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Radio Resource Management

TM51178EN03GLA1

Radio Resource Management

TM51178EN03GLA1

Radio Resource Management

TM51178EN03GLA1

Radio Resource Management

TM51178EN03GLA1

Radio Resource Management

TM51178EN03GLA1

Radio Resource Management

TM51178EN03GLA1

Radio Resource Management

At reception of the HO request message the RAC decides in an all-or-nothing


manner on the admission / rejection of the resources used by the UE in the source
cell (prior to HO). 'All-or-nothing' manner means that either both SRB AND (logical)
DRB are admitted or the UE is rejected. RLT all SRB are admitted

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Radio Resource Management

TM51178EN03GLA1

Radio Resource Management

Deployment of shared channels offers the possibility for scheduling. In this way
information on varying channel conditions can be exploited to increase the overall
throughput.
Fast scheduling in time (1 ms) and frequency domain reduces latency and improves
peak rate. Adaptive Modulation and Coding leads to higher data rates and optimizes
spectral efficiency Hybrid ARQ leads to higher efficiency in transmission and error
correction. A scheduler deploys mechanisms to determine which user(s) is(are)
served in a given transmission time interval.
Dynamic assignment of radio resources to the UE is done by taking into account
channel conditions and priorisation for the UE with the better channel conditions.
Benefit is the maximisation of the Node B throughput, high peak date rates for the UE
and an efficient usage of the radio resources.
Furthermore OFDMA / MIMO allows scheduling decisions on the basis of three
dimensions: time, frequency and space.

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Radio Resource Management

As shown in the figure the channel's decorrelation in frequency and time offers the
possibility to exploit the varying conditions.
Scheduling resource is the time-frequency grid. In detail, the basic scheduled
resource consists of a 1 ms (sub-frame, TTI) and 12 subcarriers, 180 kHz. The
efficiency of the scheduling strongly depends on the deployed algorithm.
Additionally the performance depends on the UE speed. Furthermore the gain of the
scheduling may be higher the higher the number of scheduled UE's.
The scheduling functionality is provided by the MAC layer.

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Radio Resource Management

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Radio Resource Management

Determine which PRBs are available (free) and can be allocated to Ues
Allocate PRBs needed for common channels like SIB, paging, and random
access procedure (RAP)
Final allocation of UEs (bearers) onto PRB. Considering only the PRBs
available after the previous steps
Pre-Scheduling: All UEs with data available for transmission based
on the buffer fill levels
Time Domain Scheduling: Parameter MAX-#_UE_DL decides how
many UEs are allocated in the TTI being scheduled
Frequency Domain Scheduling for Candidate Set 2 UEs: Resource
allocation in Frequency Domain including number and location of
allocated PRBs
The scheduling is performed on cell basis. The two main functions are to decide
which UE(s) shall be scheduled, the number of resources and the MCS to be applied.
Furthermore the scheduler needs to be QoS aware. There is priority given to random
access responses, control data, HARQ retransmissions.
The channel quality may be taken in consideration.
In RL10 the DL exploits CQI reports to decide on frequency and time resources. In UL
the scheduling decisions in RL10 are not based on quality but a random frequency
allocation is deployed.

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Radio Resource Management

Time domain:
Evaluation of the #PRBs that will be
assigned to UEs
Available number of PRBs per user
Multiple of 2, 3 or 5

Max. # of UEs which can be scheduled per


TTI time frame is restricted by an O&M
parameter. RL T and RL10 limit the
number to a max. of 10 UEs per TTI

Frequency Domain:
Uses a random function to assure equal
distribution of PRBs over the available
frequency range ( random frequency
hopping)
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Radio Resource Management

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Radio Resource Management

The effective Eb/No and hence the spectral efficiency depend on BLER. However
there are QoS requirements which also have to be considered. Taking both into
account leads to a target BLER.
AMC is in use in order to tune BLER so that the target value is reached. Therefore
when channel conditions change modulation and/or coding modifications might be
needed.

