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stretching sheet in a micropolar fluid with

prescribed surface heat flux

N. Bachok, A. Ishak, and R. Nazar

micropolar fluid over a stretching sheet with prescribed surface heat

flux is investigated. The governing partial differential boundary layer

equations are first transformed into ordinary differential equations

before being solved numerically by a finite-difference method. The

effects of the unsteadiness parameter, material parameter and Prandtl

number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied. It is

found that the surface shear stress and the heat transfer rate at the

surface are higher for micropolar fluids compared to Newtonian

fluids.

Micropolar fluid, Fluid mechanics.

I.

INTRODUCTION

in manufacturing processes. Examples are numerous and

they include the aerodynamic extrusion of plastic sheets, the

boundary layer along a liquid film in condensation processes,

paper production, glass blowing, metal spinning and drawing

plastic films. The thermal fluid flow problems have been

extensively studied numerically, theoretically as well as

experimentally (see [1,2]). The quality of the final product

depends on the rate of heat transfer at the stretching surface.

Crane [3] first obtained an elegant analytical solution to the

boundary layer equations for the problem of steady twodimensional flow due to a stretching surface in a quiescent

incompressible fluid. Gupta and Gupta [4] extended the

problem posed by Crane [3] to a permeable sheet and obtained

closed-form solution, while Grubka and Bobba [5] studied the

thermal field and presented the solutions in terms of Kummers

functions. The 3-dimensional case has been considered by

Wang [6]. Chen [7] studied the case when buoyancy force is

taken into consideration, and Magyari and Keller [8]

considered exponentially stretching surface. The heat transfer

over a stretching surface with variable surface heat flux has

Manuscript received July 28, 2010. This work was supported in part by the

IPTA Fundamental Research Grant.

N. Bachok is with the Department of Mathematics and Institute for

Mathematical Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang,

Selangor, Malaysia (phone: 603-8946-6849; fax: 603-8943-7958; e-mail:

norfifah@math.upm.edu.my).

A. Ishak and R. Nazar are with the School of Mathematical Science,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia (email: anuarishak@yahoo.com, rmn72my@yahoo.com).

been considered by Char and Chen [9], Lin and Cheng [10],

Elbashbeshy [11] and very recently by Ishak et al. [12].

All of the above mentioned studies dealt with stretching

sheet where the flows were assumed to be steady. The

unsteady flows due to a stretching sheet have received less

attention; a few of them are those considered by Devi et al.

[13], Andersson et al. [14], Nazar et al. [15], and very recently

by Ishak et al. [16]. In Ref. [15], the similarity transformation

introduced by Williams and Rhyne [17] was used, which

transformed the governing partial differential equations with

three independent variables to two independent variables,

which are more convenient for numerical computations.

Motivated by the above investigations, in this paper we

present the unsteady flow and heat transfer characteristics

caused by a stretching sheet immersed in a micropolar fluid.

The governing partial differential equations are transformed

into ordinary ones using similarity transformation, before

being solved numerically by the Keller-box method. The

results obtained are then compared with those of Elbashbeshy

[11] and the series solution for the steady-state flow case to

support their validity.

II. PROBLEM FORMULATION

Consider an unsteady, two-dimensional laminar flow of an

incompressible micropolar fluid over a stretching sheet. At

time t = 0 , the sheet is impulsively stretched with velocity

U w ( x, t ) along the x -axis, keeping the origin fixed in the fluid

of ambient temperature T . The stationary Cartesian

coordinate system has its origin located at the leading edge of

the sheet with the positive x -axis extending along the sheet,

while the y -axis is measured normal to the surface of the

sheet. The boundary layer equations may be written as [12,16]

u v

+

=0,

x y

u

u

u + 2 u N

,

+u

+v

=

+

t

x

y y 2 y

N

N

N

2 N

u

j

+u

+v

2N + ,

=

2

y

y

y

T

T

T

2T

+u

+v

= 2

t

x

y

y

167

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

1

K

3

1 + h + f h f h K ( 2h + f ) S h + h = 0

2

2

2

1

1

+ f f S + = 0

Pr

2

q

u

T

u = U w , v = 0, N = m

,

= w

y

y

k

u 0, N 0, T T as y ,

at

y = 0,

(5)

