hi

© All Rights Reserved

7 vues

hi

© All Rights Reserved

- Energy Notes mechanics of machines
- Hillerborg Strip Method
- Orthodontic Wires -Properties / orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
- Structural Analysis
- Zdiri et al
- CH01 Basic Concepts
- Structural Analysis
- congelando el macizo rocoso
- Yield Strength
- Rel Assess Using Finite Element Techniques ADA216907
- unlined tunnel.pdf
- 38
- Very Good Reading for 17.2Mpa Concrete and Steel
- 2013-Influence of Adhesive Thickness on High Velocity Impact Performance of Ceramicmetal Composite Targets
- Construction Details
- F5 CW5 29 Nov 2012 Answer
- Strain Based Evaluation of Dents in Pressurized Pipes
- NHPC Intern Report
- Significance of the Ratio of Tensile Strength
- 9

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 86

INTRODUCTION--1

INTRODUCTION

Prof. S.K.Sahoo

INTRODUCTION

Objective

Understand different methods that used to analyse

stress and strain in solid body.

Apply various principles to solve problems in a

practical situation and compare its solution with

that obtained by solid mechanics approach.

Analyze stresses inside solid body cause by

external and internal forces.

Examine different yield criteria in diverse failure

situations.

Relate theory of plasticity to manufacturing.

INTRODUCTION

(Cont)

Learning Outcome

1.0 Can explain the stress, strain, torsion and bending properties.

2.0 Apply the concepts of stress, strain, torsion and bending and deflection

of bar and beam in engineering field

3.0 Calculate and determine the stress, strain and deflection of solid body

that subjected to external and internal load.

4.0 Enable to design the optimum dimension of the body in a variety of

situations where specific properties are required.

5.0 Relates the basic theory of elasticity and plasticity with application of

solid mechanics.

6.0 It provides an understanding how the stress-strain characteristics affect

ultimate failure of materials.

7.0 Able to relate theory of plasticity to design tooling in manufacturing

instead of using thumb rule.

TOPICS TO COVER

Analysis of stress and strain; Notation of stress, Sign

convention, Stress tensor, St. Venant principles, Bauschinger

effect, Principle of Superposition, Differential equation of

Equilibrium, Generalised Hookes Law, Compatibility and

constitutive equations; Plane stress and plane strain problems,

Stress functions; with and without body forces, Applications to

simple problems; Application in rectangular and polar

coordinates.

3D stress and strain system, Principal stresses and principal

axes, Stress invariants, hydrostatic stress, stress deviator,

examples.

Introduction to complex potentials in two dimensional and

axisymmetric problems; Variational methods; Anisotropic

elasticity; Finite deformation elasticity

TOPICS

(Cont)

and flow theories;

Theory of plastic constitutive equations;

Axisymmetric and spherically symmetric

problems;

Slipline and upper bound theory and

application to simple problems of forging

extrusion, drawing and indentation;

Introduction to wave propagation in plastic

materials.

Mapping

Analysis of stress and strain, Differential equation of

Equilibrium, Compatibility and constitutive equations;

Plane stress and plane strain problems

Outcome(s)

1.0

3.0

Applications to simple problems; Application in

rectangular and polar coordinates.

2.0

5.0

stresses and principal axes, Stress invariants,

hydrostatic stress, stress deviator, examples.

4.0

Deformation and flow theories

6.0

and spherically symmetric problems

1.0

3.0

simple problems of forging extrusion, drawing and

indentation

5.0

4.0

7.0

4.0

7.0

REFERENCES

1. Timeshenko & Goodier, Theory of Elasticity - McGraw Hill, 3th

ed. 1982

2. J. Chakrabarty, Applied Plasticity- Springer, New York, 1st ed.,

2000

3. Hoffman and Sachs, Theory of Plasticity - McGraw Hill., 2nd ed.

1985

4. Johnson and Mellor, Engineering Plasticity- Van-Nostrand., 1st

edition, 1983

5. Computational Elasticity M Ameen, Narosa Publishing House.

6. Advanced Mechanics of Materials A P Boresi and R J Schmidt,

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

7. Advanced Mechanics of Solids L S Srinath, Tata McGraw-Hill

subjected to uniformly varying tension due to self weight.

