Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

Table of Contents

Introduction 02
History of Naxalite Movement .03
Red Corridor. 07
Naxalism and Internal Security..... 08
Naxalism: Indias Hidden War .09
Recent Major Attacks by Naxalites .11
Operation Green Hunt ..12
Dalits and Adivasis in Naxalism. 13
Women in Naxalism...14
The Laws Made by the Government... .16
Socio Economic Development ......17
What should be done to solve the problem of Naxalism?.....................................................18
Conclusion.......................... 19
Bibliography .20

1 | Page

They are not terrorists but leaders of a political movement who want to liberate India from
the clutches of feudalism and imperialism
Naxalite: A member of an extreme Maoist group in India that originated in 1967 in West
Bengal and which employs tactics of agrarian terrorism and direct action.1
The word Naxal, Naxalite or Naksalvadi is a generic term used to refer to various
militant Communist groups operating in different parts of India under different organizational
envelopes. In the eastern states of the mainland India (Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa),
they are usually known as, or refer to themselves as Maoists while in southern states
like Andhra Pradesh they are known under other titles. They have been declared as a
terrorist organization under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act of India (1967).2 The
Chinese government has been found to have provided sanctuary to leaders of the movement.3
India is bleeding not by the thousand cuts but due to Hinterland explosion. Recent Naxalite
attack is a major cause of concern in India today. Instances of Naxal violence are reported at
regular intervals in India. The issue of the Naxal movement is attributed differently by the
Naxals and the state power. While the former view it as a socio-economic problem, the later
regard it as a law and order problem. Whatever, may be the fact, the concern of the
development of the people has to get priority and in no way it has to be compromised. The
Govt. development scheme and effort is laudable but there is limitation of effort.

1 http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Naxal
2 http://www.mha.nic.in/uniquepage.asp?id_pk=292
3 "Cops nail China link with Naxals". The Times of India. 2011-10-08. Retrieved on 25-03-2012
2 | Page

History of Naxalite Movement

When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad, a
Muslim king, wanted Hyderabad State to remain independent under the special provisions
given to princely states. The Hindus of the Hyderabad State who accounted for 93 per cent of
its population launched the `Join India' movement with the cooperation of a few Muslims for
the integration of the State with the rest of the country. The State Congress leaders and Arya
Samaj leaders invoked themselves whole-heartedly in the movement. The peasants of the
state, influenced by the Communist, had also revolted against the Nizam, who tried to
suppress their armed struggle against landlords. Qasim Razvi led private Razakar Muslim
army fighting for continuation of the Nizam's rule, did worst forms of atrocities on
people. The Government of India liberated and assimilated the Hyderabad State on 17
September 1948, in an operation by the Indian Army called Operation Polo.4

It is said that Naxalism is one of the organization of aggressive communists. In other words it
is also called CPI (MAOIST). After Indian independence in 1947 the communist extremist
started armed violence activities first time in 1948 but because of lack of public support the
movement couldn't get velocity. These Naxalites communists always keep deep belief on
violence. From the beginning they had started committing violence by
using Arms.
Naxalites adopted the way of armed violence revolutionary activities from the Village Naxalbari in the district - Darjeeling in West Bengal in the year 1967 against exploitation
done by Zamindar and Rich men upon particular people of the society. Under the leadership
of revolutionary leaders Charu Majumdar, Kanu Sanyal and Jangal Santhal the Naxalites
increased the violence drastically. At that time the aim of the Naxalite was to achieve power
of the state by violent revolution. They used to force the local people for abatement of land
revenue & tax etc. Actually in the year 1967 their revolutionary activities and violent
activities started from the village Naxalbari, hence it is called 'Naxalism' and the supporters
are called Naxalites. At the same time the aggressive communist violence activities again
started in the Sri Kakvlam area of Andhra Pradesh. However in Tribal areas the Naxalism
remain alive. In meantime the leadership was taken over by Shri Chandrapulla Reddy, who
left the violent way of movement and decided to do violence when very essential, but he too
could not succeed. In 1975 after emergency the Naxalites formed another group under
leadership of Shri Kondapalli Sitaramaiya called C.P.I. (M.L). Peoples War Group. By this
group no work was done in Democratic way and shown no-faith in government system. The
group also took unemployment, economically backward areas as medium for their publicity.
For this work, the organization divided in the areas and according to the area Dalam emerged.
Peoples War Group chief Kodapalli Sitarmaiya has added the slogan of independent
Dandkaranya in all his slogans. The P.W.G. organization declared to include Garhacharoli of
4http://www.aponline.gov.in/quick%20links/hist-cult/history_post.html - Retrieved on

