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011-Wireless Networking

Lesson Overview
Lesson Objectives
Welcome to the Wireless Networking self-paced training module.
You will learn the following:
What's new in AirPort Time Capsule 802.11ac and AirPort Extreme 802.11ac
Technical Specifications
Wi-Fi network setup
LED status
Wireless Diagnostic Application usage
Wi-Fi Troubleshooting
Wi-Fi best practices
Tips
Bluetooth troubleshooting
Additional Resources

Audience

Prerequisites

Time Required

You will need...

Service Technicians

None

50 MInutes

a Mac, AirPort Time


Capsule 802.11ac,
AirPort Utility

What's New?
New Name: AirPort Time Capsule 802.11ac and AirPort Extreme 802.11ac
Apple has appended the word "AirPort" to the the beginning of "Time Capsule" (all models) to identify that
AirPort Time capsule is an AirPort product.
The correct description is now "AirPort Time Capsule" as the generic term, and "AirPort Time Capsule
802.11n (4th Generation)," etc for the extended name for a specific model.
New Form Factor

AirPort Time Capsule 802.11ac and AirPort Extreme 802.11ac includes an


updated industrial design, four Ethernet ports, three dedicated LAN ports,
one dedicated WAN port, and one USB 2.0 port.
Size and weight
Length: 3.9 inches (98 mm)
Width: 3.9 inches (98 mm)
Height: 6.6 inches (168 mm)

802.11ac
802.11ac (5th Generation Wi-Fi) is the next step in Wi-Fi after 802.11n (4th Generation).
802.11ac is fully backward compatible. That means an AirPort Time Capsule 802.11ac and AirPort
Extreme 802.11ac will work seamlessly with existing wireless devices, such as your laptop, iPad, iPhone,
and so on, and they will still connect to your network the way they have always connected. To have the
devices work at 5G Wi-Fi speeds both the clients and the wireless device need to support 5G Wi-Fi.
As the successor to 802.11n and the 5th-generation Wi-Fi standard, 802.11ac offers a large increase in
speed and performance. The new standard can deliver speeds up to 1.3Gbps, earning it the name of
Gigabit Wi-Fi.
This new standard is especially good for high-definition streaming within a local network.
The extraordinary growth in the number and type of Wi-Fi devices, coupled with the increasing popularity
of bandwidth intensive activities such as high definition video streaming, has created the demand for
better performance with greater range. 802.11ac, the next generation Wi-Fi standard, is designed to
meet these needs.

Beamforming

Beamforming enables Wi-Fi performance increase with an innovative approach to how wireless devices
connect. In previous generations, Wi-Fi radiated an equal signal in all directions (omnidirectional)
without being able to direct some of the signal to specific devices.

Beamforming is like a laser or flashlight. The hub recognizes the device requesting wireless and focuses
the wireless directly where it's needed, whether it's one device or 20. Because of this novel approach,
wireless can also "beam" around corners and through walls, eliminating or reducing previous
performance obstacles encountered in large spaces.
Features and Benefits of 802.11ac
Features

Benefits

Gigabit Speeds

3 times the speed of 802.11n

Better Range

Better home coverage with fewer dead spots

More Reliable

Ideal for media streaming

Ideal for Mobile

More Wi-Fi bandwidth for your mobile devices

Compatibility

Backward compatible with 2.4 GHz 802.11a/b/g/n & 802.11n at 5


GHz band

Configurations
Configurations
AirPort Time Capsule 802.11ac is available in 2 configurations:

AirPort Time Capsule 802.11ac with 3 TB hard drive


AirPort Time Capsule 802.11ac with 2 TB hard drive

AirPort Extreme 802.11ac is available in one configuration with no hard drive.


All models are differentiated by their serial number config codes:
3TB - F9H6
2TB - F9H5
No hard drive (AirPort Extreme 802.11ac only) - FJ1R
The serial number is located on the bottom of the foot.

Serial Number location

Technical Specifications
Size and weight

Length: 3.9 inches (98 mm)


Width: 3.9 inches (98 mm)
Height: 6.6 inches (168 mm)
Security

Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA/WPA2)


MAC address filtering
NAT firewall

Support for RADIUS authentication


802.1X, PEAP, LEAP, TTLS, TLS, FAST
Time Based access control
Electrical
Line voltage: 100-240V AC
Frequency: 50Hz to 60Hz, single phase
Maximum continuous power: 34W
Storage
2TB or 3TB Serial ATA
Accelerometer enabled to park drive in event of movement
Interfaces
One Gigabit Ethernet WAN port for connecting a DSL or cable modem
Three Gigabit Ethernet LAN ports for connecting computers or network devices
USB port for connecting a USB printer or USB external hard drive
802.11ac wireless backwards compatible to 802.11a/b/g/n devices
System Requirements

For Mac Users


For backup using Time
Machine
For setup and

Mac computer with Mac OS X 10.7.5 or


later

Mac with Mac OS X v10.7.5 or later

administration
For wireless client

For iOS Users

An iPad, iPhone, or iPod touch iOS 6.1


or later

Mac with AirPort wireless capability

An iPad, iPhone, or iPod touch

USB printer; Mac with Mac OS X

An iPad, iPhone, or iPod touch iOS 6.1

v10.7.5 or later

or later

access
For shared printing
with a USB printer

For AirPort Disk with a Mac with Mac OS X v10.7.5 or later


USB hard drive

Ports

SLI

Back
1. Ethernet Ports
2. USB
3. WAN Port
4. Power
5. Reset Button
Front
6. Status Light Indicator

