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C HAPTER
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# Ratio, proportion and percentage

• ## 2.1 Ratio

• ### Exercises 2.1

• 1 The densities of silver and osmium are 10.5 Mg/m 3 and 22.5 Mg/m 3 respectively. a What is the ratio of the density of silver to that of osmium? b If the mass of a certain volume of osmium is 30 g, what is the mass of an equal volume of silver?

• 2 The coefficients of linear expansion for glass and invar are respectively 0.000 008 K 1 and 0.000 001 6 K 1 . What is the ratio of the coefficient for invar to that for glass?

In the following exercises, unit conversions are required.

• 3 The masses of two castings are 625 g and 1.5 kg. a What is the ratio of the larger mass to the smaller mass? (1 kg 1000 g) b Is the mass of the smaller casting more than one-half the mass of the larger?

• 4 Two forces act upon a body, one of 3 MN and the other of 50 kN. What is the ratio of the smaller force to the larger? (1 MN 1000 kN)

• 5 A mass of 212.4 kg is divided into two parts, the masses being in the ratio 2 : 7. What is the mass of the larger part?

• 6 An object is divided into two parts, the masses being in the ratio 3 : 1. If the mass of the smaller part is 6.5 kg, find the mass of the original object.

• ## 2.2 Direct variation: the unitary method

• ### Exercises 2.2

It may be assumed in each case that the quantities involved do vary directly.

• 1 When 24 V is applied across a certain resistor, the current produced is 8 mA. What voltage is needed to produce a current of 13 mA?

Chapter 2 Ratio, Proportion and Percentage

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2

The potential difference across 292 turns of the secondary winding of a transformer is 4 V. Across how many turns will the potential difference be 3 V?

• 3 A particular inductance has a reactance of 12 at a frequency of 100 Hz. At what frequency will it have a reactance of 156 ?

## 2.3 Direct variation: the algebraic method

### Exercises 2.3

• 1 A certain silicon junction diode passed a current of 20 mA with a potential difference of 0.6 V, and a current of 35 mA with a potential difference of 0.7 V. Does this verify that the current is proportional to the potential difference?

• 2 When a current of 50 mA passes through a certain moving-coil meter, the torque on the coil is 40 10 6 Nm. When the current is 30 mA, the torque is 24 10 6 Nm. Does this verify that the torque is proportional to the current?

• 3 At a frequency of 800 Hz, the reactance of a certain inductor was 140 . The reactance was 175 at a frequency of 1000 Hz. Does this verify that the reactance of an inductor is proportional to the frequency?

• 4 For a mild steel cable of length 20 m and diameter 8 mm, a load of 500 kg produces an extension of 10 mm and a load of 750 kg produces an extension of 15 mm. Does this verify that the expansion produced is proportional to the load?

### Computations

Exercises 2.3 (continued)

• 5 The mass of a piece of sheet metal of area 1350 mm 2 is 23.7 g. Find the mass of a piece having area 855 mm .

2

• 6 When the depth of water in a cylindrical tank is 1.27 m, the volume of water in the tank is 8.43 m 3 . Find the volume of water in the tank when the depth of the water is 2.58 m.

• 7 When a current of 30.0 mA passes through a certain moving-coil meter, the torque on the coil is 45.0 Nm. Given that the torque is proportional to the current, find the current needed to produce a torque of 35.0 Nm.

• 8 The magnetic field strength inside a certain long solenoid is 1.50 mT when it carries a current of 1.20 A. Given that the field strength is proportional to the current, find the current needed to produce a field strength of 1.25 mT.

• 9 When a heating coil is immersed in a given quantity of water in an insulated container, the rate at which the temperature rises varies directly as the square of the current passed through the coil. Given that for a certain coil immersed in a certain mass of water, the temperature rises by 9.7°C/min when the current is 3.4 A, find: a

the rate at which the temperature rises when the current is 4.7 A

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 b the current required to raise the water temperature by 11.0°C/min c the rise in temperature of the water when a current of 2.3 A is passed for 85 s
• 10 For ball-bearings made from any particular material, the mass of a ball varies directly as the cube of its diameter. Given that for a particular material a ball of diameter 2.00 mm has mass 4.12 mg, find:

 a the mass of a ball whose diameter is 3.50 mm b the diameter of a ball whose mass is 7.35 mg c the number of balls of diameter 3.00 mm needed to make up a total mass of 10.0 g (correct to the nearest 10 balls) (l g 1000 mg)

## 2.4 Inverse variation

• ### Exercises 2.4

• 1 The frequency of oscillation, f, of a simple pendulum varies inversely as the square root of the length of the pendulum. Given that a pendulum of length 24.8 cm makes one oscillation per second, find:

 a the frequency of oscillation of a pendulum whose length is 10 cm (answer correct to 3 b significant figures) the number of oscillations made in 1 minute by a pendulum whose length is 1.50 m (answer correct to 3 significant figures) (1 m 100 cm) c the length of the pendulum that makes 10 oscillations per minute (answer in metres correct to 3 significant figures)

## 2.5 Joint variation

• ### Exercises 2.5

• 1 The pressure of a given mass of gas varies directly as the absolute temperature and inversely as its volume. For a certain mass of a gas, under a pressure of 0.730 kPa, the volume is 6.73 L when its temperature is 310 K. Find:

 a the pressure of the gas when its volume is reduced to 5.30 L and its temperature is b increased to 345 K the temperature of the gas when its volume is 8.63 L and its pressure is 1.82 kPa
• 2 When a uniform rectangular beam of given length and width is supported at each end and a load placed at its centre, the deflection produced by the load at the centre of the beam varies directly as the load and inversely as the cube of the thickness of the beam. Given that for a certain beam of thickness 5.5 mm, the deflection produced by a load of 35 kg is 2.5 mm, find the deflection produced by a load of 45 kg placed at the centre of a beam whose thickness is 6.0 mm, given that the length and width of the beam remain unchanged.

