics.
Pupils gain excellent results for their hard work. The mathematical abilities of Chinese
pupils are comparatively at a high level. They have, for example, good results in the
Mathematical Olympiad.

6.

Assessment system for mathematics in China


In general, pupils have to pass a mathematics test, set by their teacher, at the end of every
term. As an example, Appendix 1 gives a sample of the end of elementary school test in
mathematics (for pupils age 12+).
There are also two important examinations in China. The first examination is a test for
pupils entering senior school after they have finished their studies at junior school (at
age 15+) . This is a local (not national) examination and a sample paper is given in
Appendix 2.
The second and the most important examination is the national entrance examination for
college or university. If pupils want to enter higher education institutions, they must take
the examination of mathematics. It is difficult for pupils but parents want their children to
go to good universities and pupils need to get high scores in mathematics for this.
Appendix 3 gives a sample test for ALL pupils at the end of Senior school (age 18+) and
Appendix 4 gives a sample national test paper in mathematics for University entrance.

7.

Current issues and problems in mathematics education in China


There are a number of issues and concerns in mathematics education presently; these
include:
(1)

some teachers feel that the textbooks are too difficult for the pupils and need
rewriting in a more motivational style;

(2)

some people hope for more reform and innovation in the teaching of mathematics;

(3)

there is tremendous pressure from parents and society for pupils to achieve high
levels of attainment in both primary and middle schools;

and
(4)

the biggest pressure on both pupils and parents is that of entry to higher education,
where there are not nearly enough places for the demand and only the highest
attainers get places.

Overall though, we are proud of our maths teaching and the levels of attainment achieved
by most pupils at school in China.
5

CHINA, Examination for Entry to Junior School (Age 12+) 1999

APPENDIX 1

CHINA

July 1999

Examination for Entry to Junior School


(Age 12+)

PART A

1
hours in hours and minutes.
3

1.

Express 4

2.

3 tons 50 kilograms =

4.

tons

: 8 = 0.75 =

3.

hrs

A = 20, B = 50.

15

A is

% =

16

% of B.

B is more than A by

5.

%.

Which one of the following,

1
, 3.14, 3 , 3.15%
8
is

(a)

the largest ?

(b)

the smallest ?

6.

1 0.2 =

7.

The number of lines of symmetry of a square is

mins

CHINA, Examination for Entry to Junior School (Age 12+) 1999

8.

9.

The sum of all the edges of a cube is 48 cm.


The surface area of the cube =

cm 2

The volume of the cube

cm 3

The length of a rectangular playground is 80 m and its width is 60 m.


The area of the playground =

10.

m2

Two numbers A and B are such that A is 20% greater than B.


The ratio A : B =

CHINA, Examination for Entry to Junior School (Age 12+) 1999

PART B
For each of the following statements, write in the box whether it is TRUE or FALSE.

2
4
3
and is .
5
5
5

1.

The only fraction between

2.

For cylinders with the same base areas, the volumes


are in the ratio of their heights.

3.

Two triangles with the same base and height can be


put together to form a parallelogram.

4.

For a cone and a cylinder, both with the same height and base
1
area, the volume of the cone is the volume of the cylinder.
3

PART C
Calculate:
1.

101 65

2.

73

3.

5.4 + 1

4.

5.

6.

4 25

7.

(4 0.5) (0.5 4)

8.

(1.6 + 1.6 + 1.6 + 1.6) 25

3
5

=
=

1
5

1
8

3
3
4

1
8

CHINA, Examination for Entry to Junior School (Age 12+) 1999

PART D
Solve for x:

2
3

1.

x : 5 = 0.6 : 1

x =

2.

1 3 x 0.75 4 = 32
4

x =

3.

Four times x is 2.5 more than 10.

x =

PART E
Calculate:
1.

101 21.4 21.4 =

2.

25 1.25 4 8 =

3.

12

4.

765+

5.

1
2
2
13 1 + 6.5 2 1 =

5
3
3

3
7
7.25 1
=
5
20
3
2 =
4

CHINA, Examination for Entry to Junior School (Age 12+) 1999

PART F
1.

The radius of a circle is 3 cm.