Channels
Channels 1-11, 36-48, and 149-165 approved for use in the United States and Canada
Channels 1-13, 36-64, and 100-140 approved for use in Japan
Channels 1-13, 36-64, 100-112, and 132-140 approved for use in Europe
Channels 1-13, 36-64, and 149-165 approved for use in Australia, Hong Kong, and New Zealand

Wi-Fi Network Setup

Wireless options

Use AirPort Utility on a computer or Wi-Fi settings on an iOS device to do one of the following:
Set up AirPort Time Capsule to create a new network that wireless computers and devices can use to
connect to the Internet.
Set up AirPort Time Capsule to join an existing network. If the network is connected to the Internet, all
the computers and wireless devices on the AirPort network can use the Internet connection. If the
network is set up to be extended, AirPort Time Capsule can extend the range of that network.
All basic network setup and configuration can be done with the setup assistant in AirPort Utility on a Mac,
or on an iOS device.

A computer running a Windows operating system will not be able to


configure/setup an AirPort Time Capsule. Additionally, Windows OS
can not access Time Machine.
To configure/setup AirPort Time Capsule requires the following:
A Mac computer with an AirPort card installed (to set up AirPort Time Capsule
wirelessly), or a Mac computer connected to AirPort Time Capsule with an Ethernet
cable (to set it up using Ethernet)
OS X Lion v10.7.5 or later and AirPort Utility 6.3

An iPad, iPhone, or iPod touch


iOS 6.1 or later

Setting Up AirPort Time Capsule


Setting Up AirPort Time Capsule Using a Mac:
Setting Up AirPort Time Capsule Using an iOS device:

For more information about wireless networking and the advanced features of AirPort
Utility, see AirPort + Wi-Fi support at
http://www.apple.com/support/airport/timecapsule/.

LED Statuses
The following table describes AirPort Time Capsule 802.11ac and AirPort Extreme 802.11ac status light
sequences and what they indicate.

Light

Status/description

Off

AirPort Time Capsule or AirPort Extreme is unplugged.

Solid green

AirPort Time Capsule or AirPort Extreme is on and working properly.

Flashing

AirPort Time Capsule or AirPort Extreme is not set up or cannot establish a connection

amber

to the network or the Internet. Use AirPort Utility to find out the cause.

Solid amber

AirPort Time Capsule or AirPort Extreme is starting up.

Flashing
amber and
green

There may be a problem starting up. AirPort Time Capsule or AirPort Extreme will restart
and try again.

Wireless Diagnostics
Overview

Wireless Diagnostics is not a feature of either AirPort Extreme 802.11ac or AirPort


Time Capsule 802.11ac. Wireless Diagnostics are a feature of 10.8.4 that can be used

to diagnose any wireless network. You must use at least 10.8.4 to use Wireless
Diagnostics.
For more information see: About Wireless Diagnostics.

Wireless Diagnostics can help you resolve common wireless connectivity issues on a Mac by analyzing a
connected Wi-Fi network and providing solutions. If the issue is more complex and requires additional
support, Wireless Diagnostics can also collect information needed to diagnose more difficult problems by
collecting detailed logs and network traffic.

Wireless Diagnostics requires 10.8.4 or later.


Wireless Diagnostics must be connected to a network.
Wireless Diagnostics requires an administrator password to run.
If a customer can connect with their Wi-Fi router but are otherwise having difficulty
with web pages loading, or access to some other part of the Internet such as Software
Downloads, Mail, music or video streaming, then run Wireless Diagnostics to help
determine if the problem is related to the environment, or configuration.
After Wireless Diagnostics has completed its analysis of the Wi-Fi network, it will list
any problems it finds, and will offer some steps for you to fix the problem.
Wireless Diagnostics does not automatically make any changes to settings. The
technician or customer must make those changes.

How to use Wireless Diagnostics.


1. Make sure Wi-Fi is turned on.
2. Press the Option key while selecting the Wi-Fi icon in the menu bar.
3. Select Open Wireless Diagnostics from the bottom of the pull-down
menu.
4. Enter your Admin Name and Password when prompted.

Running Wireless Diagnostics

Introduction Screen

Read the Introduction window and click Continue.


The Assistant will test the Wi-Fi connection to the router, and the network
Wi-Fi configuration settings on the Mac.

If no problems are found, the Diagnose window will appear, indicating that
your Wi-Fi connection appears to be working as expected.
If the problem is intermittent you can now click Continue to allow the
Assistant to monitor the connection until it detects a failure.
Problems like unexpected dropped connections and auto-join problems
aren't always easy to reproduce on demand. Monitor Mode can be left
running until the problem occurs. At that point Monitor Mode will
automatically stop, and collect information about what occurred.
This will be saved to the Desktop as part of the Wireless Diagnostics report,
so that you can share it with your IT network specialist. Monitor Mode will
indicate when it has detected a problem.

