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1 A linear elastic crack in a 0.75%C & 2.0% Ni high tensile steel sheet of 0.28 mm
thickness, having 710 MPa proof stress an elastic modulus E of 210 GPa, spreads
from 42 mm to 65 mm length, when the load and displacement change from 3.65 kN
and 0.53 mm to 2.88 kN and 0.60 mm. Find a) Fracture Toughness R (b) Stress
Intensity Factor K. [Ans: a) R = 51.52 kJ/ m 2 b) K = ?] (c) Find the reduction in
strength at the two crack lengths and the fall in strength between these two positions.
2 In problem 1, if the initial and final loads and displacements are 357 N & 3.9 mm
and 295 N & 5.7 mm respectively, find R, K.[Ans: a) R = 465 J/ m 2 b) K = ?], and
also the reduction in strength.
3 If the displacement on release of the load P 2, does not return to zero but there is a
residual displacement ur, which is 0.10 mm in Problem 1 and 1.00 mm in Problem 2,
find R, K and also the reduction in strength
4 A sheet of glass measuring 2 m x 200 mm x 2 mm contains a central slit of unknown
length parallel to the width (200 mm side). A mass of 500 kg (including self-mass of
glass sheet) induces a direct tensile stress in the sheet. Consider the following
properties: E = 60 GPa, = 0.5 J/m2, = 0.25, f = 170 MPa (fracture strength of
sound glass). Find the minimum length of a crack that would lead to fracture for the
a) plane stress and
b) plane strain (in which replace E by E/(1 - 2 ).
[Ans: a) 2a = 0.252 mm b) 2a = 0.268 mm]
c) Find the reduction in strength due to this crack.
5 Analyze the trousers test, when the legs are linear elastic and when
a) it can store strain energy in tension
b) it cannot store strain energy in tension and
c) there is a residual displacement on release of the load.
6 Analyze the peeling of a scotch tape, when the force is applied along the direction of
the tape, which is inclined to the base by an angle and a) can store strain energy in
tension and b) cannot store strain energy in tension.
7 Discuss that the stress intensity factor K for edge cracks of length L is about 1.6
times of that of central crack L.
8 A number of test specimens of a given metal differ only in that the starting central
crack is cut to different lengths. They are subjected to tensile loads and the
compliance C verses starting crack length 2a, is determined and plotted. The slope of
the curve and the load required to start propagation of the crack of length 2.5 mm are

found to be 2.2 x 10-5 N-1 and 1334 N. The thickness of all the specimens is 9.5 mm.
a) Determine Gc.
b) If the modulus of elasticity E = 30 GPa and the fracture strength 170 MPa, find the
reduction in strength due to the presence of the crack.
(We need C/A. A = 2a B. What is given is C/(2a) = 2.2 x 10 -5 N-1. Therefore
C/A = 2.2 x 10-5 N-1 / 9.5 mm)
9 a) How has the Griffith (1920/21) formula been modified by Irwin (1948) and
Orowan (1952) for materials, which, while showing macroscopic brittle behaviour has
local plastic deformation in the vicinity of the crack tip?
b) A sheet of maraging steel has a tensile strength of 1950 MPa, having E = 200
GPa, s = 2 J/m2 p = 2 x 104 J/m2. Calculate the percentage reduction in the strength
due to the presence of a central crack of 4 mm long perpendicular to the direction of
10 As a cracked plate is loaded, the crack begins to increase when a load of 530 N is
reached and the crack continues to grow under this constant load. The plate has
displaced 2.5 mm just when the crack began to run. The displacement was 5 mm,
when the crack stopped increasing in length. During the crack growth the area of the
crack increased by 3500 mm2. Calculate
a) the external work done during the crack growth
b) the strain energy recoverable and
c) the critical strain energy release rate Gc.
11 Consider a double cantilever beam slit unsymmetrically by a pair of selfequilibrating forces P with different depths of 75 mm and 50 mm, thickness of 6 mm
and the crack length of 250 mm. If the material has G c = 175 k J/m2 and E = 210 GPa,
at what load P will the crack begin to grow?
12. a) Derive an expression for the Double Cantilever Beam (with unequal depths)
test to determine the strain energy release rate for an elastic crack.
b) An unsymmetrical slit with depths of 75 mm and 50 mm, in a double cantilever
beam of thickness 6 mm is opened by a pair of self- equilibrating forces P. The
material has Gc = 175 k J/m2 and E = 210 GPa. At what load P will the crack of
250 mm begin to grow?
Extra problem for those, who want to study further. Then read books.
13 A rectangular Perspex plate 600 mm x 300 x 6 mm scribed into two squares in
the middle of the plate by a knife leaving a uniform cut of depth 0.3 mm. What is
the bending moment required to break the plate, if it has a specific work of fracture
of 500 J/ m2 and E = 2.5 GPa ? [Note specific work is another name for R]