In most cases. Bases which pair are said to be complementary. G. T indicate on Figure 2 the base sequence which have produced for each side of the molecule. Cytosine pairs only with guanine . Some are chain terminating codons which are not known to specify any amino acid. Notice that the two strands are antiparallel (they run in opposite directions). Using A. DNA Structure Duplicate Figure 2 by pairing each nucleotide of the first strand with its complementary nucleotide and joining the bonds to form a new strand. Attempt several such pairings using different bases. The Genetic Code The sequence of bases in DNA forms a code or set of instructions for proteins synthesis. if one strands runs 5 1 to 31 (phosphate-sugar. phosphate sugar) from top to bottom. These indicate where a protein chain is to end. The codons of the inactive or antisense strand are not used in protein synthesis. . the other must run 3 1 to 51 from top to bottom. The bonds between the bases are not covalent bonds. Usually one strand (The sense strand) od DNA is active in protein synthesis. but each codon can specify only one amino acid. that is. Then fill in the following : Adenine pairs only with thymine. The structure which is produced represents the double-stranded DNA molecule. There are 64 possible codon (Figure 3). C. Consider the right side of the molecule that you have constructed to be the sense strand and read the codons from the 3 1 end of the strand toward 51 end of the strand toward the 51 end Which amino acids are specified by the two codons? =Amino acids are specified by the two codons are Tyrosine (Tyr) and Glutamine (Gln). but much weaker hydrogen bonds. Each code word or codon consists of a sequence of three bases and specifies a particular amino acid.A : DNA : The Genetic Code Base Pairing Select one of the remaining nucleotides and attempt to pair it with a nucleotide of the strand by putting the ends of their bases together. an amino acid can be specified by more than one codon.

. first use the deoxyribose nucleotides to form a single strand of DNA. but the other. 6 guanine. Nucleotides Compare a deoxyribose unit to a ribose unit. We will use this as the sense strand and ignore the antisense strand. Obtain the following units for group : 12 Deoxyribose (Red). Look at the formula of each molecule as printed on the units. is used to bring about the synthesis of RNA. How does deoxyribose differ from ribose sugar? = The deoxyribosediffers from ribose sugar because deoxyribose is a component of DNA which is lacks –OH (alcohol group) on the 21 carbon ring. One strand of DNA remains inactive. 8 Guanine (G). Use the deoxyribose units to form the following DNA nucleotides: 2adenine. While ribose is a component of RNA which contains –OH group on the 211 carbon ring.B : RNA : The Code Transcribed RNA is produced by using DNA as pattern. 2 guanine. 8 Cytosine (C). 2 Thymine (T). 12 Ribose (Pink). 2 cytosine. 24 Phosphate. Beginning at the 3 1 (sugar) end of the strand. During the exercise. pair each DNA nucleotide with its RNA complement (uracil of RNA complements adenine of DNA) and link together the phosphate and ribose units to form a strand of RNA synthesis begins at the end 5 1 end of the RNA strand and proceeds toward its 3 1 end). The main difference between the two is that ribose has an oxygen atom attached to carbon 2 . always keep the printed side of each piece up. During this process. called transcription. Transcription During transcription the two strands of a DNA molecule become separated along part of the molecule’s length. To demonstrate transcription. The nucleotides of DNA contain deoxyribose sugar while nucleotides of RNA contain ribose sugar. and 2 uracil. 6 cytosine. the genetic code is transferred from DNA to RNA. the sense strand. and 2 thymine. 2 Uracil (U). 4 Adenine (A). Now use the ribose units to form the following RNA nucletides: 2 adenine.

or turns on. The ribosomes become located in the cell’s cytoplasm and are centers for protein synthesis. Which amino acids are specified by the RNA strand that you have assembled? = From 3’ to 5’. Although all of our cells contain copies of all of our genes. while transcription happens in preparation for protein translation. Messenger RNA and The Genetic Code Look again at the sense strand of DNA and the RNA strand produced by it. (in the table. it is released from DNA and goes to other parts of the cell. the RNA codons (triplets of bases) are complementary to the DNA codons. The DNA will not replicate if the cell lacks certain growth factors. Figure 1 gives the possible DNA codons with their corresponding mRNA codons and the amino acids specified by each. DNA replication is important for properly regulating the growth and division of cells. Transcription of DNA is the method for regulating gene expression. the genes that are necessary for the functions of that cell. the mRNA codons are read from the 51 end of the molecule to the 31 end). thereby keeping the cell division rate under control. the amino acids that had been obtained are Histidine (CAC) and Leucine (CUG) . each cell only expresses. It is messenger RNA that brings the instructions for protein synthesis (the genetic code) from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes. and messenger (mRNA). Once RNA is formed.Separate the RNA and DNA strands. Transcription only occurs when a gene is turned on. Types of RNA Transcription produces three major types of RNA : ribosomal (mRNA). transfer (tRNA). Notice that the sequence of bases in RNA is controlled by the sequence of bases in DNA. Transfer RNA reacts with amino acids in the cytoplasm and interacts with ribosomes and messenger RNA in the assembly of amino acids into proteins. How does transcription differ from replication? =Transcription differs from replication because DNA replication occurs in preparation for cell division. Ribosomal RNA combines with proteins to form bodies called ribosomes. that is.

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