3 | Page

Maharashtra, Mahabubnagar, Karimnagar, Adilabad, Warangal of Andhra Pradesh, Koraput,

Khampit & Kalahandi of Orissa, and Balaghat & Jabalpur of Madhya Pradesh in independent
Dandkaranya. The main residents of these areas are tribals, small farmers & labourers.5
Charu Majumdar, inspired by the doctrines of Mao Zedong, provided ideological leadership
for the Naxalbari movement, advocating that Indian peasants and lower class tribals
overthrow the government and upper classes by force. A large number of urban elites were
also attracted to the ideology, which spread through Majumdars writings, particularly the
Historical Eight Documents which formed the basis of Naxalite ideology. 6
Violence in Bengal
The Naxalites gained a strong presence among the radical sections of the student movement
in Calcutta.7 Students left school to join the Naxalites. Majumdar, to entice more students into
his organization, declared that revolutionary warfare was to take place not only in the rural
areas as before, but everywhere and spontaneously. Thus Majumdar declared an annihilation
line, a dictum that Naxalites should assassinate individual class enemies (such as
landlords, businessmen, university teachers, police officers, politicians of the right and left)
and others.8
Throughout Calcutta, schools were shut down. Naxalites took over Jadavpur University and
used the machine shop facilities to make pipe guns to attack the police. Their headquarters
became Presidency College, Kolkata.9 The Naxalites found supporters among some of the
educated elite, and Delhis prestigious St. Stephens College, alma mater of many
contemporary Indian leaders and thinkers, became a hotbed of Naxalite activities.
The chief minister, Siddhartha Shankar Ray of the Congress Party, instituted strong countermeasures against the Naxalites. The West Bengal police fought back to stop the Naxalites.
The house of Somen Mitra, the Congress MLA of Sealdah, was turned into a torture chamber
where Naxal students from Presidency College and CU were incarcerated illegally by police
5 http://balaghat.nic.in/History%20of%20Naxalism.pdf- Retrieved on 25-03-2012
6 Naxalite Movement, pg no.17, Uday Kumar, published by Lucky International.
7 Judith Vidal-Hall, "Naxalites", p. 7375 in Index on Censorship, Volume 35, Number 4 (2006). p.73.
d0025dc3c/5813146ae3eeee2e652572870041e297/$FILE/A0260027.pdf- Retrieved on 25-032012

9 http://www.vifindia.org/Tackling-%20the-Naxal-Insurgency- Retrieved on 25-03-2012

4 | Page

and the Congress cadres. CPI-M cadres were also involved in the state terror. After
suffering losses and facing the public rejection of Majumdars annihilation line, the
Naxalites alleged human rights violations by the West Bengal police, who responded that the
state was effectively fighting a civil war and that democratic pleasantries had no place in a
war, especially when the opponent did not fight within the norms of democracy and civility.10
Large sections of the Naxal movement began to question Majumdars leadership. In 1971 the
CPI (ML) was split, as the Satyanarayan Singh revolted against Majumdars leadership. In
1972 Majumdar was arrested by the police and died in Alipore Jail. His death accelerated the
fragmentation of the movement.
Reasons for failure of Naxalite Movement (1967-75):11
1. The Naxalites wanted to surround the towns and cities by the villages, i.e., they wanted to
encircle the urban centers with organized peasant forces of the villages. If the peasant militia
could have occupied the cities, according to Majumdar, the so-called bourgeois government
would fall making the passage to the coming of a socialist government; but the Naxalites
could not and did not come up to a stage capable of organizing the peasants and thereby
encircling the towns.
2. Majumdar gave sole importance to secret organization and armed training of its members
for the purpose of eliminating class enemies. As the Naxalites did not have mass level
organization, they lacked mass support. With only a few armed elements, and those not
properly educated in the party line, little could be accomplished.
3. Khatam (the action of eliminating the so-called class enemies in villages) was a
wrongheaded attempt at political mobilization based on the individual murders of a select few
people whose political class and character was never adjudged by their socio-economic
conditions or the properties they possessed but very often only by their political affiliation or
by the name and color of the party or parties they directly or indirectly belonged to. For
example, in Jalpaiguri and Alipurduar they killed some petty jotdars who otherwise could
have been comrades in action against the capitalists or could be friends in a revolution for
radical change.
4. Recruitment in the Naxalite party took place in the absence of proper judgment and
scrutiny of the political characters and behaviors of the recruits. It was not uncommon for
recruits into the Naxalite party to vent their personal animosities by identifying their personal
enemies as class enemies, to be killed with the help of the Naxalite organization.
5. In many cases dreaded criminals too enrolled themselves in the Naxalite party with the
objective of getting fire arms.
10 Diwanji, A. K. (2003-10-02). "Primer: Who are the Naxalites?"Rediff.com. Retrieved 25-03-2012.
11 Naxalite Movement, pg no.20-23, Uday Kumar, published by Lucky
5 | Page