and v are the velocity components in the x - and y directions, respectively, T is the fluid temperature in the

boundary layer, N is the microrotation or angular velocity, and

j , , , , , and are the microinertia per unit mass, spin

gradient viscosity, dynamic viscosity, vortex viscosity, fluid

density and thermal diffusivity, respectively. It is assumed that

the stretching velocity U w ( x, t ) and the surface heat flux

ax

bx

U w ( x, t ) =

, q w ( x, t ) =

1 ct

1 ct

(with ct < 1 ), and both a and c have dimension time 1 . It

should be noted that at t = 0 (initial motion), Eqs. (1) (4)

describe the steady flow over a stretching surface. These

particular forms of U w ( x, t ) and qw ( x, t ) have been chosen in

order to be able to devise a new similarity transformation,

which transforms the governing partial differential equations

(1) (4) into a set of ordinary differential equations, thereby

facilitating the exploration of the effects of the controlling

parameters (see Andersson et al. [14]).

As was shown by Ahmadi [19], the spin-gradient viscosity

can be defined as

1/ 2

y, = ( xU w )

1/ 2

1/ 2

U

N = Uw w

x

f ( ) ,

(8)

k ( T T ) U w

h ( ) , ( ) =

qw

vx

ordinary differential equations are:

1

(1 + K ) f + ff f 2 + Kh S f + f = 0

f ( ) 0, h ( ) 0, ( ) 0 as .

(12)

f ( ) = 1 e ,

( ) =

(13)

1 Pr M ( Pr 1, Pr + 1, Pr e

e

Pr

M ( Pr 1, Pr, Pr )

),

(14)

function [21], with

an z n

,

n =1 bn n !

M ( a , b, z ) = 1 +

an = a ( a + 1)(a + 2) (a + n 1) ,

bn = b(b + 1)(b + 2) (b + n 1) .

By using Eqs. (13) and (14), the skin friction coefficient

f (0) and the surface temperature (0) can be shown to be

given by

f (0) = 1 ,

(0) =

(15)

1 M ( Pr 1, Pr + 1, Pr )

.

Pr M ( Pr 1, Pr, Pr )

(16)

been solved numerically by a finite-difference scheme known

as the Keller-box method, as described in the book by Cebeci

and Bradshaw [22], which is very familiar to the present

authors (see Bachok et al. [23,24] and Bachok and Ishak

[25,26]).

12

f (0) = 0,

stream function such that u = / y and v = / x .

The momentum, angular momentum and energy equations can

be transformed into the corresponding ordinary differential

equations by the following transformation:

Uw

is the Prandtl number and S = c / a is the unsteadiness

parameter. The boundary conditions (5) now become

(7)

the material parameter. Relation (6) is invoked to allow the

field of equations predicts the correct behavior in the limiting

case when the microstructure effects become negligible and

the total spin N reduces to the angular velocity [19,20].

(11)

heat transfer rate at the surface, respectively. Thus, our task is

to investigate how the governing parameters S , m, K and Pr

influence these quantities.

We note that when K = 0 (viscous fluid) and S = 0 (steady

flow), the problem under consideration reduces to a steadystate flow, where the closed-form solution for the flow field

and the solution for the thermal field in terms of Kummers

functions are respectively given by

(6)

= ( + / 2 ) j = (1 + K / 2 ) j ,

(10)

(9)

168

1 t j t j 1

t + ( f t ) j 1 2 ( p s ) j 1 2

Pr h j

subjected to the boundary conditions (12), Eqs. (9) (11) are

first converted into a system of seven first-order equations, and

the difference equations are then expressed using central

differences. For this purpose, we introduce new dependent

variables p( ) , q( ) , g ( ) = h ( ) , n( ) , s( ) = ( ) and

t ( ) so that Eqs. (9) (11) can be written as

f = p,

p = q,

g = n,

s = t,

(17)

(18)

1

f j f j 1 h j ( p j + p j 1 ) = 0,

2

1

p j p j 1 h j ( q j + q j 1 ) = 0,

2

1

g j g j 1 h j ( n j + n j 1 ) = 0,

2

1

s j s j 1 h j ( t j + t j 1 ) = 0,

2

(19)

(20)

1

(1 + K ) q + fq p 2 + Kn S p + q = 0 ,

1

K

3

1 + n + f n p g K ( 2 g + q ) S g + n = 0 ,

2

2

2

1

1

t+ f t p s S s + t = 0 .