Monitor mode is designed to work when the Mac is on, or in sleep/wake mode.
Selecting a different Wi-Fi network from the Wi-Fi menu extra while Monitor Mode is
running, or restarting the Mac will end monitoring and it will need to be restarted
when the problematic network is rejoined.

If you select the Continue to summary button, and click "Continue," you will
see the Additional Information window which will ask for a description of
your physical Wi-Fi network, such as where your Wi-Fi router is located.
An example is shown in gray text.

Click "Continue" to go to the Router Information window. You may choose to


enter text to describe what brand, model, and firmware version the Wi-Fi
router is using, and then click "Continue."

Wireless Diagnostics will generate a Summary report. In the Summary


window each item in the list contains a problem title, a concise
recommendation, and a ? button which will show the corresponding Help
containing more information.
Follow the recommended steps for each item until they are all completed.
Click Done when you are finished.
A file containing details found during the diagnosis will be saved to the desktop of your computer.

Figure 2 shows the typical files that are captured.


Wireless Diagnostics will then quit.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Utilities
Encompasses additional functionality to gather data to simplify debugging, which can be helpful when
resolving intermittent problems.

Figure 1: Selecting the Utilities window: Wireless Diagnostics > Window > Utilities
or
Figure 2: Wireless Diagnostics > Command 2.

The Utilities window consists of several tools; Info, Frame Capture, Logging, Wi-Fi Scan, and Performance.
See Wireless Diagnostic Help for more information regarding these Utilities.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Wi-Fi Best Practices


Wi-Fi Best Practices
Wi-Fi best practices are configuration steps for your 802.11a/b/g/n Wi-Fi router. These settings are
recommended for all Macs and iOS devices that support Wi-Fi, and will help ensure maximum
performance, security, and reliability.

Before configuring or adjusting specific settings, perform the following steps:


Ensure that your WiFi router's firmware is up to date.
If you are using a WiFi base station, refer to this article for information on how to update it.
Verify that all WiFi devices you intend to use support the settings recommended in this article.
If possible, back up your current WiFi router's settings.
If necessary, refer to the product documentation or manufacturer's website.
Forget or remove the Wi-Fi settings for your network from any devices that connect to your Wi-Fi router.
(This will prevent the devices from attempting to connect to your network with the old configuration.) You
will need to reconnect these devices to your network once you've finished applying the new settings.

Configure all WiFi base stations on the same network with the same settings. Not doing so will cause
connectivity and reliability issues. On dual-band WiFi base stations, configure both bands to have the
same settings unless otherwise noted below.
Use the following settings for maximum performance, security, and reliability.

SSID (Service Set IdentifierWi-Fi network name)

Set to

Any unique name.

Description The SSID, or network name, identifies your Wi-Fi network to users and
other Wi-Fi devices. It is case sensitive.

More
details

Choose a name that is unique to your network and is not shared by


other nearby networks or other networks you are likely to encounter.
If your router came with a default SSID (network name), it is especially
important that you change it to a different, unique name. Some
common default SSID names to avoid are "linksys", "netgear",
"NETGEAR", "dlink", "wireless", "2wire", and "default", but there are
others. If your SSID is not unique, Wi-Fi devices will have trouble
identifying your network. This could cause them to fail to
automatically connect to your network, or to connect to other
networks sharing the same SSID. In addition, it may prevent Wi-Fi
devices from using all base stations in your network (if you have more
than one Wi-Fi base station), or prevent them from using all available
bands (if you have a dual-band Wi-Fi base station).

Hidden network

Set to

Disabled

Description Hidden networks don't broadcast their SSID over Wi-Fi. This option
may also be incorrectly referred to as a "closed" network, and the
corresponding nonhidden state may be referred to as "broadcast" or
"open."

More
details

Because hidden networks don't broadcast their SSID, it is more


difficult for devices to find them, which can result in increased
connection time and can reduce the reliability of auto-connection.
Note that hiding a network doesn't secure your Wi-Fi network,
because the SSID is still available through other mechanisms. Security
is enforced by a different setting (see Security below).

MAC address authentication or filtering

Set to

Disabled

Description Restricts access to a Wi-Fi router to devices with specific MAC (Media
Access Control) addresses.

More
details

When enabled, this feature allows a user to configure a list of MAC


addresses for the Wi-Fi router, and restrict access to only devices with
addresses that are in the list. Devices with MAC addresses not in the
list will fail to associate to the Wi-Fi network. Unfortunately, device
MAC addresses can be easily changed, so this cannot be relied upon
to prevent unauthorized access to the network. Security should be
enforced by a different setting (see Security below).

Security

Set to

WPA2 Personal (AES)

Description The security setting controls the type of authentication and


encryption used by your Wi-Fi router. This setting allows you to
control access to your wireless network, as well as to specify the level
of privacy you'd like to have for data you send over the air.

