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# ME 603: Applied Elasticity and Plasticity

INTRODUCTION--1
INTRODUCTION

Prof. S.K.Sahoo

INTRODUCTION
Objective
Understand different methods that used to analyse
stress and strain in solid body.
Apply various principles to solve problems in a
practical situation and compare its solution with
that obtained by solid mechanics approach.
Analyze stresses inside solid body cause by
external and internal forces.
Examine different yield criteria in diverse failure
situations.
Relate theory of plasticity to manufacturing.

INTRODUCTION

(Cont)

Learning Outcome
1.0 Can explain the stress, strain, torsion and bending properties.
2.0 Apply the concepts of stress, strain, torsion and bending and deflection
of bar and beam in engineering field
3.0 Calculate and determine the stress, strain and deflection of solid body
that subjected to external and internal load.
4.0 Enable to design the optimum dimension of the body in a variety of
situations where specific properties are required.
5.0 Relates the basic theory of elasticity and plasticity with application of
solid mechanics.
6.0 It provides an understanding how the stress-strain characteristics affect
ultimate failure of materials.
7.0 Able to relate theory of plasticity to design tooling in manufacturing
instead of using thumb rule.

TOPICS TO COVER
Analysis of stress and strain; Notation of stress, Sign
convention, Stress tensor, St. Venant principles, Bauschinger
effect, Principle of Superposition, Differential equation of
Equilibrium, Generalised Hookes Law, Compatibility and
constitutive equations; Plane stress and plane strain problems,
Stress functions; with and without body forces, Applications to
simple problems; Application in rectangular and polar
coordinates.
3D stress and strain system, Principal stresses and principal
axes, Stress invariants, hydrostatic stress, stress deviator,
examples.
Introduction to complex potentials in two dimensional and
axisymmetric problems; Variational methods; Anisotropic
elasticity; Finite deformation elasticity

TOPICS

(Cont)

## Yield Criteria, Yield surfaces. Deformation

and flow theories;
Theory of plastic constitutive equations;
Axisymmetric and spherically symmetric
problems;
Slipline and upper bound theory and
application to simple problems of forging
extrusion, drawing and indentation;
Introduction to wave propagation in plastic
materials.

Mapping

## Objectives/Topics and Outcomes

Analysis of stress and strain, Differential equation of
Equilibrium, Compatibility and constitutive equations;
Plane stress and plane strain problems

Outcome(s)
1.0
3.0

## Stress functions; with and without body forces,

Applications to simple problems; Application in
rectangular and polar coordinates.

2.0
5.0

## 3D stress and strain system, Principal

stresses and principal axes, Stress invariants,
hydrostatic stress, stress deviator, examples.

4.0

## Yield Criteria, Yield surfaces.

Deformation and flow theories

6.0

## Theory of plastic constitutive equations; Axisymmetric

and spherically symmetric problems

1.0
3.0

## Slipline and upper bound theory and application to

simple problems of forging extrusion, drawing and
indentation

5.0

4.0
7.0

4.0
7.0

REFERENCES
1. Timeshenko & Goodier, Theory of Elasticity - McGraw Hill, 3th
ed. 1982
2. J. Chakrabarty, Applied Plasticity- Springer, New York, 1st ed.,
2000
3. Hoffman and Sachs, Theory of Plasticity - McGraw Hill., 2nd ed.
1985
4. Johnson and Mellor, Engineering Plasticity- Van-Nostrand., 1st
edition, 1983
5. Computational Elasticity M Ameen, Narosa Publishing House.
6. Advanced Mechanics of Materials A P Boresi and R J Schmidt,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
7. Advanced Mechanics of Solids L S Srinath, Tata McGraw-Hill

## Example: Find the extension of a uniform cross section bar

subjected to uniformly varying tension due to self weight.
P + dP
dx

=WL/2AE

d = PX dx / A E;

= PX dx/AE=

A
x
dx/AE
0
0

## = ( /E) x dx= ( L2/2E)

0

= W/AL
=P/A , / =E , = /L
So, = PL / A E

## Example: Find the extension of a bar of tapering

cross section from diameter d to D by the load F.