Pr

2

(21)

(22)

p (0) = 1,

g ( ) 0,

p ( ) 0,

s ( ) 0 as .

(25)

hj

p j p j 1

hj

g j g j 1

hj

s j s j 1

hj

(1 + K )

p j + p j 1

2

=

=

q j + q j 1

2

n j + n j 1

2

t j + t j 1

2

q j q j 1

hj

= p j 1 2 ,

(26)

= q j 1 2 ,

(27)

= n j 1 2 ,

(26)

= t j 1 2 ,

+ ( fq ) j 1 2 ( p 2 )

j 1 2

1 3

1

h j ( g j + g j 1 ) + ( n j + n j 1 ) = 0

2 2

2

1

1

t j t j 1 + h j f j + f j 1 t j + t j 1

Pr

4

1

h j p j + p j 1 s j + s j 1

4

1

1

S h j s j + s j 1 + t j + t j 1 = 0.

2

2

K 2 ( g ) j 1 2

(37)

(38)

(39)

(29)

large so that it is beyond the edge of the boundary layer. The

boundary conditions are

f 0 = 0, p0 = 1, g 0 = mq0 , t0 = 1,

(40)

pJ = 0, g J = 0, s J = 0.

(30)

To linearize the nonlinear system (33)-(39), we use

Newtons method, by introducing the following expression:

q (j

(31)

k +1)

= q (j ) + q (j ) , g (j

k

k +1)

= g (j ) + g (j ) ,

k

1

3

+ ( q ) j 1 2 S ( g ) j 1 2 + ( n ) j 1 2 = 0

2

2

)(

)(

+ K ( n ) j 1 2

S ( p ) j 1 2 + ( q ) j 1 2 = 0

2

K n j n j 1

+ ( f n ) j 1 2 ( p g ) j 1 2

1 +

hj

2

(36)

number that indicates the coordinate location. The finitedifference approximation equations (17)-(23) are written for

the midpoint j 1 2 of the segment j 1 j . This procedure

(35)

1

K

1 + n j n j 1 + h j ( f j + f j 1 )( n j + n j 1 )

2

4

1

h j ( p j + p j 1 )( g j + g j 1 )

4

1

K h j 2 ( g j + g j 1 ) + ( q j + q j 1 )

2

(24)

gives

f j f j 1

(34)

1

h j ( f j + f j 1 )( q j + q j 1 )

4

2

1

1

h j ( p j + p j 1 ) + h j K ( n j + n j 1 )

4

2

1

1

h j S ( p j + p j 1 ) + ( q j + q j 1 ) = 0

2

2

midpoint, which is defined as below:

0 = 0, j = j 1 + h j , J = ,

(33)

(1 + K ) q j q j 1 +

(23)

conditions (12) are given by

f (0) = 0,

(32)

S ( s ) j 1 2 + ( t ) j 1 2 = 0.

2

t (j

169

k +1)

= t (j ) + t (j

k

k)

(41)

( c1 ) j

expressions in place of f ( k ) , p ( k ) , q ( k ) , g ( k ) , n( k ) ,

( c2 ) j

( c4 ) j

hj

( p

2

f j f j 1

+ p j 1 ) = ( r1 ) j 1 2 ,

(42)

+ q j 1 ) = ( r2 ) j 1 2 ,

(43)

+ n j 1 ) = ( r3 ) j 1 2 ,

(44)