Chapter 2 Ratio, Proportion and Percentage

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### Proportion exercises: miscellaneous

Exercises 2.5 (continued)

• 3 The mass of 15.0 m of a particular wire is 126 g. Find: a b

the mass of 2.45 km of this wire (1 km 1000 m) the length of this wire that has a mass of 53.4 mg (1g 1000 mg)

• 4 A constant potential difference of variable frequency is applied across a certain capacitor. When the frequency is 50 Hz, the current is 35 mA. Given that the current is proportional to the frequency, find the frequency that gives a current of 55 mA.

• 5 The energy stored in a given charged capacitor varies directly as the square of the voltage, V, across its plates. For a certain given capacitor the energy stored is 20 J when the voltage is 1000 V. Find: a b

the energy stored when the voltage is 300 V the voltage across the plates when the stored energy is 15 J

• 6 Looking out to sea, the distance to the horizon varies directly as the square root of the height of the observer’s eye above sea level. Given that the distance to the horizon is 3.0 km when the observer’s eye is 5.0 m above sea level, find: a b

the distance to the horizon for a person whose eye is 7.2 m above sea level how far above sea level a person’s eye must be in order to see a distance of 6.0 km

• 7 For an L C series circuit containing a given inductance, the resonance frequency, f, varies inversely as the square root of the capacitance C. For a particular such circuit the resonance frequency is 200 kHz when the capacitance in the circuit is 0.16 F. Find: a b

the resonance frequency when the capacitance is 0.30 F the capacitance required to give a resonance frequency of 3.0 kHz

• 8 The volume of fluid that flows through a pipe each second varies directly as the pressure difference maintained between its ends, directly as the fourth power of the diameter of the pipe and inversely as the length of the pipe. For a given fluid at a given temperature it is found that 43 mL/s flows through a pipe whose diameter is 5.0 mm and length 3.5 m when a pressure difference of 100 kPa is maintained. Find the rate of flow of this fluid through a pipe whose diameter is 7.0 mm and length 4.5 m when a pressure difference of 130 kPa is maintained.

## 2.6 Percentages

The following should be known:

1
1
50% 0.5
4 25% 0.25
1 0 10% 0.1
2
1
.
1
1
1
20% 0.2
3 33 3 % 0.3
5
• 20 CD Supplement to accompany Mathematics for Technicians

Example
8.37% of 16.2 t
0.0837 16.2 t
1.36 t

### Expressing any number as a percentage

100
N
N
100 N % since N 00 N % . So, to express any number as a percentage,
10
0
1
multiply it by 100.
Examples
5
5
1
0.673 0.673 100% 67.3%
2
7 100% 71.4%
7

### Exercises 2.6

• 1 Convert to decimals: a

63%

b

421%

c

0.61%

d

1.03%

e

0.034%

• 2 Convert to percentages: a

0.36

b

0.04

c

1.3

• 3 Convert to percentages: a

3

5

b

1

7

2

0

c

5 1

1

2

d

0.0023

d

3

9

0

5

e

17.25

e

4

2 5

1

0 0 0

• 4 Express in the form x%, where x is a mixed number: a

3

8

b

1

7

4

0

c

1

3

d

3

1

0

6

e

3

7

• 5 Express in the form x%, where x is a decimal (correct to 1 decimal place): a

2

7

b

3

8

c

5

6

d

2

2

3

e

7

1

9

• 6 Express as fractions reduced to lowest terms: a f

25%

2

16 3 %

b

g

40%

1

83 3 %

• 7 Express as fractions: a

d

g

4

50% of

7

2

20% of

3

5

16% of 8

b

e

h

• 8 Express as decimals: a

d

3% of 1.2

29% of 10

b

e

c

h

3

3 4 %

1

62 2 %

3

25% of 5

5

40% of

1

4

5

133% of

7

7% of 3.62

6.8% of 5

d

i

87

1

2 %

1

33 3 %

e

j

2

41

%

3

2

64

%

7

c

f

i

1

75% of

2

2

9% of

3

2 % of 12

3

2

1

1

c

f

6% of 0.78

85% of 0.04

Chapter 2 Ratio, Proportion and Percentage

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 g 12% of 1.2 h 24% of 150 9 Find: a 17% of 88 kg b 7.8% of 97 m c

i

18% of 0.5

35

1

2 % of 78.0 t

d

215% of 125 mm

• 10 The mechanical efficiency of an engine is given by

brake power (BP)

indicated power (IP)

. In each of the

following cases, find the mechanical efficiency as a percentage:

 a a diesel engine whose BP 26.1 kW, IP 31.0 kW b a double-acting steam engine whose BP 133 kW, IP 150 kW
• 11 A compound belt and countershaft drive has input power 11 kW and output power 9.3 kW. Find the efficiency ( ) of the drive as a percentage.

i

t

o u p u t

n p u t

• 22 CD Supplement to accompany Mathematics for Technicians