Circumference =

Calculate its circumference and area.

Area =

2.

Distance =

cars

A completes a task in 10 days. It takes B 15 days to complete


the same task.
If A and B work together, how many days will it take them to
1
complete of the task?
3

6.

days

A man has an order from a shop for some toys. If he makes


250 toys per day he can complete the order in 12 days.
How many days will it take him to complete the order if he
makes 300 toys per day?

7.

tons
per day

The number of cars made by a company last year was expected


to be 7200. In fact, 15% more cars than this were made.
What was the total number of cars made?

5.

km

A factory must produce a total of 1200 tons of goods in five days.


It produces 80 tons of goods per day for the first 3 days.
How many tons of goods must be produced per day in the final two days?

4.

cm 2

Train A leaves station C and travels to station D at a speed of 50 km/h.


At the same time, train B leaves station D and travels to station C at a
speed of 45 km/h.
The trains cross when they have been travelling for 4 hours.
What is the distance between stations C and D?

3.

cm

days

A cylindrical bucket has a volume of 24 cu dm. The area


of the base of the bucket is 7.5 m 2 . Water is poured into
3
the bucket until it is full. What height is the top of the
4
bucket above the surface of the water?
10

dms

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Entry to Senior School (Age 15+) 1999

APPENDIX 2

CHINA

July 1999

Examination for Entry to Senior School


(Age 15+)

1.

4 = ?
(a) 2

(b)

(c)

(d)

16
(4 marks)

2.

An angle is 36 . What is the size of its complementary angle?


(a)

64

(b)

54

(c)

144

(d)

36
(4 marks)

3.

What are the coordinates of point P', if P' and P (1, 2) have rotational symmetry?
(a)

( 1, 2)

(b)

( 1, 2)

(c)

( 2, 1)

(d)

(1, 2)
(4 marks)

4.

1
,
x2

In function y =
(a)

x2

(b)

x ?

x>2

(c)

x > 2

(d)

x2

(4 marks)
5.

Which shape has line symmetry but not rotational symmetry?


(a)

rhombus

(b)

rectangle

(c)

equilateral triangle

(d)

circle
(4 marks)

6.

What is 19 990 in scientific notation?


(a)

19.99 10 3

(b)

199.9 10 2

(c)

1.999 10 4

(d)

1.999 10 4

(4 marks)
7.

Which statement is correct?.


(a)

a 2 a 3 =a 6

(b)

( 5) = 5

(c)

1 1
2
+ =
a b a+b

(d)

3 2 =

1
9

(4 marks)
8.

If the mean value of 1, 3 and x is 3, what is the value of x ?


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

1
(4 marks)

11

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Entry to Senior School (Age 15+) 1999

9.

If the radii of two circles are 3 cm and 5 cm, and the distance between the
centres of the two circles is 2 cm, what can you say about the two circles?
(a)

they are separate

(b)

they touch externally

(c)

they intersect

(d)

they touch internally


(4 marks)

10.

In the diagram, if ABC = 60 , then EDC = ?


(a)

120

(b)

60

(c)

40

(d)

30

A
D
E
B

11.

The graph of the function y =


What is the function?
20
(a) y =
(b)
x

(4 marks)

k
passes through the point ( 4, 5).
x

y=

x
20

(c)

y=

20
x

(d)

y=

x
20
(4 marks)

12.

If the sum of the interior angles of a polygon is equal to the sum


of its exterior angles, how many sides does it have?
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

6
(4 marks)

13.

If the graph of function y = k x + b passes through the first, third


and fourth quadrants, which statement is correct?
(a)

k > 0, b > 0

(b)

k > 0, b < 0

(c)

k < 0, b > 0

(d)

k < 0, b < 0

(4 marks)
14.

If the diameter of the base face of a cylinder is 4, and the height is 2,


what is the area of the curved surface of the cylinder?
(a)

(b)

(c)

16

(d)

8
(4 marks)

15.

In the diagram, PA is a tangent to the circle, centre O.


PB = BC.

If PA = 3 2 , what is the length of BC ?


(a)
(c)

3 2
3

(b)
(d)

2 3

(4 marks)

12

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Entry to Senior School (Age 15+) 1999

16.