hj

( q

2

p j p j 1

hj

( n

2

g j g j 1

s j s j 1

hj

( t

2

+ t j 1 ) = ( r4 ) j 1 2 ,

( a1 ) q j + ( a2 ) q j 1 + ( a3 ) f j +

( a4 ) f j 1 + ( a5 ) p j + ( a6 ) p j 1 +

( a7 ) n j + ( a8 ) n j 1 = ( r5 ) j 1 2 ,

( b1 ) n j + ( b2 ) n j 1 + ( b3 ) f j +

( b4 ) f j 1 + ( b5 ) p j + ( b6 ) p j 1 +

( b7 ) g j + ( b8 ) g j 1 + ( b9 ) q j +

( b10 ) q j 1 = ( r6 ) j 1 2 ,

( c1 ) t j + ( c2 ) t j 1 + ( c3 ) f j +

( c4 ) f j 1 + ( c5 ) p j + ( c6 ) p j 1 +

( c7 ) s j + ( c8 ) s j 1 = ( r7 ) j 1 2 ,

( c6 ) j

( c8 ) j

and

( r1 ) j 1 2 = f j + f j 1 + h j p j 1 2 ,

( r2 ) j 1 2 = p j + p j 1 + h j q j 1 2 ,

( r3 ) j 1 2 = g j + g j 1 + h j n j 1 2 ,

( r4 ) j 1 2 = s j + s j 1 + h j t j 1 2 ,

(45)

(46)

( r5 ) j 1 2 = (1 + K ) ( q j q j 1 ) h j ( fq ) j 1 2 +

hj ( p2 )

(47)

( r6 ) j 1 2

(48)

where

( a1 ) j

( r7 ) j 1 2

= 1+ K +

1

S

h j f j 1 2 h j ,

2

4

( a2 ) j = ( a1 ) j 2 (1 + K ) , ( a3 ) j

( a4 ) j = ( a3 ) j , ( a5 ) j

= h j p j 1 2

1

h j q j 1 2 ,

2

S

hj ,

2

( b4 ) j = ( b3 ) j , ( b5 ) j

( b6 ) j = ( b5 ) j ,

(50)

Sh j ( p ) j 1 2 + ( q ) j 1 2 ,

2

K

= 1 + ( n j n j 1 ) h j ( fn ) j 1 2 +

2

h j ( gp ) j 1 2 + Kh j 2 ( g ) j 1 2 + ( q ) j 1 2 +

S

h j 3 ( g ) j 1 2 + ( n ) j 1 2 ,

2

1

= ( t j t j 1 ) h j ( ft ) j 1 2 +

Pr

h j ( ps ) j 1 2 + Sh j ( s ) j 1 2 + ( t ) j 1 2 .

2

f 0 = 0, p0 = 0, g0 = 0, t0 = 0,

pJ = 0, g J = 0, sJ = 0,

1

3

= h j p j 1 2 Kh j Sh j ,

2

4

K

= ( b7 ) j , ( b9 ) j = h j , ( b10 ) j = ( b9 ) j ,

2

(51)

conditionts to remain constant during the iteration process.

(iii) Block-elimination method

The linearized difference equations (42)-(48) can be solved

by the block-elimination method as outlined by Cebeci and

Bradshaw [22], since the system has block-tridiagonal

structure. Commonly, the block-tridiagonal structure consists

of variables or constants, but here an interesting feature can be

observed that it consists of block matrices. In a matrix-vector

form, Eqs. (42)-(48) can be written as

1

= h j g j 1 2 ,

2

Kh j ( n ) j 1 2 +

(49)

( b8 ) j

j 1 2

1

( a6 ) j = ( a5 ) j , ( a7 ) j = h j K , ( a8 ) j = ( a7 ) j ,

2

K 1

S

( b1 ) j = 1 + + h j f j 1 2 h j ,

2 2

4

K

1

( b2 ) j = ( b1 ) j 2 1 + , ( b3 ) j = h j n j 1 2 ,

2

2

( b7 ) j

1 1

S

+ h j f j 1 2 h j ,

Pr 2

4

2

1

= ( c1 ) j , ( c3 ) j = h j t j 1 2 ,

Pr

2

1

= ( c3 ) j , ( c5 ) j = h j s j 1 2 ,

2

1

S

= ( c5 ) j , ( c7 ) j = h j p j 1 2 h j ,

2

2

= ( c7 ) j ,

A =r

where

170

(52)

[ A1 ]

[ B2 ]

A=

[C1 ]

[ A2 ] [C2 ]

0

[ BJ ] =

0

0

0

[CJ 1 ]

[ AJ ]

[ BJ 1 ] [ AJ 1 ]

[ BJ ]

[1 ]

[ r1 ]

[ 2 ]

[ r2 ]

= and r = .

