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Then fill in the following : Adenine pairs only with thymine. T indicate on Figure 2 the base sequence which have produced for each side of the molecule. The bonds between the bases are not covalent bonds. Cytosine pairs only with guanine . but much weaker hydrogen bonds. Notice that the two strands are antiparallel (they run in opposite directions). There are 64 possible codon (Figure 3). Attempt several such pairings using different bases. but each codon can specify only one amino acid. G. . The codons of the inactive or antisense strand are not used in protein synthesis. DNA Structure Duplicate Figure 2 by pairing each nucleotide of the first strand with its complementary nucleotide and joining the bonds to form a new strand. if one strands runs 5 1 to 31 (phosphate-sugar. Usually one strand (The sense strand) od DNA is active in protein synthesis.A : DNA : The Genetic Code Base Pairing Select one of the remaining nucleotides and attempt to pair it with a nucleotide of the strand by putting the ends of their bases together. Each code word or codon consists of a sequence of three bases and specifies a particular amino acid. Consider the right side of the molecule that you have constructed to be the sense strand and read the codons from the 3 1 end of the strand toward 51 end of the strand toward the 51 end Which amino acids are specified by the two codons? =Amino acids are specified by the two codons are Tyrosine (Tyr) and Glutamine (Gln). The structure which is produced represents the double-stranded DNA molecule. Bases which pair are said to be complementary. that is. C. These indicate where a protein chain is to end. In most cases. Some are chain terminating codons which are not known to specify any amino acid. Using A. an amino acid can be specified by more than one codon. phosphate sugar) from top to bottom. the other must run 3 1 to 51 from top to bottom. The Genetic Code The sequence of bases in DNA forms a code or set of instructions for proteins synthesis.

and 2 thymine. Transcription During transcription the two strands of a DNA molecule become separated along part of the molecule’s length. The nucleotides of DNA contain deoxyribose sugar while nucleotides of RNA contain ribose sugar. To demonstrate transcription. Nucleotides Compare a deoxyribose unit to a ribose unit. called transcription. One strand of DNA remains inactive. 2 cytosine. 12 Ribose (Pink). and 2 uracil. 24 Phosphate. 2 guanine. the sense strand. The main difference between the two is that ribose has an oxygen atom attached to carbon 2 . 2 Thymine (T). 6 guanine. 2 Uracil (U). . While ribose is a component of RNA which contains –OH group on the 211 carbon ring. 4 Adenine (A).B : RNA : The Code Transcribed RNA is produced by using DNA as pattern. We will use this as the sense strand and ignore the antisense strand. 8 Cytosine (C). but the other. 8 Guanine (G). 6 cytosine. is used to bring about the synthesis of RNA. always keep the printed side of each piece up. Look at the formula of each molecule as printed on the units. Beginning at the 3 1 (sugar) end of the strand. During the exercise. first use the deoxyribose nucleotides to form a single strand of DNA. the genetic code is transferred from DNA to RNA. How does deoxyribose differ from ribose sugar? = The deoxyribosediffers from ribose sugar because deoxyribose is a component of DNA which is lacks –OH (alcohol group) on the 21 carbon ring. During this process. Now use the ribose units to form the following RNA nucletides: 2 adenine. pair each DNA nucleotide with its RNA complement (uracil of RNA complements adenine of DNA) and link together the phosphate and ribose units to form a strand of RNA synthesis begins at the end 5 1 end of the RNA strand and proceeds toward its 3 1 end). Obtain the following units for group : 12 Deoxyribose (Red). Use the deoxyribose units to form the following DNA nucleotides: 2adenine.

The ribosomes become located in the cell’s cytoplasm and are centers for protein synthesis. Figure 1 gives the possible DNA codons with their corresponding mRNA codons and the amino acids specified by each. or turns on. thereby keeping the cell division rate under control. Transcription of DNA is the method for regulating gene expression. Which amino acids are specified by the RNA strand that you have assembled? = From 3’ to 5’. Although all of our cells contain copies of all of our genes. Messenger RNA and The Genetic Code Look again at the sense strand of DNA and the RNA strand produced by it. transfer (tRNA). the RNA codons (triplets of bases) are complementary to the DNA codons. while transcription happens in preparation for protein translation. that is. Transfer RNA reacts with amino acids in the cytoplasm and interacts with ribosomes and messenger RNA in the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Once RNA is formed. Types of RNA Transcription produces three major types of RNA : ribosomal (mRNA). (in the table. Transcription only occurs when a gene is turned on.Separate the RNA and DNA strands. the amino acids that had been obtained are Histidine (CAC) and Leucine (CUG) . The DNA will not replicate if the cell lacks certain growth factors. and messenger (mRNA). Ribosomal RNA combines with proteins to form bodies called ribosomes. DNA replication is important for properly regulating the growth and division of cells. each cell only expresses. the mRNA codons are read from the 51 end of the molecule to the 31 end). Notice that the sequence of bases in RNA is controlled by the sequence of bases in DNA. it is released from DNA and goes to other parts of the cell. the genes that are necessary for the functions of that cell. It is messenger RNA that brings the instructions for protein synthesis (the genetic code) from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes. How does transcription differ from replication? =Transcription differs from replication because DNA replication occurs in preparation for cell division.

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