In triangle ABC, if c = 90 and sin A =


(a)

3
5

(b)

5
4

(c)

3
, cot B = ?
5

3
4

(d)

4
3

(4 marks)

17.

In the diagram shown, what is a b + a + b ?


(a)

2a

(b)

2a

(c)

(d)

2b

(4 marks)
18.

If x 1, x 2 are the roots of the equation x 2 z m x m 1 = 0 , what


can you say about x 1, x 2 ?
(a)
(c)

x l x 2 x 1, x 2
x l x 2

(b)
(d)

xl= x2

x 1, x 2

uncertain
(4 marks)

19.

In the graph of y = a x 2 + b x + c , as shown, which of the


following is true?
(a)

b+ca=0

(b)

b+ca>0

(c)

b+ca<0

(d)

uncertain

(4 marks)
20.

1
+ ( 5) +
sin 30

2
= ?
2 +1
(4 marks)

21.

In the rectangle ABCD shown opposite, E is the


mid-point of CD.

Prove that EAB = EBA .


A

(4 marks)
22.

Solve
3 x 2 + 15 x 2 + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 1 = 0

(6 marks)

13

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Entry to Senior School (Age 15+) 1999

23.

The distance between two places, A and B, is 15 km.


At 0600 hours, James leaves A to walk to B.
20 minutes later, Rachel leaves B to cycle to A.
Rachel stays at A for 40 minutes and then cycles back to B, arriving there at the same time as
James.
If Rachel's speed is 10 km per hour faster than James' speed, at what time do they arrive at B ?
(6 marks)

24.

In triangle ABC, ACB = 90 . CD is the perpendicular from C to AB.


AD has length m and BD has length n. AC 2 : BC 2 = 2 : 1.
The roots of the equation

1 2
x + 2 (n 1) x + m 2 = 12 and x 1 and x 2 and ( x 1 x 2 ) 2 < 192 .
4

If m, n are integers, what is the value of y = m x + n ?


(8 marks)
25.

If the graphs of function y = x 2 + 2 a x 2 b + 1


y = x 2 + ( a 3) x + 2b 2 1

pass through the points M and N, where M and N are on the x-axis?
What are the true values of a and b ?
(7 marks)
26.

In the diagram, the length of the chord AB is 4.

P is a moving point on the circumference of the


1
circle, centre O, and cos APB = .
3
Explain why there exists a triangle APB with
maximum area.
What is the maximum area of triangle APB ?

O
A
P

(9 marks)

14

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Graduation from Senior School (Age 18+) 1999

APPENDIX 3

CHINA

July 1999

Examination for Graduation from Senior School


(Age 18+)

1.

(Three hours allowed)

tan 405 = ?

(a)

(b)

(c)

1
2

(d)

1
2
(3 marks)

2.

log 2 5 + log 2
(a)

1
= ?
10

(b)

(c)

(d)

2
(3 marks)

3.

If =

13
,
7

then
(a)

sin > 0 and cos > 0

(b)

sin > 0 and cos < 0

(c)

sin < 0 and cos < 0

(d)

sin < 0 and cos > 0 ?

(3 marks)
4.

Which of the functions,


f 2 ( x) = 2 x ,

f 1 ( x ) = log 1 x ,
2

f 4 ( x) = x 2 3,

f 2 ( x ) = 3 x + 1,

is a decreasing function on (0, + ) ?


(a)

f 1 ( x)

(b)

f 2 ( x)

(c)

f 3 ( x)

(d)

f 4 ( x)
(3 marks)

5.

Which of the following lines passes through the point (0, 1) and is perpendicular
to y = 2 x + 3 ?
(a)

2x y 1= 0

(b)

x 2y + 2 = 0

(c)

2x y +1= 0

(d)

x 2y 2 = 0

(3 marks)
6.

In the diagram, l = 2 r . What is the size of angle ?


(a)

30

(b)

45

(c)

60

(d)

150

(3 marks)
15

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Graduation from Senior School (Age 18+) 1999

7.

In triangle ABC, A B = 2 , BC = 3 and A C = 7 .


What is the size of angle B ?
(a)

60

(b)

120

(c)

30

(d)

150
(3 marks)

8.

x +1 < 5 ?