[ J 1 ]

[ rJ 1 ]

[ ]

[r ]

J

J

The elements of the matrices are as follows:

0

0

0

1

h1

0

0

2

1

0

h1

0

2

[ A1 ] =

1

0

h1

0

2

( a2 )1 ( a8 )1

0

0

( b10 )1 ( b2 )1

0

0

c

(

2 )1

1

0

0

0

0

1

h1

2

0

0

( a3 )1 ( a1 )1 ( a7 )1

( b3 )1 ( b9 )1 ( b1 )1

0

( c3 ) 1 0

1

hJ

2

1

hJ

2

( b8 ) J

0

( a10 ) J ( a3 ) J ( a1 ) J

0

( b3 ) J ( b9 ) J

c

0

( 8 ) J ( c3 ) J

0 0

0 0

1

hJ

2

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

1

h1

2

0

0

( c1 ) 1

1

2 hJ

1

0

[CJ ] = 0

a

( 5 )J

( b5 ) J

( c5 ) J

(53)

0

1

hJ

2

( a4 ) J ( a2 ) J

( b4 ) J ( b10 ) J

0

( c4 ) J

0

0

( a8 ) J

( b2 ) J

0

1

hJ

2

0

0

( c2 ) J

(55)

( a7 ) J

( b1 ) J

0

0

0

1

( a9 ) J

( b7 ) J

0

( c7 ) J

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

(56)

2 j J,

q0

n

0

s0

[1 ] = f1 ,

q1

n1

t

1

2 j J,

1

2 hJ

0

[ AJ ] =

0

(a )

6 J

( b6 ) J

( c6 ) J

1 j J 1,

1

h1

2

0 0

0

(54)

1

hJ

2

0

0

( c1 ) J

q j 1

n

j 1

s j 1

j = f1

qj

nj

t

j

(57)

and 1 j J ,

( r1 ) j 1 2

( r2 ) j 1 2

( r3 ) j 1 2

rj = ( r4 ) j 1 2 .

r

( 5 ) j 1 2

( r )

6 j 1 2

( r7 )

j 1 2

(58)

be factorized as

A = LU ,

171

(59)

[ i ] W j = rj B j W j 1 ,

where

[1 ]

[ 2 ]

L=

[ 2 ]

[ J 1 ]

[J ]

[ J ]

2 j J.

(68)

When the elements of W have been found, Eq. (65) gives the

solution for in which the elements are found from the

following relations:

[ J ] = [WJ ] ,

[ i ] = W j j j +1 ,

(69)

1 j J 1.

(70)

and

[ I1 ]

U =

[1 ]

[ I1 ]

[ I1 ]

used to find the ( k + 1) th interation in Eq. (41). These

[ J 1 ]

[ I1 ]

satisfied. In laminar boundary layer calculation, the wall shear

stress parameter q ( 0 ) is commonly used as the convergence

criterion (Cebeci and Bradshaw [22]). This is probably

because in boundary layer calculations, it is found that the

greatest error usually appears in the wall shear stress

parameter. Thus, this convergence criterion is used in the

present study. Calculations are stopped when

7 7 matrices in which elements are determined by the

following equations:

[ i ] = [ A1 ] ,

[ A1 ][1 ] = [C1 ] ,

[i ] = [ A1 ] B j [ J 1 ] , j = 2, 3, ..., J ,

[ i ] j = C j , j = 2, 3, ..., J 1.

q0( k ) <1 ,

1 = 0.00001 is used, which gives about four decimal places

accuracy for most of the predicted quantities as suggested by

Bachok and Ishak [25,27] and Ali et al. [28,29].

The present method has a second-order accuracy,

unconditionally stable and is easy to be programmed, thus

making it highly attractive for production use. The only

disadvantage is the large amount of once-and-for-all algebra

needed to write the difference equations and to set up their

solutions.

(61)

(62)

(63)

r.

(64)

W,

(65)

LU

(71)

(60)

If we define

The step size in , and the position of the edge of the

boundary-layer have to be adjusted for difference values of

the parameters to maintain the necessary accuracy. In this

study, the values of between 0.001 and 0.1 were used,

depending on the values of the parameters considered, in order

that the numerical values obtained are mesh independent, at

least to four decimal places. However, a uniform grid of

= 0.01 was found to be satisfactory for a convergence

====

r,

LW

(66)

where

====

[W1 ]

[W2 ]

,

[WJ -1 ]

[W ]

J

in nearly all cases. On the other hand, the boundary-layer

thickness between 5 and 50 was chosen where the infinity

boundary condition is achieved. The results are given to carry

out a parametric study showing the influences of the

unsteadiness parameter S , material parameter K and Prandtl

number Pr . For validation of the numerical method used in

this study, the case when S = 0 (steady-state flow) has also

been considered and the results are compared with those of

Elbashbeshy [11], as well as the series solution given by Eq.

be determined from Eq. (65) by the following relations:

[1 ][W1 ] = [ r1 ] ,

(67)

172

found to be in a very good agreement.

