Consider the right side of the molecule that you have constructed to be the sense strand and read the codons from the 3 1 end of the strand toward 51 end of the strand toward the 51 end Which amino acids are specified by the two codons? =Amino acids are specified by the two codons are Tyrosine (Tyr) and Glutamine (Gln). G. Some are chain terminating codons which are not known to specify any amino acid. Notice that the two strands are antiparallel (they run in opposite directions). T indicate on Figure 2 the base sequence which have produced for each side of the molecule. if one strands runs 5 1 to 31 (phosphate-sugar. an amino acid can be specified by more than one codon. but much weaker hydrogen bonds. Usually one strand (The sense strand) od DNA is active in protein synthesis. . C. the other must run 3 1 to 51 from top to bottom. These indicate where a protein chain is to end. but each codon can specify only one amino acid. phosphate sugar) from top to bottom. Cytosine pairs only with guanine . There are 64 possible codon (Figure 3). The bonds between the bases are not covalent bonds. DNA Structure Duplicate Figure 2 by pairing each nucleotide of the first strand with its complementary nucleotide and joining the bonds to form a new strand. In most cases.A : DNA : The Genetic Code Base Pairing Select one of the remaining nucleotides and attempt to pair it with a nucleotide of the strand by putting the ends of their bases together. Each code word or codon consists of a sequence of three bases and specifies a particular amino acid. Attempt several such pairings using different bases. Then fill in the following : Adenine pairs only with thymine. that is. Bases which pair are said to be complementary. Using A. The Genetic Code The sequence of bases in DNA forms a code or set of instructions for proteins synthesis. The codons of the inactive or antisense strand are not used in protein synthesis. The structure which is produced represents the double-stranded DNA molecule.

2 guanine. Obtain the following units for group : 12 Deoxyribose (Red). We will use this as the sense strand and ignore the antisense strand. While ribose is a component of RNA which contains –OH group on the 211 carbon ring. but the other. How does deoxyribose differ from ribose sugar? = The deoxyribosediffers from ribose sugar because deoxyribose is a component of DNA which is lacks –OH (alcohol group) on the 21 carbon ring. Beginning at the 3 1 (sugar) end of the strand. pair each DNA nucleotide with its RNA complement (uracil of RNA complements adenine of DNA) and link together the phosphate and ribose units to form a strand of RNA synthesis begins at the end 5 1 end of the RNA strand and proceeds toward its 3 1 end). 6 guanine. The main difference between the two is that ribose has an oxygen atom attached to carbon 2 . and 2 thymine. Now use the ribose units to form the following RNA nucletides: 2 adenine. 12 Ribose (Pink). During the exercise. . the sense strand. Use the deoxyribose units to form the following DNA nucleotides: 2adenine. 24 Phosphate. called transcription. The nucleotides of DNA contain deoxyribose sugar while nucleotides of RNA contain ribose sugar. 4 Adenine (A). 8 Guanine (G).B : RNA : The Code Transcribed RNA is produced by using DNA as pattern. always keep the printed side of each piece up. 2 Thymine (T). 8 Cytosine (C). and 2 uracil. the genetic code is transferred from DNA to RNA. 2 cytosine. is used to bring about the synthesis of RNA. 2 Uracil (U). first use the deoxyribose nucleotides to form a single strand of DNA. 6 cytosine. One strand of DNA remains inactive. During this process. Transcription During transcription the two strands of a DNA molecule become separated along part of the molecule’s length. Look at the formula of each molecule as printed on the units. Nucleotides Compare a deoxyribose unit to a ribose unit. To demonstrate transcription.

transfer (tRNA). that is. Transcription only occurs when a gene is turned on. Which amino acids are specified by the RNA strand that you have assembled? = From 3’ to 5’. The DNA will not replicate if the cell lacks certain growth factors. Ribosomal RNA combines with proteins to form bodies called ribosomes. Types of RNA Transcription produces three major types of RNA : ribosomal (mRNA). Notice that the sequence of bases in RNA is controlled by the sequence of bases in DNA. while transcription happens in preparation for protein translation. Messenger RNA and The Genetic Code Look again at the sense strand of DNA and the RNA strand produced by it. or turns on. Figure 1 gives the possible DNA codons with their corresponding mRNA codons and the amino acids specified by each. DNA replication is important for properly regulating the growth and division of cells. (in the table. Transfer RNA reacts with amino acids in the cytoplasm and interacts with ribosomes and messenger RNA in the assembly of amino acids into proteins.Separate the RNA and DNA strands. each cell only expresses. Once RNA is formed. the mRNA codons are read from the 51 end of the molecule to the 31 end). Transcription of DNA is the method for regulating gene expression. The ribosomes become located in the cell’s cytoplasm and are centers for protein synthesis. Although all of our cells contain copies of all of our genes. it is released from DNA and goes to other parts of the cell. the genes that are necessary for the functions of that cell. It is messenger RNA that brings the instructions for protein synthesis (the genetic code) from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes. the amino acids that had been obtained are Histidine (CAC) and Leucine (CUG) . and messenger (mRNA). thereby keeping the cell division rate under control. the RNA codons (triplets of bases) are complementary to the DNA codons. How does transcription differ from replication? =Transcription differs from replication because DNA replication occurs in preparation for cell division.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.