Which of the following is the solution of


(a)

( , 4)

(b)

( ,

24)

(c)

[ 1, 4)

(d)

[ 1, 24)

(3 marks)
9.

Using Cartesian coordinates, the graph of the function y = x 1

( x

(a)

symmetry about the x-axis

(b)

no rotational symmetry

(c)

symmetric about the y-axis

(d)

symmetric about y = x

x 0) , has

(3 marks)
10.

The smallest period of function y = 2 sin 2 x 1 is:


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2
(3 marks)

11.

Which of the following is the equation of the ellipse whose graph


satisfies the following conditions:
3
F 1 and F 2 are focus points; F 1 F 2 = 6 ; eccentricity e = .
5
(a)

x2 y2
+
=1
4
5

(b)

x2 y2
+
=1
16 25

(c)

x2 y2
+
=1
5
4

(d)

x2 y2
+
=1
5
16

y
F1

F2

(3 marks)

12.

2
Lim 1 n + 2 n ?
n 4 + n 2

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

1
4

(3 marks)
13.

3
4
If sin = , cos = and < , < ,
5
5
then cos( ) = ?

(a)

25

(b)

7
25

(c)

(d)

0
(3 marks)

16

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Graduation from Senior School (Age 18+) 1999

14.

If complex numbers z 1 = 1 + 2 i, z 2 1 3 i
then the complex conjugate of z 1 + z 2 is
(a)

2i

(b)

2+i

(c)

2 i

(d)

2+i ?
(3 marks)

15.

If a, b, c > 0, and 1, a, b, c, 16 is a geometric series,


then b = ?
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

17
2

(3 marks)
16.

If function f ( x ) = x 2 + a x, a constant, satisfies f (10) = f (2) , which of the


statements below is correct?
(a)

1
f < f (1) < f (3)
2

(b)

1
f < f (3) < f (1)
2

(c)

1
f (1) < f < f (3)
2

(d)

1
f (1) < f (3) < f
2
(3 marks)

17.

Which of the following statements is correct?


(a)

For two straight lines, a and b, where a is perpendicular to plane ,


and b is perpendicular to plane , then a is parallel to b.

(b)

If the straight line a is parallel to the plane , then all straight lines, l,
lying in the plane are parallel to a.

(c)

If and are planes and is perpendicular to , then there exists


a straight line, l, in , such that l is perpendicular to .

(d)

If and are planes and a is a straight line such that a is perpendicular


to and , then is parallel to .
(3 marks)

18.

In an arithmetic series

{ a n } , if

a 4 + a 5 = 12

then S 8 = ?
(a)

12

(b)

24

(c)

36

(d)

48
(3 marks)

19.

If x > 1 and y = x + 2 +

1
,
x +1

then y min = ?
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3
(3 marks)

17

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Graduation from Senior School (Age 18+) 1999

20.

The height, h, of the cylinder shown is 4 and the area


of the curved surface is 8 .

What is the length of the line A C ?


(a)

17

(b)

(c)

2 5

(d)

h=4

5
C

20
(3 marks)

21.

In the binomial expansion of


(a)

27 10 C 6

(b)

(x 3)

10

, the coefficient of x 6 is:

27 40 C 4

(c)

9 10 C 6

9 10 C 4

(d)

(3 marks)
22.

In a batch of 100 lights, 2 are defective. You choose three lights at random from the
batch of 100. In how many ways can you make your choice to include exactly one
defective light?
(a)

100

P3

(b)

100

(c)

C3

P1

98

P2

(d)

C1

98

C 21
(3 marks)

23.

In the diagram, ABCD is a rectangle and EC is a parabola.


EF = 5 m and BC = 2 m .
A car of height 4 m and width 3 m, is to pass through the
ABCDE shape.
What is the least value of AB for which this can happen?
Give your answer to one decimal place.
(a)

5.0 m

(b)

5.2 m

(c)

5.4 m

(d)

5.6 m

5m

D
A

C
2m
B

(3 marks)
24.

The diagram shows a right prism, ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1.

D1

C1

E is the midpoint of D1 D.
(a)
(b)

Prove that D1 B is perpendicular to AC.