6. The ruling Congress party inserted spies inside the unguarded Naxalite organization to
gather information about its secret bases and arrest its supporters. Government intelligence
personnel and police disguised as Naxalite sympathizers infiltrated the partys inner
organization and arrested many of its leaders, including Charu Majumdar. Thus police had
information about the movements of Majumdar after he had gone underground in 1970, and
he was arrested in Calcutta in July 1972. He died in jail days after his arrest, probably in the
night of 27 or 28 July. It is not known how he died, although the government reported that he
died of a heart attack.
7. Ordinary people in villages were terrified at the brutal and gruesome ways they killed the
fellow villagers vilifying them as class enemies.
8. Hundreds were slaughtered by the police and paramilitary forces in fake encounters, in
jails and in police custody. Thus many perished away from the movement.

The Red Corridor is a term used to describe an impoverished region in the east of India that
experiences considerable Naxalite communist insurgency. These are also areas that suffer
from the greatest illiteracy, poverty and overpopulation in modern India, and span parts of
Andhra, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya
Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar
Pradesh and
West states.

12 http://www.globalpolitician.com/22790-india- Retrieved 25-03-2012.

6 | Page

The districts that comprise the Red Corridor are among the poorest in the country. Uttar
Pradesh and Orissa are among the poorest states in the country. Other areas encompassed by
the Red Corridor, such as Chhattisgarh state and the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh, are
also either impoverished or have significant economic inequality, or both.13
The areas encompassed by the Red Corridor tend to have stratified societies, with caste and
feudal divisions. Much of the area has high indigenous tribal populations (or adivasis),
including Santhal and Gond. Bihar and Jharkhand have both caste and tribal divisions and
violence associated with friction between these social groups. 14 Andhra Pradeshs Telangana
region similarly has deep caste divides with a strict social hierarchical arrangement. Both
Chhattisgarh and Orissa have significant impoverished tribal populations.
The corridor has significant resources- particular large unexploited mineral, forestry and
potential hydro-electric generation capacity. The great Indian industry has significant
presence in Red Corridor. The NALCO, BALCO, Jinda Steel, Cement tycoon all are has
significant share in the Red Corridor resources.


13 Naxalite Movement, pg no.85, Uday Kumar, published by Lucky International.

14 http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/publication/faultlines/volume2/Fault2MatthewF.htm- Retrieved 25-03-2012.
7 | Page

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said Naxalism remains the biggest internal security
challenge and it is imperative to control Left-wing extremism for the countrys growth. His
government has not underestimated the problem of Naxalism.15
State action in the context of internal security has to be based on the constitutional
framework, conventions of governance on relations between center and states, the rule of law
and justice, and free discourse. As the system has developed in the country, the police need to
follow the rule of law and take recourse to the criminal justice system as long as citizens are
not armed, and there is no direct conflict with the police. However, in cases of abnormal
situations, the citizenry get armed, some times more than police. In the areas severely
affected by Naxal violence there are a minimum of five violent incidents per day primarily
involving the killing of civilians.16
The role of economic development cannot be ignored in the areas affected by Naxal
extremism. Lack of economic growth leads to violence. Building roads, railways and telecom
infrastructure are significant signs of development. However, this infrastructure has been
attacked by the Naxals causing hindrance to all development.17
In Naxalism, there is a sense of deprivation and injustice. There is a great need to improve the
standards of governance in Naxal-affected tribal areas.
Naxal Operations:
The Naxal movement is coordinated by the apex body of the CPI (M), that is, its Central
Committee, which is 32-35 member body. Out of it, a 13 member Politbureau is formed. Of
the total money collected by the State Committees and the Special zones, 30 percent goes to
the Central Committee. The rest is retained for local expenses incurred by the State
Committees. The procurement of weapons is done at the central level and then distributed to
states as per their needs. Almost 80 percent of weapons come from looting, just as the Nepali
Maoists do.