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Radio Resource Management

An initial MCS is provided by O&M (parameter INI_MCS_DL) and is set as default


MCS. If DL AMC is not activated (O&M parameter ENABLE_AMC_DL) the algorithm
always uses this default MCS.
If DL AMC is activated HARQ retransmissions are handled differently from initial
transmissions ( For HARQ retransmission the same MCS has to be used as for the
initial transmission).
An MCS based on CQI reporting from UE shall be determined for the PRBs assigned
to the UE as indicated by the downlink scheduler. So the mechanism has UE scope
with a frequency of several TTIs based on configurable CQI measurement intervals.
In RL T the alggorithm is based on overall signaling payload (control data volume) for
all users and does not depend on the actual radio condition.
The adaptation is done on cell-basis and per TTI. In RL10 the code rate is selected for
PDCCH resources (QPSK only) based on CQI reports. Thes CQI reports indicate the
CCE (Control Channel Elements) aggregation level and hence the coding rate.
The usage of PDCCH resources are based on channel condition and in addition on
the availability of PDCCH resources into account. The feature may be enabled by
O&M.
For AMC of the PUSCH a UE specific slow link adaptation ( 10-100ms) is applied.
The decisions are based on BLER measurements.
AMC works independently of UL scheduler and UL power control. Interactions to UL
PC and scheduler are result driven, i.e. to keep signaling load on eNodeB internal
interfaces low, MCS is reported at the start of data transfer and only when there are
changes of MCS. In case of long link adaptation updates and to avoid low and high
BLER situations, the link adaptation can act based on adjustable target BLER values:
- Emergency Downgrade if BLER goes above a MAX BLER threshold (poor radio
conditions);
- Fast Upgrade if BLER goes below of a MIN BLER threshold (excellent radio
conditions).

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Radio Resource Management

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Radio Resource Management

From TS 36.213 (DL example shown here)


MCS index -> from 0 to 28 -> it is decided by the scheduler which should translate a
specific CQI in an MCS index
Modulation Order -> indicates the modulation type (QPSK, ) by indicating the
number of bits per symbol
QPSK = 2
16QAM = 4
64QAM = 6
ITBS = TBS index
The TBS Index is mapped to a specific TBS size for a specific #RBs
Uses a different table

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Radio Resource Management

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Radio Resource Management

Due to inaccuracies in the CQI reporting the performance may be downgraded. In


order to compansate these effects CQI adaptation is applied. The algorithm is based
on the comparison of the observed (averaged) ACK/NACK ratio with the target BLER.
A CQI offset can be derived which is added to the actual reported CQI values and so
forms the basis for the AMC algorithm.

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Radio Resource Management

The transmission power is adapted in order to achieve the desired QoS (BLER/BER).
This adaptation is necessary since the propagation channel is subject to several
conditions, which generally vary in space and/or time, e.g. path loss, log normal
fading, short term fading , UE speed
location (outdoor, indoor, in-car) etc.
Downlink power control determines the energy per resource element (EPRE). The
term resource element energy denotes the energy prior to CP insertion. The term
resource element energy also denotes the average energy taken over all constellation
points for the modulation scheme applied.
Uplink power control determines the average power over a DFT-SOFDM symbol in
which the physical channel is transmitted. Compared with UTRAN the UL power
control is slower. The PUSCH and the PUCCH are subject to a combined open and
closed loop power control algorithm, i.e. to control the transmission power for UL
channels a combination of an open (input: pathloss, sysinfo and signaling) and a
closed loop (TPC) method is used.
A cell wide overload indicator (OI) and a High Interference Indicator (HII) to control UL
interference are exchanged over X2. An indication is given which PRBs an eNodeB
scheduler allocates to cell edge UEs and hence will be most sensitive to inter-cell
interference.
Power control - already being applied in 2nd and 3rd generation networks - has high
potential for improvement of the performance of mobile networks.
Main benefits are:
It can bring down the interference in up- and downlink and hence enhances the
capacity of the networks.
Additionally it helps to keep down the uplink-power consumption, thereby increasing
the stand-by time for the UE.
Furthermore, from the EMC (Electro Magnetic Compatibility) point of view it can
improve the situation considerably

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Radio Resource Management

The eNodeB determines the downlink transmit energy per resource element (EPRE).
Downlink cell-specific reference-signal (RS) EPRE is constant across the downlink
system bandwidth and constant across all subframes until different cell-specific RS
power information is received. The downlink RS EPRE is given by the parameter
Reference-signal-power provided by higher layers.
In cases 16QAM, 64QAM, spatial multiplex TRI>1 or multi-user MIMO the DL power
is given by rA and rB

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Radio Resource Management

Procedure for Slow UL Power control


UE controls the Tx power to keep the transmitted power spectral density
(PSD) constant independent of the allocated transmit bandwidth (#PRBs)
If no feedback from eNodeB ( in the PDCCH UL PC command) the UE
performs open loop PC based on path loss measurements
If feedback from eNodeB the UE corrects the PSD when receiving PC
commands from eNodeB ( in the PDCCH UL PC command)
PC commands ( up and down) based on UL quality and
signal level measurements
Applied separately for PUSCH, PUCCH
Scope of UL PC is UE level ( performed separately for each UL in a cell)

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Radio Resource Management

Handovers (HO) can be grouped into


INTRA-SYSTEM: EUTRAN EUTRAN (1):
Intra-frequency -(example 1a):
Inter-frequency -(example 1b):
INTER-SYSTEM / INTER-RAT:
EUTRAN UTRAN, GERAN .. (example 2)
GERAN, UTRAN EUTRAN HOs. (example 3),
Not discussed further, since this HO type is triggered by GERAN.

