Consider the right side of the
molecule that you have constructed to be the sense strand and read the codons from the 3 1 end of
the strand toward 51 end of the strand toward the 51 end
Which amino acids are specified by the two codons?
=Amino acids are specified by the two codons are Tyrosine (Tyr) and Glutamine (Gln).
The Genetic Code
The sequence of bases in DNA forms a code or set of instructions for proteins synthesis. an
amino acid can be specified by more than one codon. Notice that the two strands are
antiparallel (they run in opposite directions). that is. the other must run 3 1 to 51 from top to bottom. Some are chain terminating codons which are not known
to specify any amino acid.
. G. but each codon can specify only one amino
acid. Usually one strand (The sense strand) od DNA is active in protein synthesis. C.
Duplicate Figure 2 by pairing each nucleotide of the first strand with its complementary
nucleotide and joining the bonds to form a new strand. if one strands runs 5 1 to 31 (phosphate-sugar. T
indicate on Figure 2 the base sequence which have produced for each side of the molecule.A : DNA : The Genetic Code
Select one of the remaining nucleotides and attempt to pair it with a nucleotide of the strand by
putting the ends of their bases together. Using A.
phosphate sugar) from top to bottom. but much weaker hydrogen bonds. The bonds between the bases are not covalent
Bases which pair are said to be complementary. These indicate where a protein chain is to end. Each
code word or codon consists of a sequence of three bases and specifies a particular amino acid. Attempt several such pairings using different bases. The
structure which is produced represents the double-stranded DNA molecule.
Cytosine pairs only with guanine . The codons of
the inactive or antisense strand are not used in protein synthesis. In most cases. Then
fill in the following :
Adenine pairs only with thymine.
There are 64 possible codon (Figure 3).
but the other.
. 2 Uracil (U).B : RNA : The Code Transcribed
RNA is produced by using DNA as pattern.
Use the deoxyribose units to form the following DNA nucleotides:
Obtain the following units for group : 12 Deoxyribose (Red). is used to
bring about the synthesis of RNA. 6 guanine. pair each DNA nucleotide with its RNA complement (uracil of RNA
complements adenine of DNA) and link together the phosphate and ribose units to form a strand
of RNA synthesis begins at the end 5 1 end of the RNA strand and proceeds toward its 3 1 end). 24 Phosphate. During the exercise. the sense strand. the genetic
code is transferred from DNA to RNA.
Compare a deoxyribose unit to a ribose unit. and 2 uracil. 2 cytosine. One strand of DNA remains inactive.
always keep the printed side of each piece up. 8 Guanine (G). While ribose is a component of RNA which
contains –OH group on the 211 carbon ring. During this process. Look at the formula of each molecule as printed on
the units. Beginning at the 3 1
(sugar) end of the strand. 2 Thymine (T).
How does deoxyribose differ from ribose sugar?
= The deoxyribosediffers from ribose sugar because deoxyribose is a component of DNA which
is lacks –OH (alcohol group) on the 21 carbon ring. The main difference between the two is that ribose
has an oxygen atom attached to carbon 2 . 4
Adenine (A). called transcription.
During transcription the two strands of a DNA molecule become separated along part of the
molecule’s length. 6 cytosine. Now use the ribose units to form the following
RNA nucletides: 2 adenine. We will use this as the sense strand and ignore the antisense strand. and 2 thymine.
To demonstrate transcription. 2 guanine. 12 Ribose (Pink). first use the deoxyribose nucleotides to form a single strand of
The nucleotides of DNA contain deoxyribose sugar while nucleotides of RNA contain ribose
sugar. 8 Cytosine (C).
Types of RNA
Transcription produces three major types of RNA : ribosomal (mRNA). Figure 1 gives the possible
DNA codons with their corresponding mRNA codons and the amino acids specified by each. thereby keeping the cell division rate under control. each cell only expresses. The DNA will not replicate if
the cell lacks certain growth factors. or turns on. Once RNA is formed.
How does transcription differ from replication?
=Transcription differs from replication because DNA replication occurs in preparation for cell
division. Notice that the
sequence of bases in RNA is controlled by the sequence of bases in DNA. DNA replication is
important for properly regulating the growth and division of cells.
Transcription of DNA is the method for regulating gene expression.Separate the RNA and DNA strands.
Messenger RNA and The Genetic Code
Look again at the sense strand of DNA and the RNA strand produced by it.
The ribosomes become located in the cell’s cytoplasm and are centers for protein synthesis. Transcription only occurs when a gene is turned on. and
messenger (mRNA). It is messenger RNA that brings
the instructions for protein synthesis (the genetic code) from DNA in the nucleus to the
ribosomes. the genes that are
necessary for the functions of that cell. the amino acids that had been obtained are Histidine (CAC) and Leucine (CUG)
. Ribosomal RNA combines with proteins to form bodies called ribosomes. transfer (tRNA). while transcription happens in preparation for protein translation. the RNA
codons (triplets of bases) are complementary to the DNA codons.
Transfer RNA reacts with amino acids in the cytoplasm and interacts with ribosomes and
messenger RNA in the assembly of amino acids into proteins. (in
Which amino acids are specified by the RNA strand that you have assembled?
= From 3’ to 5’. Although all of our cells
contain copies of all of our genes. that is. the mRNA codons are read from the 51 end of the molecule to the 31 end). it is released from DNA and goes to
other parts of the cell.