=F/A , / =E , = /L

dx

d1

So, = FL / A E

## Bar of Tapering Section:

d1 = d + [(D - d) / L] * X

## Hence, total extension is,

L

= 0 4 F dx /[E {d+kx}2 ]
L

0

## =- [4FL/ E(D-d)] {1/(d+D -d) - 1/d}

= 4FL/( E D d)
Check :- When both diameter is same =d
When d = D=d
=FL/ [( /4)* d2E ] = FL /AE

## Example: Find the extension of a tapering bar of

uniform thickness t & width varies from b1 to b2.

bx b
1

b2
X

L
Bar of Tapering Section:

## Where, k = (b2 - b1) / L

= Px / [Et(b1 + k*X)]

L = = Px / [Et(b1 - k*X)],
0
0

0

0

## Example: Find Elongation of a Bar of circular tapering

section due to self weight.
from =PL/AE
=Wx*x/(AxE)

d
A

B
x

so now
L

## where Wx=Wt.of the bar

=Wt. density
so = X *x/(3E)

*x/(3E)
0 L
0
= /(3E) Xdx= [/3E ] [X2 /2]
0
= L2/(6E)
L= = X

## Let W=total weight of bar = (1/3)*(/4*d2)L

=12W/ (*d2L)
so,
L = [12W/ (*d2L)]*(L2/6E)
=2WL/ (*d2E)
=WL/[2*(*d2/4)*E]
=WL /2*A*E

## Example: Find the extension of a bar of uniform strength:(i.e.

stress is constant at all points of the bar) due to self weight.
Area = A1
Force = p*(A+dA)
B

C dx

D
x

Area = A2

B
A

C
dx
D
Force = p*A

strip = w*A*dx
w is wt. density
p is stress

## p* (A + dA) = p*A + w*A*dx,

dA/A = wdx/p, Integrating logeA = wx/p + C,
at x = 0, A = A2 and x = L, A = A1, C = A2
loge(A/A2) = wx/p

or

A = ewx/p

## (where A is cross section area at any level x of bar of uniform strength )

Example: A rod of length L and cross sectional area A is snugly fitted(no compression
or tension of the spring) between a rigid support at its left and a spring at its right.
The spring has stiffness k. Derive a equation for the stress in the rod due to increase
in temperature of t0C. Thermal expansion coefficient is .

## Strain due to temperature rise: t

Strain due to compressive force: /E
Both are balanced by strain by spring force = - A/kL
So, /E+ t = - A/kL Gives, = - (E t)/(1+EA/kL)
Let P be the balanced force. The free thermal expansion becomes two part,
by elastic force and by spring
- t L = PL/AE + P/k
Gives, P/A= = - (E t)/(1+EA/kL)

## Example: A material is subjected to tensile stress of x & y at right

angle to each other (x > y). Find the condition that the resultant
stress makes maximum inclination to its normal.
y

R
y

## Example: A material is subjected to tensile stress of x & y at right

angle to each other (x > y). Find the condition that the resultant
stress makes maximum inclination to its normal.
y

N
R n
y

x y
2

x y
2

Cos 2

x y

Sin 2

x y
2

Sin 2

Sin 2

2
tan

n x y x y
2

y x

Cos 2

d tan
0
d

x y
x y
x y x y
x y

Cos
2

2
cos
2

Sin
2

(2) Sin2 0

2
2
2
2
2

x y x y

x y 2

Cos
2

cos
2

Sin 2
2
2

2 90

x y
tan max

x y
2

solving

x 1 sin max

y 1 sin max

x y
tan 2

cos max

x y
2

sin max

sin maxCos 2

x y
x y

x y

x y
2

Cos 2

Sin 2

n
cot tan(90 )

( x y ) cos max
sin max

gives

x y
1
1
sin

2 2
x y

## Example: A plate of uniform thickness 1 cm and dimension 3 x 2 cm is acted upon by

the loads shown. Taking E = 2 x 107 N/cm2, determine x
0.3.