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Radio Resource Management

Handover Algorithm
A Handover will be initiated by a measurement report, which is sent via the Radio
Resource Control (RRC) protocol. Upon the reception of this measurement report, the
handover algorithm will decide whether a handover should take place.
In response to the handover decision, the handover execution will be carried out using
the corresponding procedures. After the handover execution, the handover algorithm
will be informed, whether the handover was successful or not.
The Handover procedure is composed of a number of single functions:
Measurements
Filtering of measurements
Reporting of measurement results
Hard handover algorithm
Execution of handover

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The source eNB configures the UE measurement procedures with


MEASUREMENT CONTROL
UE is triggered to send MEASUREMENT REPORT to the source eNB. It can
be event triggered or periodic
Source eNB makes handover decision based on UE report + load and service
information
The source eNB issues a HANDOVER REQUEST to the target eNB
Target eNB performs admission control
Target eNB sends the HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE to the
source eNB

When the UE is in LTE_ACTIVE state, mobility handling takes place via network
controlled handovers with UE assistance. UE assistance here simply means that the
UE does measurements and reports them to the eNB to assist in the handover
decision. Currently it is planed that neighbor cell measurements are based on the
UEs cell detection capabilities rather than on a network supplied neighbor cell list.
When the source (current serving) eNB decides to start a handover of an UE to a
neighbor cell in a new (target) eNB it will contact this target eNB. This is done via the
X2-AP message HANDOVER REQUEST. The message will contain the target cell for
the UE, the current serving MME and SAE GW. It is task of the target eNB to allocate
virtual capacity in the target cell via its admission control function.
If this is done the target eNB returns part of the handover message for the UE within
the X2-AP message HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE. In this message also
a data forwarding tunnel (TEID from target eNB) is indicated. It allows the source eNB
to forward still buffered or still arriving downlink packets to the target eNB.

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7.

Source eNB generates the HANDOVER COMMAND towards UE, Source eNB
starts forwarding packets to target eNB
8. Source eNB sends status information to target eNB
9. UE performs the final synchronisation to target eNB and accesses the cell via
RACH procedure DL pre-synchronisation is obtained during cell identification
and measurements
10. Target eNB gives the uplink allocation and timing advance information
11. UE sends HANDOVER CONFIRM to target eNB, Target eNB can begin to send
data to UE
The source eNB can now give the HANDOVER COMMAND (RRC) to the UE. The
command contains the configuration for the UE in the new cell and possibly already
an UL/DL resource allocation. The UE will detach from the old cell and synchronize
itself to the new cell. In the mean time the source eNB can start downlink packet
forwarding via X2 interface.
Once synchronization between UE and the new cell is achieved, the UE confirms the
handover with RRC message HANDOVER CONFIRM. This will trigger a HANDOVER
COMPLETE message of S1-AP to be sent to the MME. It simply informs the MME
that now a new eNB is responsible for the UE. Thus this message will contain the IP
addresses and TEIDs of the target eNB for the S1 tunnels.

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12. Target eNB sends a PATH SWITCH message to MME to inform that the UE has
changed cell
13. MME sends a USER PLANE UPDATE REQUEST message to Serving Gateway
14. Serving Gateway switches the downlink data path to the target side
15. Serving Gateway sends a USER PLANE UPDATE RESPONSE message to
MME
16. MME confirms the PATH SWITCH message with the PATH SWITCH ACK
message
17. By sending RELEASE RESOURCE the target eNB informs success of handover
to source eNB and triggers the release of resources
18. Upon reception of the RELEASE RESOURCE message, the source eNB can
release radio and C-plane related resources associated to the UE context
The MMEs task is to send this information via GTP-C UPDATE BEARER REQUEST
to the SAE GW. This will switch the traffic path now completely from SAE GW to
target eNB.
When the path is switched, the old eNB will get the S1-AP message RELEASE
RESOURCE which will clear down all allocated resources for the UE that is already in
the new eNB.

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