The velocity profiles for various values of S and K are

presented in Figs. 1 and 2. Figure 2 shows that the velocity

gradient at the surface is larger for larger values of S , which

produces larger skin friction coefficient f ( 0 ) . We note that

the parameter Pr have no influence on the flow field, which is

clear from Eqs. (9)-(11). It is evident from Figure 2 that the

boundary layer thickness increases with K . The velocity

gradient at the surface f ( 0 ) decreases as K increases.

Thus, micropolar fluids show drag reduction compared to

viscous fluids.

Figures 3-6 show the temperature profiles for selected

values of parameters. The temperature profiles are found to

subside monotonously to zero as increases. These curves

represent the physically realistic case. As can been seen from

Figs. 3-6, the surface temperature (0 ) decreases with

the surface temperature (0) decreases with increasing values

of K. Thus, the heat transfer rate at the surface 1 (0) is higher

for a micropolar fluid ( K > 0 ) compared to a Newtonian fluid

(K = 0). On the other hand, for a fixed value of K , the surface

temperature (0) decreases when Pr is increased, i.e. the heat

transfer rate at the surface 1 (0) increases with Pr . This is

because the higher Prandtl number fluid has a lower thermal

conductivity (or a higher viscosity) which results in thinner

thermal boundary layer and hence, higher heat transfer rate at

the surface (see Fig. 5).

The effect of m on the angular velocity, when the other

parameters are fixed to unity is presented in Fig. 8. As

expected, the microrotation at the surface h ( 0 ) is more

dominant for larger values of m . Finally, Figs. 1-6 show that

the far field boundary conditions (12) are satisfied

asymptotically, thus supporting the numerical results obtained.

1 (0) , which represent the heat transfer rate at the surface

Pr

Elbashbeshy [11]

Eq. (16)

Numerical results

0.72

1

1.2253

1.0000

1.236657472

1.000000000

1.2367

1.0000

0.72

1

0.9116

0.8591

1

Pr = 1, m = 0.5, K = 1

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.5

S = 0, 0.5, 1, 2

0.4

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0

0

Pr = 1, m = 0.5, S = 1

0.9

f ()

f ()

0.9

0

0

10

12

Pr = 1, m = 0.5 and K = 1

K = 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4

Pr = 1, m = 0.5 and S = 1

173

1.2

1

Pr = 0.7, m = 0.5, K = 2

Pr = 1, m = 0.5, K = 1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.8

()

( )

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.4

S = 0, 0.5, 0.9

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0

0

0

0

10

10

1.2

Pr = 1, m = 0.5, S = 0.1

0.9

S = 0.1, m = 0.5, K = 1

0.8

0.7

0.8

( )

()

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.3

K = 0, 1, 5

0.2

0.2

0.1

0

0

0

0

174

10

1.5

1.4

1.3

0.8

1.2

0.7

Pr = 0.7

0.6

h( )

(0)

1.1

0.9

Pr = 1.0

0.5

0.4

0.8

m = 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10

0.3

0.7

0.2

0.6

0.5

0

S = 1, Pr = 1, K = 1

0.9

S = 0.1

0.1

1

0

0

m when S = 1, Pr = 1 and K = 1

V. CONCLUSIONS

[7]

continuously stretching sheets, Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 33, pp.

471-476, 1998.

[8]

layers on an exponentially stretching continuous surface, J. Phys. D:

Appl. Phys, vol. 32, pp. 577-585, 1999.

[9]

over a stretching plate with variable heat flux, Int. J. Heat Mass

Transfer, vol. 31, pp. 917-921, 1988.

unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer due to a

stretching surface. A new similarity solution has been devised,

which transform the time-dependent governing equations to

ordinary differential equations. We discussed the effects of the

governing parameters S, K and Pr on the fluid flow and heat

transfer characteristics. The numerical results compared very

well with previously reported cases, as well as the series

solution for the steady-state flow. We found that the heat

transfer rate at the surface 1 (0) increases with S, K and Pr.