15 The Hindu, May 24, 2010- Retrieved on 25-03-2012.

16 Naxalite Movement, pg no.59-60, Uday Kumar, published by Lucky
17 Ibid. at pg no.61.
8 | Page

It seems extraordinarily outrageous and almost impossible, that a big, well known country
could hide an entire guerrilla armys activities. There are two Indias. The dazzling India
which we see every day on our TV channels. But there is another India which we rarely see
or write about It is estimated that sixteen of Indias twenty-eight states are infected to
some degree, Indias intelligence agency has estimated that the number of Naxalites
could be as high as 70,000, though other estimates go as high as 120,000.
Of course, in the worlds largest democracy, such a huge movement can hardly have gone
unchallenged. Over the past decade individual states in Central and Southern India have
affected their own campaigns with varying degrees of failure. Strategies have mainly
included arming local resistance movements and emptying villages where there is support for
the terrorists. While groups of Naxalites have offered ceasefires, the Indian Government says
it will only consider peace talks if a complete ceasefire is forthcoming the fact that this has
not been offered undermines the image of cohesion and of a unified army made up of the
The Naxalite spokesman Ganesh Ueike claims that they are not terrorists but leaders of a
political movement who want to liberate India from the clutches of feudalism and
imperialism. He has condemned militants in the disputed Kashmir region who have been
blamed for attacks against civilians in Mumbai, claiming that the Naxalites only attack
government forces: Those who choose soft targets or do such things to create communal
hatred have nothing to do with people. They are mercenaries funded by national or
international powers All this should be condemned. The success with which this conflict
has been hidden is remarkable and can be seen as symptomatic of the Indian Governments
attitude. While some politicians and activists have raised their voices against the military
operation, most of the Indian media is often largely unquestioning of the governments claims
and actions. At the same time, activists claim the authorities have launched a smear campaign
against them, labeling anyone who speaks out as a Maoist sympathizer. The government
routinely claims that the rebels are opposed to development and progress.
Many have tried to draw attention to this conflict though, and the implication of its existence
and the way in which it has been hidden. Booker Prize-winning author Arundhati Roy has
campaigned tirelessly to draw attention to the conflict and even defended the Naxalites
tactics. She has attacked the government as a charade of democracy which has used the
Naxalites as an excuse for a land-grab of areas high in natural resources in central and
southern India. Roy was accused of sedition by the Indian Government last year though not

18 http://www.defence.pk/forums/indian-defence/135691-india-s-hiddenwar.html- Retrieved on 26-03-2012.

9 | Page


The 2010 Dantewada Maoist attacks were a 6 April 2010 ambush by rebels from
the Communist Party of India (Maoist) in Dantewada district, India, killing 76 CRPF
policemen and 8 Maoists the deadliest attack by the Maoists on Indian security
forces. The attack occurred when over 80 officers from the federal Central Reserve
Police Force (CRPF) and a local police group were conducting a domination exercise
in the Bastar tribal region of the central Indian state of Chhattisgarh.19

19 http://www.ndtv.com/news/india/20-security-men-killed-by-naxals-inchhattisgarh-19293.php- Retrieved on 26-03-2012.

10 | P a g e

Maoists on 27th June 2011 blew up a police vehicle in a landmine blast and ambushed
BSF personnel killing five security men and injuring six others in two separate attacks
in Dantewada and Kanker districts of Chhattisgarh.20
At least 15 CRPF personnel were killed on 27 March, 2012 in a landmine blast
triggered by suspected Naxalites in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra.21

Four BSF officers, including a commanding officer, were today killed in an IED blast
by suspected Maoists in Malkangiri district of Odisha.The BSF squad was targeted at
around 1 p.m. in the Janbai area of the district, under Chitragonda police station area,
465 km from here, and its jungles are a Naxal hotbed as it touches the borders of two
other states ~ Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, making it a corridor for Maoists.
According to initial reports, the officers were returning in their vehicle after attending
a meeting with the district administration.22

In March 2012 Maoist rebels kidnapped two Italians in the eastern Indian state of
Orissa, the first time Westerners were abducted there. There after an MLA of the state
was also kidnapped.23