More
details

WPA2 Personal (AES) is currently the strongest form of security


offered by Wi-Fi products, and is recommended for all uses. When
enabling WPA2, be sure to select a strong password, one that cannot
be guessed by third parties.
If you have older Wi-Fi devices on your network that don't support
WPA2 Personal (AES), a good second choice is WPA/WPA2 Mode (often
referred to as WPA Mixed Mode). This mode will allow newer devices
to use the stronger WPA2 AES encryption, while still allowing older
devices to connect with older WPA TKIP-level encryption. If your Wi-Fi
router doesn't support WPA/WPA2 Mode, WPA Personal (TKIP) mode is
the next best choice.
Note that the use of WEP is not recommended for compatibility,
reliability, performance, and security reasons; WEP is insecure and
functionally obsolete. However, if you must support legacy WEP
devices and you have a newer (802.11n) Wi-Fi router, you may be able
to select the WEP Transitional Security Network (WEP TSN) security
mode. This mode will allow legacy WEP clients to join your network
with WEP encryption while allowing newer devices to use more
modern and secure encryption modes, such as WPA TKIP or WPA2
AES. If WEP TSN mode is not supported, then WEP128 with Shared
Authentication should be used (with a single WEP key in key index 1).
For compatibility reasons, WEP128 networks should use 13-character
ASCII passwords.
For reference, "None" or unsecured mode, provides no authentication
or encryption. If you use this security mode, anyone will be able to
join your Wi-Fi network, use your Internet connection, or access any
shared resource on your network. In addition, anyone will be able to
read any traffic you send over the network. For these reasons, this
security mode is not recommended.
Note: Due to serious security weaknesses, the WEP and WPA TKIP
encryption methods are deprecated and strongly discouraged.
These modes should be used only if it is necessary to support legacy
Wi-Fi devices that don't support WPA2 AES and cannot be upgraded to
support WPA2 AES. Devices using these deprecated encryption
methods will not be able to take full advantage of
802.11n performance and other features. Due to these issues the WiFi Alliance has directed the Wi-Fi industry to phase out WEP and WPA
TKIP.

2.4 GHz Radio Mode

Set to

802.11b/g/n

Description This setting controls which versions of the 802.11a/b/g/n standard


the network uses for wireless communication on the 2.4 GHz band.
Newer standards (802.11n) support faster transfer rates, and older
standards provide compatibility with older devices and additional
range.

More
details

Routers that support 802.11n should be configured for 802.11b/g/n


for maximum speed and compatibility. Routers that only support
802.11g should be put in 802.11b/g mode, while those that support
only 802.11b can be left in 802.11b mode. Different Wi-Fi routers
support different radio modes, so the exact setting will vary
depending on the Wi-Fi router in use. In general, enable support for
all modes. Devices will then automatically select the fastest commonly
supported mode to communicate. Note that choosing a subset of the
available modes will prevent some devices from connecting (for
example, 802.11b/g devices will be unable to connect to a Wi-Fi
router in 802.11n-only mode). In addition, choosing a subset of the
available modes may cause interference with nearby legacy networks,
and may cause nearby legacy devices to interfere with your network.

5 GHz Radio Mode

Set to

802.11a/n

Description This setting controls which versions of the 802.11a/b/g/n standard


the network uses for wireless communication on the 5 GHz band.
Newer standards support faster transfer rates, and older standards
provide compatibility with older devices and additional range.

More
details

Routers that support 802.11n should be configured for 802.11a/n


mode for maximum speed and compatibility. Routers that only
support 802.11a can be left in 802.11a mode. Different Wi-Fi routers
support different radio modes, so the exact setting will vary
depending on the Wi-Fi router in use. In general, enable support for
all modes. Devices will then automatically select the fastest commonly
supported mode to communicate. Note that choosing a subset of the
available modes will prevent older devices from connecting (for
example, 802.11a devices will be unable to connect to a Wi-Fi router
in 802.11n-only mode). In addition, choosing a subset of the
available modes may cause interference with nearby legacy networks,
and may cause nearby legacy devices to interfere with your network.

Channel

Set to

Auto

Description This setting controls which channel your Wi-Fi router will use to
communicate. "Auto" allows the Wi-Fi router to select the best
channel automatically. You can also manually select a channel.

More
details

For best performance, choose "Auto" mode and let the Wi-Fi router
select the best channel. If this mode is not supported by your Wi-Fi
router, you will need to manually select a channel. You should pick a
channel that is free from other Wi-Fi routers and other sources of
interference. Refer to this article for information about possible
sources of interference.

2.4 GHz channel width

Set to

20 MHz

Description Channel width controls how large a "pipe" is available to transfer data.
However, larger channels are more subject to interference and more
prone to interfere with other devices. A 40 MHz channel is sometimes
referred to as a wide channel, with 20 MHz channels referred to as
narrow channels.

More

Use 20 MHz channels in the 2.4 GHz band. Using 40 MHz channels in

details

the 2.4 GHz band can cause performance and reliability issues with
your network, especially in the presence of other Wi-Fi networks and
other 2.4 GHz devices. 40 MHz channels may also cause interference
and issues with other devices that use this band, such as Bluetooth
devices, cordless phones, neighboring Wi-Fi networks, and so on.
Note that not all routers support 40 MHz channels, especially in the
2.4 GHz band. If they are not supported, the router will use 20 MHz
channels.

5 GHz channel width

Set to

Both 20 MHz and 40 MHz

Description Channel width controls how large a "pipe" is available to transfer data.
However, larger channels are more subject to interference, and more
prone to interfere with other devices. Interference is less of an issue
in the 5 GHz band. A 40 MHz channel is sometimes referred to as a
wide channel, with 20 MHz channels referred to as narrow channels.