42 kN
y
18 kN

2 cm 18 kN
x

18000 N
9000 N / cm2
2cm x 1cm

42000 N
14000 N / cm2
3cm x 1cm

42 kN
3cm

## Hookes law in two dimensions states that:

and

1
1
[ x y ]
[ 9000 0.3(14000] 240 x 10 6
7
E
2 x 10

1
1
6
[ y x ]
[
14000

0
.
3
(
9000
]

565
x
10
E
2 x 107

## Example: A composite bar made up of aluminum and steel is held

between two supports. The bars are stress free at 400c. What will be the
stresses in the bars when the temp. drops to 200C, if
(a) the supports are unyielding

Steel

cm2

60cm

## Take E al =0.7*105 N/mm2 ;al =23.4*10-6 /0C

ES=2.1*105 N/mm2
Aal=3 cm2 As=2 cm2

s =11.7*10-6 /0C

3 cm2
Aluminum
30cm

## Free contraction =Ls s t+ LALAlt

=600*11.7*10-6*(40-20)+300*23.4*10-6*(40-20)=0.2808 mm.
Since contraction is checked tensile stresses will be set up. Force being
same in both As s= Aal al
2 s= 3 al ==> s= 1.5 al
contraction of steel bar s = (s/Es)*Ls

=[600/(2.1*105)]* s

## contra.of aluminum bar al = (al/Eal)*Lal

=[300/(0.7*105)]* al

## (a) When supports are unyielding, s + al = (free contraction)

=[600/(2.1*105)]* s +[300/(0.7*105)]* al

=0.2808 mm

## s=1.5 al so, al =32.76 N/mm2(tensile) s =49.14 N/mm2(tensile)

(b) Supports are yielding: s + al = ( - 0.1mm
so, al =21.09 N/mm2(tensile) s =31.64 N/mm2(tensile)

dX

D2=200 mm

D1=100 mm

Example:
A circular section tapered bar is rigidly fixed as shown in
figure. If the temperature is raised by 300 C, calculate the maximum
stress in the bar. Take E=2*105 N/mm2 ; =12*10-6 /0C
P

B
1.0 m

## With rise in temperature compressive force P is induced which is same at

all c/s.
Free expansion = L t = 1000*12*10-6*30 =0.36 mm
Force P induced will prevent a expansion of 0.36 mm
= 4PL/(E*d1*d2) = L t
or P = (/4)*d1*d2 t E=1130400 N
Now Max. stress = P/(least c/s area) =1130400/(.785*1002) = 144MPa

Elastic Deformation
1. Initial

bonds
stretch
initial

F
Elastic means reversible, ie,
No permanent deformation

Linearelastic
Non-Linearelastic

## Plastic Deformation (Metals)

1. Initial

bonds
stretch
& planes
shear

planes
still
sheared
plastic

elastic + plastic

F
Plastic means permanent.

linear
elastic

plastic

elastic

= /E + plastic

## Material has permanent strain when deformed plastically and load

is released. The unloading line is parallel to elastic line as E is a
material property. The amount of strain get back is called elastic
recovery.
If stress is reapplied, material again responds elastically at the
beginning up to a new yield point that is higher than the original
yield point.

ultimate
tensile
strength

Elastic
Region

Stress-Strain Diagram
Plastic
Region
4

UTS

yield
strength

Elastic
limit

3
2
1

Proportional
limit

Offset

Rate of
increase of
strength is
more than rate
of decrease of
strength due to
decrease of
diameter

= 0.2%
= 0.002

necking

Strain
Hardening

Rate of increase of
strength is less than
rate of decrease of
strength due to
decrease of diameter

5
Fracture

Elastic region
slope =Youngs (elastic) modulus
yield strength
Plastic region
ultimate tensile strength
strain hardening
fracture

Strain ( ) ( L/Lo)

## An increase in y due to plastic deformation.

- Under plastic strain, grains slipping along boundaries
- Locking up of grains => increase in strength
- We can see this in the true-stress-strain curve also
Curve fit to the stress-strain response:

true stress
(F/A)

hardening exponent:
n = 0.15 (some steels)
to n = 0.5 (some coppers)

y1
y0

large
hardening
small
hardening

## true strain: ln(L/Lo)

Applications:
- Cold rolling, forging: part is
stronger than casting

Ductility, %EL

Ao

Lo
Ductility is a measure of the plastic
deformation that has been sustained at fracture.
Measures how much the material can be stretched
before fracture
Ductility may be expressed as either percent elongation (%
plastic strain at fracture) or percent reduction in area.
%AR > %EL is possible if internal voids form in neck.
Engineering
tensile
stress,

smaller %EL
(brittle if %EL<5%)

% EL

larger %EL
(ductile if
%EL>5%)

% AR

## Engineering tensile strain,

A material that suffers very little
plastic deformation is brittle.