A1

If A B = 3 2 and A1 A = 6 , what is the volume


of the triangle-based pyramid EACD ?

B1
E

C
B

(10 marks)

18

CHINA, Mathematics Test Paper for Graduation from Senior School (Age 18+) 1999

25.

f ( x ) is the inverse function of function y =


of g ( x ) and the graph of y =

2
1
10 + 1
x

( x ) and the graph

4 2x
are symmetric about y = x 1 .
x 1

Write F ( x ) = f ( x ) + g ( x ).
(a) What is F ( x ) and its domain?
(b) A and B are two points on the graph of F ( x ).
The straight line A B and the y-axis are vertical. Why?
(11 marks)
26.

A hyperbola, C, passes through point M (1, 2), with the


y-axis as its right directrix and its right focus, F, lies on

( x 1) 2 + ( y 2) 2 = 4 ( x > 0).

(a)

What is the eccentricity of hyperbola C ?

(b)

What is the equation of the hyperbola when


MF is parallel to the x-axis?

(c)

What is the equation of N, the intersection point


of the line MF and the right part of the hyperbola, C ?

(10 marks)

19

CHINA, National Mathematics Test Paper (College or University Entrance) 1999

APPENDIX 4

CHINA

July 1999

National Mathematics Test Paper


(for College or University Entrance)

1.

I is a universal set and M, P and S are subsets of set I.


The shaded part of the diagram is:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(M P ) S
(M P ) S
(M P ) S
(M P ) S

P
S
I

(4 marks)
2.

A = { 3, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3 4}
If map f : A B a A f ( a) = a B
and set B is the image of A under f, how many members are there in set B?
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

7
(4 marks)

3.

If the function y = g ( x ) is the inverse function of y = f ( x ) and f ( a) = b, a b 0 ,


then g (b) =
(a)

(b)

a 1

(c)

(d)

b 1 ?

(4 marks)
4.

Function f ( x ) = m sin ( w x + q ) ,
f ( a) = m f (b) = m .

( w > 0)

is an increasing function on [a, b] and

Does the function g ( x ) = m cos ( w x + q ) on [a , b]


(a) increase
(b)

decrease

(c)

take the value m

(d)

take the value m ?


(4 marks)

5.

If f ( x ) is an odd function and has period , then f ( x ) could be


(a) sin x
(b)

cos x

(c)

sin 2x

(d)

cos2x ?
(4 marks)
20

CHINA, National Mathematics Test Paper (College or University Entrance) 1999

6.

In polar coordinates, the curve r = 4 sin has

as a line of symmetry,
3
5
the straight line = as a line of symmetry,
6

symmetry about the point 2, ,


3
the straight line =

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

has rotational symmetry about the pole.


(4 marks)

7.

Water in a circular cylinder is such that r = 2 cm and h = 6 cm , as shown in the diagram.


The same volume of water is put into a circular cone, as shown, with AB = AO = BO .
What is the value of H ?
(a)

6 3 cm

(b)

6 cm

(c)

2 18

(d)

3 3 12 cm

(4 marks)
8.

If 2 x + 3

= a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + a3 x 3 + a4 x 4 , then

(a0 + a2 + a4 ) 2 (a1 + a3 ) 2 = ?
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2?
(4 marks)

9.

Line 3 x + y 2 3 = 0 and circle x 2 + y 2 = 4 intersect.


The area of the sector of the minor arc is equal to

(a)
6

(b)
4

(c)
3

(d)
?
2
(4 marks)

21

CHINA, National Mathematics Test Paper (College or University Entrance) 1999

10.

In the polyhedron ABCDEF shown below, ABCD is a right square and AB = 3.


3
EF is parallel to AB, EF = . The distance between EF and plane AC is 2.
2
The volume of the polyhedron ABCDEF is
(a)

9
2

(b)

(c)

(d)

15
?
2

F
C

D
A

(4 marks)
11.

If sin > tan > cot < < , then


2
2
(a)

,
2 2

(b)

, 0
4

(c)

0 ,

(d)

, ?
4 2
(5 marks)

12.