More

For best performance and reliability, enable support for both channel

details

widths. This allows devices to use whichever width they support,


which results in optimal performance and compatibility. Note that not

all client devices support 40 MHz channels, so do not enable 40 MHzonly mode; devices that support only 20 MHz channels will not be
able to connect to a Wi-Fi router in 40 MHz-only mode. In addition,
not all routers support 40 MHz channels; a router that doesn't will use
20 MHz channels.

DHCP

Set to

Only one DHCP server per network

Description The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) assigns addresses


that identify devices on your network. Once assigned, devices use
these addresses to communicate with each other and with computers
on the Internet. (The functionality of a DHCP server can be thought of
as similar to a phone company handing out phone numbers, which
customers then use to call other people).

More
details

There should be only one DHCP server on your network. This DHCP
server may be built in to your DSL or cable modem, a standalone
router, or integrated with your Wi-Fi router. In any case, only one
device should act as a DHCP server on your network. If more than one
device has it enabled, you will likely see address conflicts and will
have issues accessing the Internet or other resources on your
network.

NAT

Set to

Only enabled on your router; only one device at most should provide
NAT services on the network.

Description Network address translation (NAT) translates between addresses on


the Internet and those on a local network. (The functionality of a NAT
provider is like that of a worker in an office mail room who takes a
business address and an employee name on incoming letters and
replaces them with the destination office number in a building. This
allows people outside the business to send information to a specific
person in the building).

More

Generally, NAT should only be enabled on the device acting as a

details

router for your network. This is usually either your DSL or cable
modem, or a standalone router (which may also act as your Wi-Fi
router). If NAT is enabled on more than one device"double NAT"
you will likely have trouble accessing certain Internet services, such as
games, Voice Over IP (VoIP), and Virtual Private Network (VPN), and
communicating across the different levels of NAT on the local
network.

Wi-Fi Troubleshooting
If the AirPort Time Capsule or AirPort Extreme Software Can't Detect AirPort Time Capsule
If you're using a Mac, use the Wi-Fi status menu in the menu bar to make sure Wi-Fi is turned on.
If you're using a Windows computer, make sure the wireless card or adapter is installed correctly. To
check the connection, see the documentation that came with the computer.
Forgotten Network or AirPort Time Capsule Password
You can clear the AirPort Time Capsule password by resetting AirPort Time Capsule.
To reset AirPort Time Capsule and network passwords:
1. Use the end of a straightened paper clip to press the reset button for one second.
2. Select the AirPort Time Capsule network.
On a Mac, use the AirPort status menu in the menu bar to select the network created by AirPort Time
Capsule (the network name doesn't change).
On a Windows computer, hold the pointer over the wireless connection icon until you see your AirPort
Network Name (SSID), then select it.
3. Open AirPort Utility.
4. Select the AirPort Time Capsule and click Configure.
5. In the dialog that appears, make the following changes:
Reset the AirPort Time Capsule password
Turn on encryption to activate password protection for the AirPort network. If encryption is turned on,
enter a new password for the AirPort network.
6. Click OK.

If AirPort Time Capsule Isn't Responding


Unplug it from the power outlet and plug it back in.

If AirPort Time Capsule stops responding completely, you may need to reset it to its
factory settings. This erases all of the settings you've made and resets them to their
original values.

To return AirPort Time Capsule to its factory settings:


Use the end of a straightened paper clip to hold the reset button for ten seconds.
AirPort Time Capsule restarts with the following settings:
AirPort Time Capsule receives its IP address using DHCP.

The network name reverts to AppleNetwork xxxxxx (where x is a letter or number).


The AirPort Time Capsule password reverts to public.
If you previously used AirPort Utility to create profiles for AirPort Time Capsule, they're preserved when
you reset AirPort Time Capsule. If you need to return AirPort Time Capsule to its factory settings and
remove any profiles that have been set up:
1. Unplug AirPort Time Capsule.
2. Use the end of a straightened paper clip to hold down the reset button while you plug in AirPort Time
Capsule.
Wait until the status light flashes, and then reset the AirPort Time Capsule.

Reset Types
Depending on the situation, you will need to choose one of the following AirPort Time
Capsule reset types:

Soft reset: Resets the AirPort Time Capsule and disables security for five minutes so
that you can join the network to make changes
Hard reset: Erases all user settings on the AirPort Time Capsule but retains saved
profiles*
Factory default reset: The same as a hard reset but also removes any saved profiles*
*Saved profiles are used in more recent versions of AirPort Time Capsule to store up
to five configurations, known as profiles. A profile contains base station settings, such
as names and passwords, and network configuration information, such as the way the
base station connects to the Internet. Using profiles may be useful if you move your
device from one location to another.

Tips
Best location for an AirPort base station
The following recommendations can help AirPort Time Capsule achieve the best wireless range and
network coverage.

Place AirPort Time Capsule in an open area where there are few obstructions, such as large pieces of
furniture or walls. Place it away from metallic surfaces.
Avoid placing AirPort Time Capsule behind furniture or inside cabinets.
Don't lay AirPort Time Capsule on its side.
Don't place AirPort Time Capsule in areas surrounded by metal surfaces on three or more sides.
If AirPort Time Capsule is put in an entertainment center with stereo equipment, don't
surround AirPort Time Capsule with audio, video, or power cables.
Place AirPort Time Capsule so the cables are to one side. Keep as much space as possible
between AirPort Time Capsule and the cables.