Further, the heat transfer rate at the surface is higher for a

micropolar fluid compared to a Newtonian fluid.

variable surface heat flux, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. Vol. 31, pp. 19511954, 1998.

REFERENCES

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with variable heat flux in micropolar fluids, Phys. Lett. A, vol. 372, pp.

559-561, 2008.

stretching surface with variable heat flux, Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 33,

pp. 477-480, 1998.

[1]

mixed and forced convection heat transfer from an unsteady no-uniform

flow past a rotating cylinder, WSEAS Transactions on Heat and Mass

Transfer, vol. 2, pp. 6 16, 2007.

[2]

an infinite porous plate which thermophoresis effect, WSEAS

Transactions on Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 4, pp. 23-33, 2009.

[3]

L.J. Crane, Flow past a stretching plate, J. Appl. Math. Phys. (ZAMP),

vol. 21, pp. 645 647, 1970.

[15] R. Nazar, N. Amin and I. Pop, Unsteady boundary layer flow due to

stretching surface in a rotating fluid, Mech. Res. Commun., vol. 31,

pp. 121-128, 2004.

[4]

sheet with suction or blowing, Can. J. Chem. Eng, vol. 55, pp. 744746, 1977.

[16] A. Ishak, R. Nazar an, I. Pop, Heat transfer over an unsteady stretching

permeable surface with prescribed wall temperature, Nonlinear Anal.

RWA, vol. 10, pp. 2909-2913, 2009.

[5]

continuous stretching surface with variable temperature, ASME J.

Heat Transfer, vol. 107, pp. 248-250, 1985.

[6]

Phys. Fluids, vol. 27, pp. 1915-1917, 1984.

flow in stagnation region adjacent to a vertical surface, Heat Mass

Transfer, vol. 26, pp. 71-79, 1991.

[14] H. I. Andersson, J. B. Aarseth and B. S. Dandapat, Heat transfer in a

liquid film on an unsteady stretching surface, Int. J. Heat Mass

Transfer, vol. 43, pp. 69-74, 2000.

[17] J.C. Williams III and T.B. Rhyne, Boundary layer development on a

wedge impulsively set into motion, SIAM J. Appl. Math., vol. 38, pp.

215-224, 1980.

175

moving flat plate in a parallel stream with prescribed surface heat flux,

WSEAS Transactions on Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 5, pp. 73-82,

2010.

[18] A. Ishak, R. Nazar and I. Pop, Mixed convection stagnation point flow

of a micropolar fluid towards a stretching sheet, Meccanica, vol. 43,

pp. 411-418, 2008.

[19] G. Ahmadi, Self-similar solution of incompressible micropolar

boundary layer flow over a semi-infinite plate, Int. J. Eng. Sci., vol.

14, pp. 639-646, 1976.

[26] N. Bachok and A. Ishak, Flow and heat transfer over a stretching

cylinder with prescribed surface heat flux, Malaysian Journal of

Mathematical Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 159-169, 2010.

[20] A. Ishak, R. Nazar and I. Pop, Moving wedge and flat plate in a

micropolar fluid, Int. J. Eng. Sci., vol. 44, pp. 1225-1236, 2006.

moving flat plate in a parallel stream with prescribed surface heat flux,

Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Appl of Comp Eng, pp. 115118, 2010.

Functions, Dover, New York, 1965.

[22] T. Cebeci and P. Bradshaw, Physical and Computational Aspects of

Convective Heat Transfer, Springer, New York, 1988.

[28] F. M. Ali, R. Nazar and N. M. Arifin, MHD viscous flow and heat

transfer due to a permeable shrinking sheet with prescribed surface heat

flux, Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Appl of Comp Eng,

pp. 260-263, 2010.

flow near the stagnation point on a vertical surface embedded in a

porous medium with anisotropy effect, Trans. Porous Med, vol. 82,

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[29] F. M. Ali, R. Nazar and N. M. Arifin, MHD viscous flow and heat

transfer induced by a permeable shrinking sheet with prescribed surface

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