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CHAPTER FOUR

EQUAL REMUNERATION ACT, 1976


Learning Objective:
After completion of this Chapter, the student is able to understand,
In today's globalised liberalised scenario, women form an integral part of the
Indian workforce. In such an environment, the quality of womens employment is very
important and depends upon several factors.
The implementation of the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
should know the intricacies involved in the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.

UNIT STRUCTURE
4.1 Introduction:
4.2 Objects Of The Equal Remuneration Act,1976
4.3 Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 Have Overriding Effect
4.4 Duties Of Employer Relating To Payment Of Equal Remuneration And Recruitment Under
The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
4.5 Provisions Relating To Advisory Committee Under The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.
4.6 Appropriate Government To Appoint Authorities For Hearing And Deciding Claims And
Complaints.
4.7 Duty Of Employers To Maintain Registers.
Summary
Review Questions

4.1 INTRODUCTION:
An Act to provide for the payment of equal remuneration to men and women workers and for the
prevention of discrimination, on the ground of sex, against women in the matter of employment
and for matters connected therewith. Article 39(d) of the constitution of India provides that State
shall direct its policy towards securing pay for equal work for men and women.. The Act extends
to whole of India. It came into force on 11th February, 1976.

4.2 OBJECTS OF THE EQUAL REMUNERATION ACT,1976


Equal Remuneration: To provide payment of equal remuneration to men and women workers
for same work or work of similar nature without any discrimination.
Prevent Discrimination: To prevent discrimination against women employees while making
recruitment for the same work or work of similar nature, or in any condition of service
subsequent to recruitment.
4.3 EQUAL REMUNERATION ACT, 1976 HAVE OVERRIDING EFFECT
Section 3 The provisions of this act shall have effect not withstanding anything inconsistent there
with contained in any other law or in the terms of any award, agreement or contract of service,
whether made before or after the commencement of this Act, or in any instrument having effect
under any law for the time being in force.
SAME WORK OR WORK OF SIMILAR NATURE
Section 2(h) defines "same work or work of a similar nature" means work in respect of which
the skill, effort and responsibility required are the same, when performed under similar working
conditions, by a man or a woman and the differences, if any, between the skill, effort and
responsibility required of a man and those required of a woman are not of practical importance in
relation to the terms and conditions of employment.
Remuneration: Section 2(g)
The basic wage or salary, and any additional emoluments whatsoever payable, either in cash or
in kind, to a person employed in respect of employment or work done in such employment, if the
terms of the contract of employment, express or implied, were fulfilled.

4.4 DUTIES OF EMPLOYER RELATING TO PAYMENT OF EQUAL


REMUNERATION AND RECRUITMENT UNDER THE EQUAL REMUNERATION
ACT, 1976

Duties of employer relating to payment of equal remuneration and recruitment are as follows:
Equal remuneration for equal work [Section 4]: It is the duty of the employer to pay same
wages to the workmen of both sex performing same work and work of similar nature. Thus,
employer is under duty not to make discrimination while paying remuneration to men or women.
It should be noted that employer shall not reduce the rate of remuneration of any worker for the
purpose of complying with the rule of equal remuneration of any worker.
No discrimination to be made while recruiting men and women workers [Section 5]: On and
from the commencement of this Act, no employer shall, while making recruitment for the same
work or work of a similar nature, 1[or in any condition of service subsequent to recruitment such
as promotions, training or transfer,] make any discrimination against women except where the
employment of women in such work is prohibited or restricted by or under any law for the time
being in force. Provisions of this section shall not affect any priority or reservation for

Scheduled Castes
Scheduled Tribes,
Ex-servicemen
Retrenched employees

4.5 PROVISIONS RELATING TO ADVISORY COMMITTEE UNDER THE EQUAL


REMUNERATION ACT, 1976.

Constitution and purpose of Advisory Committee [Section 6(1)]: For the purpose of
providing increasing employment opportunities for women, the Appropriate Government shall
constitute one or more Advisory Committees to advise it with regard to the extent to which
women may be employed in such establishments or employments as the Central Government
may specify by notification in this behalf.
Composition of Advisory Committee [Section 6(2)]: Every Advisory Committee shall consist
of not less than 10 persons, to be nominated by the Appropriate Government, of which one-half
shall be women.
Consideration to be taken into account by the committee in rendering its advice [Section
6(3)]: In tendering its advice, the Advisory Committee shall have regard to:
Number of women employed in the concerned establishment or employment, Nature of
work,
Hours of work,
Suitability of women for employment,
Need for providing increasing employment opportunities for women - Other relevant
factors as the Committee may think fit.

Procedure [Section 6(4)]: The Advisory Committee shall regulate its own procedure.
Issue of direction by the Appropriate Government [Section 6(5)]: The Appropriate
Government after considering the advice of the Advisory Committee and after giving to the
persons concerned in the establishment or employment an opportunity to make representations
can issue directions in respect of employment of women workers, as the Appropriate
Government may think fit.
4.6 APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT TO APPOINT AUTHORITIES FOR HEARING
AND DECIDING CLAIMS AND COMPLAINTS.
Section 7: It empower the Appropriate Government to appoint officers, not below the rank of a
Labour Officer, for the purpose of hearing and deciding complaints with regard to:
Complaints with regard to the contravention of any provision of the Act
Claims arising out of non-payment of wages at equal rates to men and women workers
for the same work or work of a similar nature.
Define the local limits within which each such authority shall exercise its jurisdiction.

4.7 DUTY OF EMPLOYERS TO MAINTAIN REGISTERS.


Section 8: Every employer shall maintain such registers and other documents in relation to the
workers employed by him as may be prescribed.

EMPLOYER PUNISHABLE FOR THE FOLLOWING OFFENCES


Making any recruitment in contravention of the provisions of the Act or
Making any payment of remuneration at unequal rates to men and women workers for the
same work or work of a similar nature
Making any discrimination between men and women workers in contravention of the
provisions of this Act
Omitting or failing to carry out any direction made by the Appropriate Government

Penalty: Penalty for various acts mentioned above is as follows:


Fine not less than Rs. 10,000 but which may be extended to Rs. 20,000 or
Imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than 3 months but which may extend to 1
year or
With both

Subsequent offence: For second and subsequent offence imprisonment may extend to 2 years.

SUMMARY
The equal Remuneration Act provides for payment of equal remuneration to men & women for
the same work, or work of similar nature and for prevention of discrimination against women in
recruitment as well as conditions of service such as promotions, training, transfers etc. For the
purpose of providing increasing employment opportunities to women, the appropriate
government may constitute one or more advisory committees. The appropriate government may
appoint an authority to hear and decide claims and complaints.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.

Write short notes on maintenance of Register and Return under the Act.

2.

Define the termsRemunerationand Same work or Work of a similar nature.

3.

Briefly explain the object of Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.

4.

Explain the provisions regarding offence by companies under Equal Remuneration Act,
1976.

5.

Describe the duties of employer under Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.