Avoiding Interference
The following components can cause interference to AirPort base station signal quality:

Direct Satellite Service (DSS) radio frequency leakage.


The original coaxial cable that may come with a satellite dish. Recommend that the user contact the
device manufacturer and get newer cables.
Electrical devices such as power lines, electrical railroad tracks, and power stations.

Avoiding proximity to sources of interference may help reduce connectivity problems.

Service Strategy
Service Strategy
The AirPort Time Capsule and AirPort Extreme 802.11ac service strategy is carry-in and whole unit
replacement. There are no serviceable or replaceable parts inside of the unit. Do not replace the internal
hard drive.
Parts List:*
AirPort Time Capsule 802.11ac 3TB

661-7389

AirPort Time Capsule 802.11ac 2TB

661-7388

AirPort Extreme 802.11ac

661-7500

Power Cable

923-0001

*Part number in other countries are preceded by their country code.

Warranty Coverage
Apple's Limited Warranty covers AirPort base stations and AirPort Time Capsules. Apple Limited warranty
benefits are in addition to, and not instead of, rights provided by consumer law.
AppleCare Protection Plan (APP) or AppleCare+ (AC+) for iPad covers Wi-Fi base stations when used with
an Apple computer, iPad, or Apple TV covered by APP or AC+.
The AirPort device or AirPort Time Capsule must have been purchased up to 2 years before the Mac, iPad,
or Apple TV purchase, or during the term of the agreement coverage.
AC+ does not cover AirPort or AirPort Time Capsule base stations that have been accidentally damaged.

Bluetooth Setup
Syncing Bluetooth Devices with Your Mac
Bluetooth is a short-range wireless technology that lets you connect computers, input devices, mobile

phones, and handheld devices to each other without cables. To use a Bluetooth device with your
computer, your Mac must have either a built-in Bluetooth module or a compatible USB Bluetooth adapter
connected.
Before you can use your mobile phone to connect to the Internet or share contact information, share files
with other devices, or use a Bluetooth keyboard or mouse, you need to set up the device to work with
your computer. Once you've set up the device, it is "paired" with your computer, and you can see it in the
Devices pane of Bluetooth preferences.
You need to pair your computer with the device only once, and they remain paired until you delete the
pairing.

Guidelines for Bluetooth Pairing


1. Make Sure That Your Computer Has Bluetooth
The computer or device must have a Bluetooth module installed, or you need to
connect a USB Bluetooth adapter to the computer.
2. Turn On Bluetooth
Use Bluetooth Setup Assistant to set up your device to work with your computer
by pairing the device with your computer. Once you have paired a device with
your computer, you see the device listed in Bluetooth preferences. To use the
Bluetooth Setup Assistant, choose Set up Bluetooth Device from the Bluetooth
status menu in the menu bar.
If the Bluetooth status menu isnt visible in the menu bar, choose Apple menu >
System Preferences, click Bluetooth, and then select Show Bluetooth status in the
menu bar.
3. Making a Bluetooth connection
After youve paired your devices, youre ready to make a Bluetooth connection.
The way you do this depends on the device youre using. For example, if youre
using a mobile phone to connect to the Internet, select the Bluetooth phone in the
Services list in Network preferences, and then click Connect. If you are sending a
file to another Bluetooth enabled device, choose Send File from the Bluetooth
status menu in the menu bar, select a file to send, and then click Search to find
the device you want to send the file to.
4. Additional Bluetooth How-To Help
All Apple computers come with built-in Mac Help that provides step-by-step
instructions to do many activities on your computer. For additional Bluetooth help,
in the Finder choose Mac Help from the Help menu and then type Bluetooth in the
search field in the upper-right corner.

Bluetooth versus Wi-Fi

Bluetooth wireless technology is different from 802.11 (or Wi-Fi) technology. Bluetooth
devices can transfer data at up to 2 megabits per second (Mbps), and 802.11 wireless
devices transmit data at a much faster speed.

Bluetooth Troubleshooting
Three Devices
Most Bluetooth-capable computers can handle only seven channels of Bluetooth communication at a
time. A Mac can simultaneously support only three to four Bluetooth devices because many Bluetooth
devices (including some Apple devices) use multiple Bluetooth channels to communicate with the
computer.
Using dual-channel devices decreases the amount of listening space available for these devices.
Using too many Bluetooth devices at the same time can cause communication issues with symptoms such
as dropped device connections, lowered wireless audio quality, or erratic mouse tracking.
To work around this saturation, turn off devices you aren't using. Some Bluetooth devices such as Apple
wireless peripherals automatically enter sleep mode when not in use. It's unlikely, for example, that a
customer might simultaneously use Magic Mouse and Magic Trackpad, but a customer may
simultaneously use stereo headphones and a Magic Trackpad, both dual-channel devices.
Mouse, Keyboard, or Magic Trackpad: Not Recognized
Check the status of the Bluetooth icon in the upper right menu bar. If the Bluetooth icon does not appear
in the menu bar, restart your computer.
Note: If the "Show Bluetooth status in the menu bar" option is not enabled in the Bluetooth System
Preferences, the Bluetooth icon will not display in the menu bar. If the Bluetooth hardware is not seen by
the computer; the Bluetooth Preference pane will not display in System Preferences.
Menu Bar Symbols
Bluetooth turned on, but there are no devices connected to the Mac. Make
sure the wireless mouse, Magic Trackpad, or keyboard is turned on.