Af

l f lo
lo
Ao A f
Ao

Lf

x100
x100

## High ductility: platinum, steel, copper

Good ductility: aluminum
Low ductility (brittle): chalk, glass, graphite

Yield Strength,

tensile stress,

## It is difficult to distinct this point.

Hence, many cases stress value at p = 0.002 offset
is taken for this purpose.
Stress at this strain value is also called Proof stress.

## for 250 mm sample, y is at

= 0.002 = z/z
z = 0.5 mm
engineering strain,

p = 0.002

y = yield strength

## Example: Calculate deflection if the proof stress is applied and

then partially removed to a stress,
MPa) E is the Youngs
modulus (200 Gpa).

Yield

Plastic

proof stress

Failure

Stress

Strain

## Example: Calculate deflection if the proof stress is applied and

then partially removed to a stress,
MPa) E is the Youngs
modulus (200 Gpa).

Yield

Plastic

## 0.2% proof stress

Failure

Stress

Strain

0.2%

0.002

/E

The sample is loaded up to the 0.2% proof stress and then unloaded to a stress,
the strain x = 0.2% + /E = 0.002 + 200/200000= 0.002+0.001 = 0.003

kPa)

## Typical Stress-Strain Curves for Materials

Mild Steel

Cast Iron

Aluminium alloy

Rubber

Tensile Strength, TS
Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve.

TS
F = fracture or
ultimate
strength

engineering
stress

## Typical response of a metal

strain
engineering strain
Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.
Polymers: occurs when polymer backbone chains are
aligned and about to break.

Neck acts
as stress
concentrator

Toughness
Energy to break or Energy absorbed breaking a unit volume of material
Approximately, the area under the true stress-strain curve.
small toughness (ceramics)

fracture

Tensile
stress,

## very small toughness

(unreinforced polymers)

fracture

fracture
Tensile strain,
Brittle fracture: elastic energy
Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy

Toughness

Stress,

## The area under the whole

stress/strain curve is the
energy (per unit volume)
needed to make it fail.
But you get some energy back
in elastic recovery (the black
triangle).
The remaining area is the
energy absorbed by the
material in failing. This is one
measure of the toughness
of the material.

Again.

Strain,
Elastic
recovery

Toughness
Energy to break or Energy absorbed breaking a unit volume of material
Approximately, by the area under the true stress-strain curve.
small toughness (ceramics)

fracture

Tensile
stress,

fracture

## very small toughness

(unreinforced polymers)

fracture
Tensile strain,
Brittle fracture: elastic energy
Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy

## Resilience, Ur and Elastic energy

Ability of a material to store energy
Energy stored best in elastic region
If you load up a material in its elastic region, to
some stress
then the area under the line is a measure of the
energy you used to do it. This area is actually
the energy per unit volume of material in the
sample. It is called Elastic energy.
This energy is stored in the material and will
be released if you unload it.
y

U r d
0

## If we assume a linear stress-strain

curve this simplifies to

Ur

1
2

y y

Fatigue
Fracture/failure of a material subjected cyclic stresses

## A member may fail due to fatigue

at stress levels significantly below
the ultimate strength if subjected

## Fatigue properties are shown on

S-N diagrams.
When the stress is reduced below
the endurance limit, fatigue
failures do not occur for any
number of cycles.

## Non-Linear Elasticity, Hysteresis

In some materials (e.g. some
polymers) the stress/strain line is
curved in the elastic region
In that case E is not constant
and some energy is lost, (given by
the area between the lines). This is
called hysteresis.

Residual Stresses
When a single structural element is loaded uniformly
beyond its yield stress and then unloaded, it is permanently
deformed but all stresses disappear. This is not the general
result.
Residual stresses will remain in a structure after loading
- only part of the structure undergoes plastic deformation
- different parts of the structure undergo different plastic
deformations
Residual stresses also result from the uneven heating or
cooling of structures or structural elements

Bauschinger Effect
The Bauschinger effect refers to
a decrease in the compressive
yield stress due to work
hardening in tension.
It can also refer to a decrease in
the tensile yield stress due to
work hardening in compression.
Work hardening can be used to
increase the yield strength of a
material, but it does so at the
cost of a lower yield stress in
the reversed direction of

## Tension stressstrain curve

c
Actual compression
stress-strain curve
following tensile work
hardening

## stress strain curve

in compression

Principle of Superposition
It states that the effects of several actions taking place
simultaneously can be reproduced exactly by adding
the effect of each action separately.
The principle is general and has wide applications
and holds true if:
(i) The structure is elastic
(ii) The stress-strain relationship is linear
(iii) The deformations are small.