20 http://liveindia.tv/india/states/5-policemen-killed-in-naxal-attacks-inchhattisgarh/- Retrieved on 28-03-2012

21 http://news.taaza.com/source/914184-crpf-personnel-killed-in-naxalattack.html- Retrieved on 28-03-2012
22 http://www.thestatesman.net/index.php?
option=com_content&view=article&id=399692&catid=35- Retrieved on 28-032012
23 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-17421561- Retrieved on 28-032012
11 | P a g e

Operation Green Hunt was the name used by the Indian media to describe the
Government's paramilitary offensive against the Naxalite rebels in the late 2000s. The
operation began in November 2009 along five states in the "Red Corridor."24
The term was coined by the Chhattisgarh police officials to describe one successful drive
against the Communist Party of India (Maoist) in the state. It was erroneously used by the
media to describe the wider anti-Naxalite operations; the Government of India doesn't use the
term "Operation Green Hunt" to describe its anti-Naxalite offensive.25
In October 2009, the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) announced that it was in the final
stages of planning the offensive and had received approval from the Union-led government.
The Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (COBRA) would take the lead in the
operations against Maoist insurgents.26 At the beginning of November 2009, the first phase of
the operation began in Gadchiroli district. As many as 18 companies of the central
paramilitary forces were moved into the area in anticipation of the operation.27
An operation is underway in Central India, but no one really knows what it is. Variously
described as a media myth, a comprehensive hearts and minds strategy, and an all-out
offensive by paramilitary forces and the state forces along the borders of Chhattisgarh,
Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra, Ops Green Hunt has become a shoebox of news
clippings, police reports, public demonstration and armed encounters.
There is also little clarity on the extent of troop deployment, the composition of the forces
and the chain of command between central paramilitary forces and the state police. Privately,
sources in the security apparatus admit that part of the confusion is by design rather than by
default to control the information available to Naxal commanders.
Although the terms of references did not specifically mention Naxalites, the groups brief was
to identify causes of unrest and discontent in areas affected by widespread displacement,
forest issues, insecure tenancies and imperfect market conditions etc.,. Clearly, such areas
24 http://rt.com/news/maoists-naxals-india-offensive/?fullstory- Retrieved on 28-03-2012

25 http://www.indianexpress.com/news/antinaxal-operation-satisfactory-sayschid/570551/- Retrieved on 28-03-2012

26 http://news.outlookindia.com/items.aspx?artid=667442- Retrieved on 28-03-2012

27 http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2009-1102/nagpur/28083958_1_gadchiroli-cpmf-operation-green-hunt- Retrieved on 2803-2012

12 | P a g e

fall in above mentioned five states- and significantly enough, the group organized field visits
in these areas to observe the situation at first hand, on the basis of which it has come out with
stark revelations that expose the culpability of the state in denying the poor their basic rights,
the treachery of a corrupt bureaucracy to implement the laws, and its complicity with a
trigger happy police to suppress popular protest.
The main support for the Naxalite Movement comes from dalits and adivasis, termed as
scheduled castes and scheduled tribes respectively in official parlance, which comprise about
one-fourth of Indias population, the majority living in rural areas.28
Apart from high levels of poverty, the dalits suffer from various types of disadvantages like
unemployment, illiteracy, social discrimination, human rights violation. As for the adivasis
population, besides remaining backward in all aspects of human development including
education, health, nutrition, etc, they have been steadily losing their traditional tribal rights.
These groups fail to take advantage of constitutional rights. Thus they are very much attracted
towards Naxalite movements as these movements fight for their minimal rights. So most of
them join these movements. Incidentally, every dalits and adivasis poor in India have not
joined the Naxalite movement. There are many states with pockets of high proportion of
adivasis and dalits but little Naxalite influence, as in Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat and Rajasthan.
For such a violent upheaval to happen there is the likelihood of the spread of awareness and
consciousness. And this is where the Naxalites have played a significant role by stepping into
craters of dalits an adivasis deprivation in the five states, and organizing the deprived for their

The Naxalite movement is increasing its tenacity to strike at will. It continues to persist in
terms of spatial spread, intensity of violence, militarization and consolidation, ominous
linkages with subversive/secessionist groups and increased efforts to elicit mass support.
Thousands of armed guerrilla warriors are no longer engaged in isolated attacks, but are
28 Naxalite Movement, pg no.137, Uday Kumar, published by Lucky International.