P + dP

dx

=WL/2AE

d = PX dx / A E;

= PX dx/AE=

A

x

dx/AE

0

0

0

= W/AL

=P/A , / =E , = /L

So, = PL / A E

cross section from diameter d to D by the load F.

=F/A , / =E , = /L

dx

d1

So, = FL / A E

d1 = d + [(D - d) / L] * X

L

= 0 4 F dx /[E {d+kx}2 ]

L

0

= 4FL/( E D d)

Check :- When both diameter is same =d

When d = D=d

=FL/ [( /4)* d2E ] = FL /AE

uniform thickness t & width varies from b1 to b2.

bx b

1

b2

X

L

Bar of Tapering Section:

= Px / [Et(b1 + k*X)]

L = = Px / [Et(b1 - k*X)],

0

0

0

0

section due to self weight.

from =PL/AE

=Wx*x/(AxE)

d

A

B

x

so now

L

=Wt. density

so = X *x/(3E)

*x/(3E)

0 L

0

= /(3E) Xdx= [/3E ] [X2 /2]

0

= L2/(6E)

L= = X

=12W/ (*d2L)

so,

L = [12W/ (*d2L)]*(L2/6E)

=2WL/ (*d2E)

=WL/[2*(*d2/4)*E]

=WL /2*A*E

stress is constant at all points of the bar) due to self weight.

Area = A1

Force = p*(A+dA)

B

C dx

D

x

Area = A2

B

A

C

dx

D

Force = p*A

strip = w*A*dx

w is wt. density

p is stress

dA/A = wdx/p, Integrating logeA = wx/p + C,

at x = 0, A = A2 and x = L, A = A1, C = A2

loge(A/A2) = wx/p

or

A = ewx/p

Example: A rod of length L and cross sectional area A is snugly fitted(no compression

or tension of the spring) between a rigid support at its left and a spring at its right.

The spring has stiffness k. Derive a equation for the stress in the rod due to increase

in temperature of t0C. Thermal expansion coefficient is .

Strain due to compressive force: /E

Both are balanced by strain by spring force = - A/kL

So, /E+ t = - A/kL Gives, = - (E t)/(1+EA/kL)

Let P be the balanced force. The free thermal expansion becomes two part,

by elastic force and by spring

- t L = PL/AE + P/k

Gives, P/A= = - (E t)/(1+EA/kL)

angle to each other (x > y). Find the condition that the resultant

stress makes maximum inclination to its normal.

y

R

y

angle to each other (x > y). Find the condition that the resultant

stress makes maximum inclination to its normal.

y

N

R n

y

x y

2

x y

2

Cos 2

x y

Sin 2

x y

2

Sin 2

Sin 2

2

tan

n x y x y

2

y x

Cos 2

d tan

0

d

x y

x y

x y x y

x y

Cos

2

2

cos

2

Sin

2

(2) Sin2 0

2

2

2

2

2

x y x y

x y 2

Cos

2

cos

2

Sin 2

2

2

2 90

x y

tan max

x y

2

solving

x 1 sin max

y 1 sin max

x y

tan 2

cos max

x y

2

sin max

sin maxCos 2

x y

x y

x y

x y

2

Cos 2

Sin 2

n

cot tan(90 )

( x y ) cos max

sin max

gives

x y

1

1

sin

2 2

x y

the loads shown. Taking E = 2 x 107 N/cm2, determine x

0.3.

42 kN

y

18 kN

2 cm 18 kN

x

18000 N

9000 N / cm2

2cm x 1cm

42000 N

14000 N / cm2

3cm x 1cm

42 kN

3cm

and

1

1

[ x y ]

[ 9000 0.3(14000] 240 x 10 6

7

E

2 x 10

1

1

6

[ y x ]

[

14000

0

.