Saint-Venants Principle
Loads transmitted through rigid
plates result in uniform distribution
of stress and strain.
Concentrated loads result in large
stresses in the vicinity of the load
application point.
Stress and strain distributions
become uniform at a relatively short
distance from the load application
points.
Saint-Venants Principle:
Stress distribution may be assumed
independent of the mode of load
application except in the immediate
vicinity of load application points.

Saint-Venants Principle
The Stress, Strain and Displacement Fields Due to Two
Different Statically Equivalent Force Distributions on
Parts of the Body Far Away From the Loading Points Are
Approximately the Same.
P/2

P/2

xy

xy

x
y

## Stress - Strain Terminology

Engineering Stress
Tensile stress, :

Ft

Ft

Area, A

Area, A

Ft
Ft
N
= 2
=
Ao m

original area

Shear stress, :

F
Fs

Fs
Fs
=
Ao

Ft

## Stress has units:

N/m2 or kgf/cm2 or Pa

Engineering Strain
Tensile strain:

Lateral strain:
/2

Lo

wo
L /2

Shear strain:

x
90 -

y
90

Lo

= tan = x/y

wo

Shear strain
When pure shear acts on an element, the

## element deforms into a rhombic shape.

For convenience the element is rotated by an
angle
and represented as shown.
y
A
A

B B

## For small angles

tan =

C
AA

x

Shear strain
A pure shear strain is produced in torsion.

A
r

A A

= AA
AB
r

=
L

AA = r

## : Angle of twist of radial line

AB to position AB
r: radius of cross-sectional area

## Torsion test : Modulus of rigidity : Shear stress

D
T

T
d

A
A

Shear strain = = r /L
Angle of twist: = TL/GJ
Shear stress: = Tr/J
Maximum shear stress = max = TR/J
=G
G: Modulus of rigidity

r = T/J = G /L
T = Applied torque,
J = Polar moment of inertia
J = r2 dA
Cylindrical shell: J = D4 d4)/32
r = radius of consideration

Final

Necking
Fracture

## In the linear elastic range: Hookes law:

/e = E or,

E: Youngs modulus

## Shear strength and Tensile strength

[approximate relation between shear and tensile strengths]
Ultimate Tensile Strength = Su
Tensile Yield Strength
= Syp
Material

## Ultimate Shear Strength = Ssu

Shear yield point
= S syp

Tensile-Relation

Yield-Relation

Ssu 0.75 x Su

Ductile Iron

Ssu 0.90 x Su

Cast Iron

Ssu 1.3 x Su

## Copper & alloys

Ssu [0.6-0.9] x Su

## Ssyp = Approx 0,55 x Syp

Thermal Stresses
A temperature change results in a change in length or
thermal strain. There is no stress associated with the
thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by
the supports.
Treat the additional support as redundant and apply
the principle of superposition.
PL
T T L
P
AE
thermal expansion coef.
The thermal deformation and the deformation from
the redundant support must be compatible.

T P 0
T L

PL
0
AE

T P 0
P AE T

P
E T
A

Poisson's ratio,
Poisson's ratio,

nu :

## Ratio of lateral to axial strain called

Poisson's ratio .
L
metals:
ceramics:
polymers:

~ 0.33
~ 0.25
~ 0.40

F
/2

Ao

wo
Limit of
-1 < 0.5
Units:
: dimensionless

Lo

L /2

## > 0.50 Volume decrease with tensile stress

Volume increase with compressive stress

Change in volume

0
and since

it follows that

0.5

M

Elastic Shear
modulus, G:

simple
torsion
test

=G
M
Elastic Bulk
modulus, K:

V
P=-K
Vo

V P
Vo

G

E
2(1 )

E
3(1 2 )

P
P
pressure
test: Init.
vol =Vo.
Vol chg.
= V

## Relationship between Elastic Modulus (E) and Bulk Modulus, K

1
x ( y z )
E
F o r h y d ro sta tic stre ss ,

i. e.

S im ila rly ,

2
1 2
E
E

y a n d z a re e a c h

v x y z
3
v
1 2

1 2
E
V o lu m e tric stra in

1 2

B u lk M o d u lu s , K
i. e.