Bluetooth turned on and at least one wireless device is connected.

When this icon flashes, at least one wireless device has a low battery. Click
the Bluetooth icon to identify the affected device, then replace the batteries.

Bluetooth is off. Click the Bluetooth icon using a USB mouse and select "Turn
Bluetooth On." Note: Mac OS X won't allow Bluetooth to be turned off unless a
USB mouse is connected.

Bluetooth offline. Restart your Mac. If the Bluetooth status doesn't change,
disconnect all USB devices and restart your Mac again.

Mouse Troubleshooting
1. Slide the On/Off switch on the bottom of your mouse to turn it on.
2. When your mouse is on and paired, and the batteries are charged, the indicator light glows steadily.
3. If your mouse isn't paired with a Mac, the indicator light will blink, indicating your mouse is in
discovery mode and ready to pair.
4. If the indicator light doesn't illuminate, check to make sure you have two good batteries and that
they're installed correctly.
Keyboard Troubleshooting
1. Push and release the On/Off switch to turn on the Apple Wireless Keyboard.
2. When your keyboard is on and paired, and the batteries are charged, the light will glow steadily for
several seconds, then turn off.
3. If your wireless keyboard isn't paired with your Mac, the indicator light will begin to blink. This
indicates your keyboard is in discovery mode and ready to pair with your Mac.
4. If the LED doesn't light up, remove the batteries to make sure they're good and that they're installed
correctly.
Magic Trackpad Troubleshooting
1. Push and release the On/Off switch to turn on the Magic Trackpad.
2. When your trackpad is on and paired, and the batteries are charged, the light will glow steadily for
several seconds, then turn off.
3. If your Magic Trackpad isn't paired with your Mac, the indicator light will begin to blink. This
indicates your Magic Trackpad is in discovery mode and ready to pair with your Mac.
4. If you dont pair your trackpad with your Mac within 3 minutes, the light and trackpad turn off to
conserve battery life.
5. Press the On/off button on your trackpad to turn it on again, allowing you to pair it with your Mac.
Low Batteries in Magic Trackpad
When the batteries are low in your Magic Trackpad, the computer should display a warning message. If
the Bluetooth menu is active, it also flashes a battery indicator.
Low or malfunctioning batteries may cause one of the following symptoms:
Depending on the battery type, some batteries may have just enough charge to continually disconnect
and reconnect to the computer intermittently. The customer sees the symptom as repeated onscreen
"device connected" and "device disconnected" alerts.
Other batteries may rapidly, steeply drop from having a usable charge to lacking power to control the
device. This results in a complete disconnection of the device with no low battery warning.
Although these symptoms may mimic interference-based issues, you can confirm whether the issue is
with the batteries and not interference; either replace the batteries, and/or check the device's reported
battery life in the System Preferences Trackpad pane if the trackpad is still connected.
Magic Trackpad Interference

Because Magic Trackpad is a Bluetooth device, it may be susceptible to wireless interference. Recognizing
symptoms of interference is the first step in troubleshooting this issue:
Jumpy or erratic cursor tracking
Frequent trackpad-disconnected alerts from the computer
Check for the following:
1. Check Software Update from the Apple menu to make sure there are no available OS, Bluetooth, or
trackpad updates. Apple frequently updates drivers and firmware for devices to resolve potential
interference issues.
2. Make sure to use only three Bluetooth devices with the computer at a time.
3. Move wireless routers such as AirPort Base Stations farther away from the computer.
4. Move wireless telephones (not cellular phones) and their charging stations farther from the
computer.
5. Move Bluetooth devices closer to the computer.
6. Make sure that no metal filing cabinet or other shielding device is between the computer and the
wireless peripheral.
7. For best results when using Magic Trackpad with an Apple portable computer, leave the computer
open and place the trackpad between yourself and the computer.
Stops Responding Intermittently: Keyboard, Magic Trackpad, or Mouse
Mouse Issue
1. Click the mouse once to reconnect it with your Mac. It may take a moment for the mouse to respond.
2. Check the battery level of the mouse. Choose System Preferences from the Apple menu, then choose
Keyboard & Mouse from the View menu and select the Mouse tab. The battery level indicator is in the
lower-left corner. Replace the batteries if they are low.
Magic Trackpad Issue
1. Press down and click the trackpad to reconnect it with your Mac. It may take a moment for the
trackpad to respond.
2. Check the battery level of the trackpad. Choose System Preferences from the Apple menu, then
choose Keyboard & Mouse from the View menu and select the Keyboard tab. The battery level
indicator is in the lower-left corner. Replace the batteries if they are low.
Keyboard Issue
1. Press a key on the keyboard to reconnect it with your Mac. It may take a moment for the keyboard to
respond.
2. Check the battery level of the keyboard. Choose System Preferences from the Apple menu, then
choose Keyboard & Mouse from the View menu and select the Keyboard tab. The battery level
indicator is in the lower-left corner. Replace the batteries if they are low.
Checking for Signal Interference
To check for signal interference do the following steps:
Move cordless phone base stations, microwave ovens, and other 2.4GHz electrical devices away from the
Mac if you suspect interference.
Keep wireless devices within 10 meters (33 feet) of the Mac.
Avoid putting metal objects between the device and the Mac.
Mouse Does Not Scroll