29 Ibid at pg.no.139.
13 | P a g e

resorting to large militarized assaults and have forged external links. Unfortunately, it is
observed that women Maoists are equally involved indirectly and directly in such violent
activities, causing threat to internal security of the Nation. India, the largest successful
democracy, is witnessing such violent figures. The involvement of women in Maoist activity
is not at all a fresh new entity. Right from the conception of this great, historic Naxalbari
armed peasant rebellion; it is found that women played a very vital role in this Spring
Thunder of 1967. The spring thunder of Naxalbari was a clarion call for the oppressed and
exploited people of India. The Indian Communist movement had gone through many ups and
downs since then. There were many twists and turns, ups and downs in these forty years. It
has been forty years since six peasant women, two children and a peasant had laid down their
lives in Naxalbari while fighting for land and life with dignity their liberation. As per the
report of CPI (Maoist) Information Bulletin, in the Srikakulam struggle, which was the major
armed struggle of the Naxalbari period, there were 17 women martyrs. Altogether the total
number of women martyrs of that period will be in dozens. But after the decade of 1990, and
in present millennium the involvement of women has become substantial in violent Maoist
Women do not just make up the ranks. They account for three Divisional committee
members, nine Commanders, three Area commanders and two Deputy Commanders
operating as far as Maharashtra is concerned. In fact, the statistics show men are
outnumbered by the fairer sex in commanders and deputy commanders cadre. Two women
divisional committee members Narmada and Tarakka alias Vimala Sidam operate in the
South Gadchiroli area while Sajanakka in the North. Fifty seven others form the support
strength. The role of women cadres in the 1st February carnage at Markegaon in Gadchiroli
district, which claimed lives of 15 policemen, is also a matter of speculation. They treat
women on par even in their military struggle. Women cadres are provided training just like
their men counterparts. There is no discrimination in their diet or exercises. It is mandatory
for all new recruits to the outfit to take a nine-point oath that declares, inter alia, that he or
she would not discriminate on the basis of religion, caste, gender, race, or ethnicity.
Besides, being soldiers women are even performing different roles like doctors,
propagandists and tutors. They conduct daily classes with the tribal locals, where they teach
Maoist philosophy. They inform the tribals about how the imperialist forces have oppressed
them, looted their forests and destroyed their way of life.30

x- Retrieved on 28-03-2012
14 | P a g e

The Laws Made by the Government

Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy, 2007:
The main aim of this act is to minimize the displacement of people and to promote nondisplacing or least displacing alternatives. The Government issued a rehabilitation policy on
11 0ctober 2007 for the easy displacement of people who lose their land for industrial growth.
Under this policy land in change for land will be given, job prospective to at least one
member of the family, vocational training and housing benefits including houses to people in
rural areas and urban areas will be some of the benefits.31
31 http://nhpcindia.com/writereaddata/english/pdf/rnrpolicy2007.pdf- Retrieved on 28-032012

15 | P a g e

Forest Rights Act, 2006:

The Scheduled Tribe and Other Traditional Forest dwellers (Recognition of forest Rights)
Act 2006 or the Forest Rights Act recognizes the rights of the scheduled tribes and forest
dwellers who have been living in the forests for years but their rights have still not been
recognized. The Ministry of Environment and Forests has also allowed use of 1 hectare of
land for non forest purposes and conversion of kutcha roads into pukka roads.32
Chhattisgarh Special Public Securities Act, 2006:
This bill provides definition of unlawful activities, declaring an organization unlawful,
formation of an advisory board wherever the state government feels the need for its
establishment, procedure of the formation of the advisory board, action of the advisory board,
penalties, punishments even for not committing a crime, the power to notify a place being
used for unlawful activities and taking occupation of such place thereof and revision/bar
against intervention by the courts.33
These laws have in many ways caused a lot of problems to the tribals and the scheduled
castes by negating the spirit of the various safeguards available to the scheduled tribes under
the constitution and other laws in the country. The act providing 'land for land' has become a
nightmare for the government and has become a stumbling block for ensuring
industrialization. As per the Unlawful activities prevention act (UAPA) the government has
banned all organizations that have any connections with any Naxal movements like the MCC
or the CPI-M (Marxist-Leninist). There was no need of this bill to tackle Naxalism. This bill
was formulated, only to silence the appropriate discord and dissent brewing in the minds of
people in the areas affected by Naxalism due to persistent ignorance by the government to
their situation. This Bill has also failed to make a distinction between the anti-social, antinational elements from the people who are peace loving.
Social Economic Development:
Various schemes launched have been launched by the government like the Pradhan Mantri
Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) which offers tremendous opportunities for rural road
connectivity. For certain districts affected by Naxalism which have a population of 500 and
above in plain areas and 250 and above in tribal areas 3 years perspective plans are being
formulated to cover all habitations. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme
(NREGP) is being implemented in 330 districts affected by Naxalism so as to universalize the
demand-driven programme for wage-employment. Other schemes which are in addition to
the above mentioned schemes are Bharat Nirman, National Rural Health mission (NRHM),
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and other
32 http://www.nls.ac.in/resources/ded/classnotesforyear2010ded/MBL-1_Web%20Oct
%2010/EL-MBL-FORESTRIGHTSACT2006.pdf- Retrieved on 28-03-2012