## V o lu m e tric o r h y d ro sta tic stre ss

V o lu m e tric stra in
v

E 3 K 1 2

and

E
3 1 2

Example: A bar made of mild steel has the dimensions shown. If an axial
force of P is applied to the bar, determine the change in its dimensions
after applying the load. The material is in elastic zone.

E= 200 Gpa
= P/A
/E
z=
Lz = L *
x = y= Lx = L *
Ly = L *

P
80 103
z
16.0 106 Pa
A 0.10.05

z 16.0106
6

80
10
mm/mm
9
Est 20010

z
z
x
y

## z z Lz 80106 1.5 120m (Ans)

x y vst z 0.3280106 25.6 m/m
x x Lx 25.6106 0.1 2.56m (Ans)

## Normal & Shear components of stress 2D Case

xy

xy

xy
Considering the conditions for equilibrium
of a triangular/ prismatic element

yy

xx

xx

xx

xy

xy

yx

yy

yy

x y
2
x y
2

x y
2

cos 2 xy sin 2

sin 2 xy cos 2

Principal Stresses
Principal stresses: Maximum and minimum normal stresses
Principal planes : Planes on which the principal stresses act

x y
2

x y
2

cos 2 xy sin 2

x y
d n
2 sin 2 2 xy cos 2
0
2
d
2 xy
tan 2p
x y
p : The angle defines the orientation of the principal planes.

## - Principal directions are orthogonal to each other

-- No Shear stress along principal directions

Principal Stresses..

I n

x y
2

O
R

II n

x y
xy 2

2

x y
2

x y
xy 2

2

I II

## Maximum Shear Stresses

max

x y
2
2
xy 1

2
2

s p
1

s p
2

The angle defines the orientation of the maximum shear stress planes.

## - Maximum shear stress directions are orthogonal to each other

-- Maximum Shear stress direction is 450 to principal directions

## Plane (2D) Strain

Normal and shear strain on a plane making angle with y-axis
x
1

xy

1 1

x y
2

x y

x y
2

cos 2

sin 2

xy
2

xy
2

sin 2

cos 2

Differentiating wrt ,
we have:
Principal Strains:

I
II

x y
2

x y
2

y xy

x
2 2

y xy

x
2 2

xy
tan 2 P
x y

## Mohrs Circle for Plane Stress

Mohrs circle for plane stress may be applied
with simple geometric considerations to
estimate graphically the principal stresses,
max. shear stress, normal & shear stress on a
defined plane.
For a known state of plane stress x , y , xy
plot the points P and P and construct the
circle centered at C.
ave

x y
2

x y
xy2
R
2

## The principal stresses are obtained at Q & Q.

2 xy
I , II ave R & tan 2 p
x y
CP is the x-axis and CP is y-axis
Angle doubles and rotate in opposite direction
To find stress at an angle with respect to the y
axis, a new line CB may be drawn at an angle
2 with respect to CP location point B on circle
gives the stress values.

## Instruction to draw Mohrs Circle

1. Identify the stresses x, y, and xy = yx with the proper sign.
2. Draw a set of n - coordinate axes with n being positive to the right
and being positive in the upward direction. Choose an appropriate scale for the
each axis. Locate the x ( point L) and y (point M) on n axis.
3. Plot the stresses on the x- face of the element in this coordinate system (
point P ). Repeat the process for the y -face (point P ).
4. Draw a line between the two point P and P. The point where this line
crosses the n axis establishes the center of the circle.
5. Draw the complete circle. Radius gives value of maximum shear stress.
6. The line from the center of the circle to point P identifies the x axis or
reference axis for angle measurements (i.e. = 0).
Note: The angle between the reference axis and the n axis is equal to 2p, (
angle PCQ) one of the principal plane angle.
7. The circle cross the n axis is at point Q and Q. OQ represents first
principal stress I and OQ represents second principal stress II. The angle
made by CQ with CP gives other principal plane angle 2p +.
8. To find stress at an angle with respect to the y axis, a new line CB may
be drawn at an angle 2 with respect to CP location point B on circle gives the
stress values, ie, BN= n and BS=

P
, y xy 0
A

x y xy

P
2A

x y 0 xy

Tc
J

x y

Tc
xy 0
J

## Mohrs Circle for Plane Strain

The equations for the transformation of
plane strain are of the same form as the
equations for the transformation of plane
stress - Mohrs circle techniques apply.
Abscissa for the center C and radius R ,
ave

x y

x y xy

R
2 2

xy
tan 2 p
x y

max ave R

min ave R

max 2 R

x y 2 xy2

## Stresses in Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

Cylindrical vessel with principal stresses
1 = hoop stress
2 = longitudinal stress