Check the "Scrolling speed" slide-control at the top of System Preferences > Accessibility > Mouse &
Trackpad > Mouse Options, and make sure the Scrolling checkbox is selected.
For scrolling side-to-side, make sure the application you're using supports side-to-side scrolling.
Remember, scrolling is done with one finger, and navigating is done by swiping side-to-side with two
fingers. Unlike scrolling, navigating moves from page to page in a document or web browser.
Mouse Does Not Track
The Apple Wireless Mouse can be used on most smooth surfaces, however if tracking issues occur try
these options:
Choose System Preferences from the Apple menu, then choose Keyboard & Mouse from the View menu.
Set the Tracking slider to adjust how fast the pointer moves as you move the mouse.
Try using a different surface to see if the tracking improves.
Turn the mouse over and inspect the sensor window. Use compressed air to gently clean the sensor
window if dust or debris is present.
If you are a pet owner, check the bottom of the mouse very carefully for pet hair. Even a single cat hair
can cause erratic mouse tracking.
If multiple Bluetooth wireless devices are in use nearby, try turning them off one at a time to see if the
issue improves. Bandwidth intensive devices could affect tracking.
Mouse Buttons Do Not Work
The Mouse preference pane allows users to customize the mouse features to meet their needs.
1. Choose System Preferences from the Apple menu, then choose Keyboard & Mouse from the View
menu. Set the Tracking slider to adjust how fast the pointer moves as you move the mouse.
2. Try using a different surface to see if the tracking improves.
3. Turn the mouse over and inspect the sensor window. Use compressed air to gently clean the sensor
window if dust or debris is present.
4. If multiple Bluetooth wireless devices are in use nearby, try turning them off one at a time to see if
the issue improves. Bandwidth intensive devices could affect tracking.
Keyboard Keys Do Not Respond
Use the Keyboard Viewer to test whether the keyboard keys are responding correctly when they are
pressed. Test with Bluetooth Service Diagnostic 1.1 utility if the keyboard is compatible with the utility. If
not, follow these troubleshooting steps:
1. Choose System Preferences from the Apple menu, then choose Language & Text from the View menu
(or International from the View menu in Mac OS X v10.5 or earlier).
2. Select Input Sources.
3. Select the Keyboard & Character Viewer checkbox.
4. Enable the input source for the keyboard layout you are testing by selecting the checkbox next to it.
5. Make sure that "Show Input menu in menu bar" is enabled.
6. Choose Show Keyboard Viewer from the Input menu in the menu bar.
7. The Keyboard Viewer shows the keyboard layout.
8. Type the key on the keyboard that doesn't respond and observe whether the corresponding key
highlights on the Keyboard Viewer. If it does, that particular key is functioning correctly.
9. If the mouse keys feature in the Accessibility System Preferences pane is enabled, many of the
keyboard keys may not respond as expected.

Additional Resources

Set Up
Setting up AirPort Time Capsule for the first time
Backing up with AirPort Time Capsule for the first time
Mac Basics: AirPort Time Machine
AirPort Quick Assist
OS X: Connecting a Wi-Fi printer to your Wi-Fi network
AirPort Express: What is Client Mode?
OSX: Back to my Mac Requires AirPort base station or upnp-capable third-party router
Setting up and using Back to My Mac with an AirPort base station or Time Capsule
AirPort Express: How to join an existing Wi-Fi network in client mode
AirPort Express frequently asked questions (FAQ)
Wi-Fi base stations: How to set up and configure AirPort Express for AirPlay and iTunes
AirPort: How to mount an AirPort Extreme USB hard disk volume in Mac OS X and Windows
Wi-Fi Troubleshooting
Printer troubleshooting for AirPort Time Capsule
Resetting an AirPort Base Station or Time Capsule FAQ
AirPort Time Capsule: Time Machine backups do not mount
AirPort Time Capsule: Initial backup is interrupted
AirPort Time Capsule: "Connection Failed" message appears
Printing to an AirPort Time Capsule from Windows XP
Uses for the USB port of AirPort Time Capsule, AirPort Extreme, AirPort Express
AirPort Time Capsule: External USB drive becomes inaccessible
AirPort Time Capsule: USB storage device supported formats and protocols
AirPort Base Station: Software and firmware download links
AirPort Base Stations: About AirPort Base Station status lights
About AirPort base station firmware updates
Troubleshooting Wi-Fi issues in OS X Lion and Mac OS X v10.6
Service
Mac OS X 10.5: Continuing AirPort Time Machine backups after main logic board is replaced
Airport Time Capsule: How to find the serial number
How to verify or erase an Airport Time Capsule disk
Airport Time Machine: How to transfer Time Machine backups from one AirPort Time Capsule to a
different one
Bluetooth
Wireless input devices: Bluetooth frequently asked questions
Wi-Fi and Bluetooth: Potential sources of wireless interference

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