The diagram shows the frustum of a right circular cone with radius = 5.
S1 and S2 are the curved surfaces of two small frustums. S1 : S2 = 1: 2 .
What is the value of R ?
(a)

10

(b)

15

(c)

20

(d)

25

S1
S2

5
R

(5 marks)

22

CHINA, National Mathematics Test Paper (College or University Entrance) 1999

13.

5
5
Points M and N are given by M 1, , N 4, and four curves have equations
4

4
x2
x2
4.
+ y2=1
y2=1
2
2
For which curves does there exist point p on the curve, such that MP = NP ?

1.

4x + 2y 1= 0

(a)

Equations 1. and 3.

(b)

Equations 2. and 4.

(c)

Equations 1. 2. and 3.

(d)

Equations 2. 3. and 4.

2.

x2+ y2= 3

3.

(5 marks)
14.

A man wants to buy at least 3 videos and a least 2 boxes of floppy disks. Videos cost
60 yuan each and a box of disks costs 70 yuan. He plans to spend no more than 500 yuan.
What is the maximum number of videos and boxes of floppy disks that he can buy?
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

8
(5 marks)

15.

The ellipse

x2
y2
+
=1
a2 b2

( a > b > 0)

has right focus F1,

l1

right directrix is l 1 , as shown in the diagram.


A
F1

A B = F1 C ,
O

Determine the eccentricity of the ellipse.

C
x

(4 marks)
16.

A field is divided into ten strips as shown in the diagram.


You want to plant two crops, A and B in separate strips,
so that there are at least 6 strips separating them.
In how many different ways can you do this?
at least 6

(4 marks)

23

CHINA, National Mathematics Test Paper (College or University Entrance) 1999

17.

If a > 0, b > 0 and a b = a + b + 3 , then a b ?


(4 marks)

18.

and are different planes and m and n are straight lines.


m , m , n , n .
We now have four results:
2.
1.
mn

3.

4.

Which of these results is correct, so that from three of them you can imply the rest?
(4 marks)
19.

Solve
3 log a x 2 < 2 log a x 1

(a > 0,

a 1)
(10 marks)

20.

If complex number z = 3 cos + i 2 sin , and

then y max = ?

y = arg z 0 < < ,

2
and = ? (when y = ymax ).
(12 marks)

21.

In the diagram, right prism ABCD A1 B1 C1 D1


point E is on D1 D , plane EAC is parallel to D1 B.
The angle between planes E A C and A B C D is 45 .

D1

A1

AB = a.

(a)

What is the surface area of EAC ?

(b)

What is the distance between the straight lines A1 B1


and A C ?

(c)

What is the volume of the pyramid B1 EAC ?

C1
B1

C
B

(12 marks)
22.

(a)

In the diagram, = input steel thickness

= output steel thickness.


If each pair of rollers reducesthe thickness
by a factor r , how many pairs of rollers
are needed?
[ i.e. r =

o o
o

o = input,

24

o = output ]

CHINA, National Mathematics Test Paper (College or University Entrance) 1999

(b)

A reduction mill consists of 4 pairs of rollers, each making a percentage reduction in


thickness of 20%. The circumference of each of the rollers is 1600 mm.
There is a fault on the nth roller, causing a black mark on the steel at regular intervals.
Let L n be the distance between each mark on the steel.
Complete this table:
Fault on Roll, n

L n (mm)

4
1600

(14 marks)

23.

The graph image of y = f ( x ) is a step-graph line.


The gradient of the line is b n when

n y n +1
If
(a)
(b)
(c)

(n = 0, 1,

y = f ( x)

2, ... ) .

{x n } is defined by f ( x n ) = n (n = 1, 2, ...) ,
1

what are x 1, x 2 and x n ?


f ( x ) = ? What is the domain of f ( x )
Prove that, if

( x , y)

is the intersecting point between

y = f ( x ) and y = x , then x 1 .
(14 marks)
24.

In the diagram, A is the point (a, O) and the straight line l


is given by x = 1.

l
B

Point B moves on the straight line l.


OC is a bisector of angle BOA.
AB and OC intersect at C.

What is the equation of C ?

Discuss the type of equation and its relationship with a.


(14 marks)

25