3

(

9000

]

565

x

10

E

2 x 107

between two supports. The bars are stress free at 400c. What will be the

stresses in the bars when the temp. drops to 200C, if

(a) the supports are unyielding

Steel

cm2

60cm

ES=2.1*105 N/mm2

Aal=3 cm2 As=2 cm2

s =11.7*10-6 /0C

3 cm2

Aluminum

30cm

=600*11.7*10-6*(40-20)+300*23.4*10-6*(40-20)=0.2808 mm.

Since contraction is checked tensile stresses will be set up. Force being

same in both As s= Aal al

2 s= 3 al ==> s= 1.5 al

contraction of steel bar s = (s/Es)*Ls

=[600/(2.1*105)]* s

=[300/(0.7*105)]* al

=[600/(2.1*105)]* s +[300/(0.7*105)]* al

=0.2808 mm

(b) Supports are yielding: s + al = ( - 0.1mm

so, al =21.09 N/mm2(tensile) s =31.64 N/mm2(tensile)

dX

D2=200 mm

D1=100 mm

Example:

A circular section tapered bar is rigidly fixed as shown in

figure. If the temperature is raised by 300 C, calculate the maximum

stress in the bar. Take E=2*105 N/mm2 ; =12*10-6 /0C

P

B

1.0 m

all c/s.

Free expansion = L t = 1000*12*10-6*30 =0.36 mm

Force P induced will prevent a expansion of 0.36 mm

= 4PL/(E*d1*d2) = L t

or P = (/4)*d1*d2 t E=1130400 N

Now Max. stress = P/(least c/s area) =1130400/(.785*1002) = 144MPa

Elastic Deformation

1. Initial

2. Small load

3. Unload

bonds

stretch

return to

initial

F

Elastic means reversible, ie,

No permanent deformation

Linearelastic

Non-Linearelastic

1. Initial

3. Unload

2. Small load

bonds

stretch

& planes

shear

planes

still

sheared

plastic

elastic + plastic

F

Plastic means permanent.

linear

elastic

plastic

elastic

= /E + plastic

is released. The unloading line is parallel to elastic line as E is a

material property. The amount of strain get back is called elastic

recovery.

If stress is reapplied, material again responds elastically at the

beginning up to a new yield point that is higher than the original

yield point.

ultimate

tensile

strength

Elastic

Region

Stress-Strain Diagram

Plastic

Region

4

UTS

yield

strength

Elastic

limit

3

2

1

Proportional

limit

Offset

Rate of

increase of

strength is

more than rate

of decrease of

strength due to

decrease of

diameter

= 0.2%

= 0.002

necking

Strain

Hardening

Rate of increase of

strength is less than

rate of decrease of

strength due to

decrease of diameter

5

Fracture

Elastic region

slope =Youngs (elastic) modulus

yield strength

Plastic region

ultimate tensile strength

strain hardening

fracture

Strain ( ) ( L/Lo)

- Under plastic strain, grains slipping along boundaries

- Locking up of grains => increase in strength

- We can see this in the true-stress-strain curve also

Curve fit to the stress-strain response:

true stress

(F/A)

hardening exponent:

n = 0.15 (some steels)

to n = 0.5 (some coppers)

y1

y0

large

hardening

small

hardening

Applications:

- Cold rolling, forging: part is

stronger than casting

Ductility, %EL

Ao

Lo

Ductility is a measure of the plastic

deformation that has been sustained at fracture.

Measures how much the material can be stretched

before fracture

Ductility may be expressed as either percent elongation (%

plastic strain at fracture) or percent reduction in area.

%AR > %EL is possible if internal voids form in neck.

Engineering

tensile

stress,

smaller %EL

(brittle if %EL<5%)

% EL

larger %EL

(ductile if

%EL>5%)

% AR

A material that suffers very little

plastic deformation is brittle.