Hoop stress:
Fz 0 12t x p2r x
pr
1
t

Longitudinal stress:

0 2 2 rt p r 2

pr
2t
1 2 2

## Stresses in Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

Points A and B correspond to hoop stress,
and longitudinal stress, 2
Maximum in-plane shearing stress:
1
2

max(in plane) 2

pr
4t

## Maximum out-of-plane shearing stress

corresponds to a 45o rotation of the plane
stress element around a longitudinal axis
max 2

pr
2t

1,

1 2

pr
2t

## Mohrs circle for in-plane

transformations reduces to a point
1 2 constant
max(in -plane) 0

stress
max 12 1

pr
4t

Final

## The definitions of true stress and true strain are based on

instantaneous values of area (Ai) and length (Li).
L
P
dL
dL
L
d

ln
L
L
L0
Ai
L
0

Ai instantaneous area
d strain increament

Necking
Fracture

## In engineering/nominal stress/strain since we divide by

original area, A0 and original length L0. s P
Li L 0 L
A0

## Since volume remains constant in the plastic

region of the test, true strain can be expressed as

L0

## engg stress P/Ao

L
A
D
D
ln ln 0 ln 0 2 ln 0
A
D
D
L0

L0

fracture

A0 L 0 AL
If, specimen is a round rod and D indicate
diameter
D 0 L0 DL

fracture

## Comparison between Engineering and True quantities

Let A0, L0 are original dimensions and Ai and Li are dimensions
A
L
at a particular instant. From volume constancy A 0 L 0 =A i L i 0 i
Ai

P
Ai

L
P A0
s i s 1 i 1 s (1 e)
A0 Ai
L0
L0

dL
L

ln
L
L0
L0

ln 1

L
1 ln(1+e)
L0

s( 1 e)
ln ( 1 e)

L0

Valid till
necking starts

As we shall see that during the tension test localized plastic deformation occurs after
some strain (called necking). This leads to inhomogeneity in the stress across the
length of the sample and under such circumstances true stress should be used.
Comparison between true strain and engineering strain
True strain ()

0.01 0.10

0.20

0.50

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

## Engineering strain (e)

0.01 0.105

0.22

0.65

1.72

6.39

19.09

53.6

Note that for strains of about 0.4, true and engineering strains can be assumed to
be equal. At large strains the deviations between the values are large.

## True stresstrue strain curves

A typical true stresstrue strain curve is typically approximated
by the equation.
strength coefficient
hardening exponent
n
n = 0.15 (some steels)
K
to n = 0.5 (some coppers)

## Note that n is always positive and that the slope decreases

with increasing strain.
Y Yield Stress
Yf flow stress
K strength coefficient

K n

## Example: A cylinder pressure vessel 10 m long has closed

ends, a wall thickness of 5 mm, and a diameter at midthickness of 3 mm. If the vessel is filled with air to a pressure
of 2 MPa, how much do the length, diameter, and wall
thickness change, and in each case state whether the change is
an increase or a decrease. The vessel is made of a steel having
elastic modulus E = 200,000 MPa and the Poissons ratio =
0.3. Neglect any effects associated with the details of how the
ends are attached.

## z-axis is normal to the surface

The ratio of radius to thickness, r/t, is such that it is reasonable to employ the thin walled
tube assumption, and the resulting plane stress equations.
Denoting the pressure as p, we have

pr (2 MPa)(1500mm)

300MPa
2t
2(5mm)
The value of z varies from -p on the inside
wall to zero on the outside, and for a thin
pr (2 MPa)(1500mm)
y

600MPa
walled tube is everywhere sufficiently small
t
5
mm
that z 0 can be used. Substitute these

Law, which gives
x 6.00 *10 4
y

2.55 *10

z 1.35 *103

## These strains are related to the changes in length L, circumference

(d ) , diameter d , and thickness t , as follows:
t
(d ) d
L
z
y

x
t
d
d
L
Substituting the strains from above and the known dimensions gives

L 6mm

d 7.65mm

t 6.75 *103

Thus, there are small increases in length and diameter, and a tiny
decrease in the wall thickness.

Example