33 http://archives.newswatch.in/violation/chhattisgarhs-novel-way-to-counternaxals-gun-for-journalists.html- Retrieved on 28-03-2012

16 | P a g e

income generating and social security schemes of the Ministry of Rural Development,
Agriculture, Panchayati Raj and Tribal affairs. The central government will also provide 100
percent assistance in the formation of Ashram schools and hostels for girls and boys in 46
tribal areas.
States like Jharkhand and Orissa have offered huge incentives to the Naxals who surrender
themselves. Further, the government has offered cash equivalent to the price of the weapon
surrendered. They will provide them with life insurance cover, vocational training,
agricultural land, health and 47 educational facilities for their children.

What should be done to solve the problem of Naxalism?

The solution which will solve the problem of Naxalism is the Social Integration. The tribals
and scheduled castes that live in the Naxal affected areas have been neglected for the past
many decades and now want some attention from the government. Providing them with
incentives like giving them right over the forest produce from the forests in which they have
been living for generations, providing them with houses etc. is the right modus of solving
their basic problems. The main reason for the spread of Naxalism is the exploitation of poor
and scheduled castes. The main thing which has to be done is to enforce land ceiling laws,
utilization of the funds provided to government to the maximum and political expediency.
Use of police forces should be to enforce the land ceiling laws, evict landlords and ensure
17 | P a g e

land to the farmers for cultivation. They should be provided with police protection, and
proper rehabilitation for the people who have been displaced should be ensured. Security as
well as development has to run hand in hand to counter the Naxal problem.
The government has to instill faith in the people that they will be governed in a better manner
than by the Naxals. The government should include laws in the forest act that only forest
dwelling tribes and scheduled castes should be allowed to use the produce of the forest.
Proper guarding of financial institutions sanctioning loans to these tribes should be ensured
which will help these tribes to realize that the government is with them.
The Central government should form a separate ministry which will undertake the
development of the areas affected by the Naxal activities.
Using force against the tribals to deter them from joining the Naxals has and will backfire
against the government. The government should ensure peace in these areas so that these
people don't suffer more than they already have and this can be done only if the government
takes proactive measures so as to ensure social justice and inclusive growth for the benefit of
the marginalized sections.

The state has to do much more than plan counter-insurgency operations or support violent
vigilante groups to suppress the Naxalite movement. After close examination of the historical
and ideological origins of the movement, it is clear that the movement thrives on the
dissatisfaction of the marginalized and alienates the population. The socio-economic
perspective of Naxalism talks about how the rebel movement is shaped due to the failure of
the institutional mechanisms and frameworks to deliver socio-economic justice. This article

18 | P a g e

outlines the steps taken by the government, but concedes that it is not enough to overemphasize the law and order approach.
Close examination of the movement will enable to understand that the marginalized take up
arms only to break down the insensitive establishment, which has failed to deliver an
egalitarian society. The Naxalite leaders may talk about 'deliverance of the proletariat from
the neo-liberalist bourgeoisie, and the dawn of New Democracy', but such phrases mean little
to the tribals and landless labourers who find themselves at the receiving end of state
sponsored and non state-sponsored exploitation. They are in the battle only because of their
disillusionment with the status quo.
Only with consolidated efforts on the part of the legal and political framework socioeconomic reforms can be implemented, and the problem of Naxalism tackled.


Naxalite Movement A Biggest Challenge to the Internal SecurityUday Kumar, Published by Lucky International.

Forces Hand Book of World TerrorismDr. Seema Rao, Prof. Dr. Deepak Rao.

Web Sources

19 | P a g e


20 | P a g e