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Homework 16

Ch30: P 1, 9, 29, 39, 45; Ch31: P 21, 31; Ch32: P 1, 9, 11


Problems (Ch30):
1. (I) A pi meson has a mass of

139 Me V c 2 .

Solution

What is this in atomic mass units?

139 MeV c
2

We convert the units:

9. (I) Estimate the total binding energy for

931.5MeV uc

40
20 Ca,

0.149 u.

using Fig. 301.

Solution
From Figure 301, we see that the average binding energy per nucleon at
A 40 is 8.6 MeV.

Thus the total binding energy for

40

40 8.6 MeV

Ca is

340 MeV.

29. (II) How much energy is released in electron capture by beryllium:


7
4 Be

0
1 e

37 Li v ?

Solution
For the electron capture 74 Be 01 e 73 Li v, we see that if we add three electron masses
to both sides to use the atomic mass for Li, we use the captured electron for the atomic
mass of Be. We find the Q value from
Q m 7 Be m 7 Li c 2
7.016928u

7.016003u

39. (I) What fraction of a sample of


remain after 3.0 yr?

c 2 931.5MeV uc 2

68
32 Ge,

Solution
We find the fraction remaining from
N N 0e t ;
0.693 3.0 yr 12mo yr

9 mo

N
e t e
N0

0.0625.

0.861MeV.

whose half-life is about 9 months, will

40
K with an initial decay rate of
45. (II) Calculate the mass of a sample of pure 19
40
5
1
9
2.0 10 s . The half-life of 19 K is 1.28 10 yr.

Solution

N
2.0 10 5 s 1
t
T 1 1.28 10 9 yr

N
N
t
ln 2

T1

40 g / mol
m?

N T 12
N

t ln 2

We find the number of nuclei


1.28 10 9 yr 3.16 10 7 s / yr 1.7 10 22 nuclei
N 2.0 10 5 s 1
ln 2
The mass is

1.17 10

22

nuclei 40.0g / mol

6.02 1023 nuclei / mol

0.77 g.

Problems (Ch31):
21. (II) How much mass of 238
92 U is required to produce the same amount of energy as
burning 1.0 kg of coal (about 3 10 7 J )?
Solution
We assume that an average of 200 MeV is released per fission of a uranium nucleus (see
Eq31-5).
1nucleus
1MeV
0.238 kg


7
238
3 107 J 1.601eV

3.7 10 kg 92 U
19
6
23
10 J 1 10 eV

6.02 10 nuclei

200 MeV
31. (II) If a typical house requires 950 W of electric power on average, what minimum
amount of deuterium fuel would have to be used in a year to supply these electrical
needs? Assume the reaction of Eq. 318b.
Solution
The reaction of Eq. 31-8b consumes 2 deuterons and releases 3.27 MeV of energy. The
atomic
mass of Deuterium is 2.01g. The amount of energy needed is the power times the elapsed
time, and the energy can be related to the mass of deuterium by the reaction.
J
1eV
1MeV

2 d 2.01 10 3 kg

7 s
950
1
yr
3.156

10

s
yr 1.60 1019 J 10 6 eV 3.27 MeV 6.02 10 23 d

3.8 10 4 kg 0.38 g

Problems (Ch32):

1. (I) What is the total energy of a proton whose kinetic energy is 6.35 GeV?
Solution
The total energy is given by Eq. 26-7a.
E m0 c KE 0.94 GeV 6.35GeV 7.29 GeV
2

9. (II) What is the wavelength ( maximum resolvable distance) of 7.0-TeV protons?


Solution
Because the energy of the protons is much greater than their rest mass, we have
KE E pc .
Combine that with Eq. 27-8 for the de Broglie wavelength.
E pc ; p

hc

hc
E

6.63 10

7.0 10

12

34

J gs 3.0 108 m s

eV 1.60 10

19

J eV

1.8 10 19 m

11. (II) The 4.25-km-radius tunnel that will be used to house the magnets for the Large
Hadron Collider (LHC) calls for proton beams of energy 7.0 TeV. What magnetic
field will be required?
Solution

Because the energy of the protons is much greater than their rest mass, we have KE E pc .
A relationship for the magnetic field is given in section 32-1.
qBr
E
v
mv qBr p qBr
qBr
m
c

7.0 10 eV 1.60 10 J eV
B

qrc 1.60 10 C 4.25 10 m 3.00 10


19

15

19

ms

5.5T