Af

l f lo

lo

Ao A f

Ao

Lf

x100

x100

Good ductility: aluminum

Low ductility (brittle): chalk, glass, graphite

Yield Strength,

tensile stress,

Hence, many cases stress value at p = 0.002 offset

is taken for this purpose.

Stress at this strain value is also called Proof stress.

= 0.002 = z/z

z = 0.5 mm

engineering strain,

p = 0.002

y = yield strength

then partially removed to a stress,

MPa) E is the Youngs

modulus (200 Gpa).

Yield

Plastic

proof stress

Failure

Stress

Strain

then partially removed to a stress,

MPa) E is the Youngs

modulus (200 Gpa).

Yield

Plastic

Failure

Stress

Strain

0.2%

0.002

/E

The sample is loaded up to the 0.2% proof stress and then unloaded to a stress,

the strain x = 0.2% + /E = 0.002 + 200/200000= 0.002+0.001 = 0.003

kPa)

Mild Steel

Cast Iron

Aluminium alloy

Rubber

Tensile Strength, TS

Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve.

TS

F = fracture or

ultimate

strength

engineering

stress

strain

engineering strain

Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.

Polymers: occurs when polymer backbone chains are

aligned and about to break.

Neck acts

as stress

concentrator

Toughness

Energy to break or Energy absorbed breaking a unit volume of material

Approximately, the area under the true stress-strain curve.

small toughness (ceramics)

fracture

Tensile

stress,

(unreinforced polymers)

fracture

fracture

Tensile strain,

Brittle fracture: elastic energy

Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy

Toughness

Stress,

stress/strain curve is the

energy (per unit volume)

needed to make it fail.

But you get some energy back

in elastic recovery (the black

triangle).

The remaining area is the

energy absorbed by the

material in failing. This is one

measure of the toughness

of the material.

Again.

Strain,

Elastic

recovery

Toughness

Energy to break or Energy absorbed breaking a unit volume of material

Approximately, by the area under the true stress-strain curve.

small toughness (ceramics)

fracture

Tensile

stress,

fracture

(unreinforced polymers)

fracture

Tensile strain,

Brittle fracture: elastic energy

Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy

Ability of a material to store energy

Energy stored best in elastic region

If you load up a material in its elastic region, to

some stress

then the area under the line is a measure of the

energy you used to do it. This area is actually

the energy per unit volume of material in the

sample. It is called Elastic energy.

This energy is stored in the material and will

be released if you unload it.

y

U r d

0

curve this simplifies to

Ur

1

2

y y

Fatigue

Fracture/failure of a material subjected cyclic stresses

at stress levels significantly below

the ultimate strength if subjected

to many loading cycles.

S-N diagrams.

When the stress is reduced below

the endurance limit, fatigue

failures do not occur for any

number of cycles.

In some materials (e.g. some

polymers) the stress/strain line is

curved in the elastic region

and sometimes the loading and

unloading lines are different.

In that case E is not constant

and some energy is lost, (given by

the area between the lines). This is

called hysteresis.

Residual Stresses

When a single structural element is loaded uniformly

beyond its yield stress and then unloaded, it is permanently

deformed but all stresses disappear. This is not the general

result.

Residual stresses will remain in a structure after loading

and unloading if

- only part of the structure undergoes plastic deformation

- different parts of the structure undergo different plastic

deformations

Residual stresses also result from the uneven heating or

cooling of structures or structural elements

Bauschinger Effect

The Bauschinger effect refers to

a decrease in the compressive

yield stress due to work

hardening in tension.

It can also refer to a decrease in

the tensile yield stress due to

work hardening in compression.

Work hardening can be used to

increase the yield strength of a

material, but it does so at the

cost of a lower yield stress in

the reversed direction of

loading.

Unload

c

Actual compression

stress-strain curve

following tensile work

hardening

in compression

Principle of Superposition

It states that the effects of several actions taking place

simultaneously can be reproduced exactly by adding

the effect of each action separately.

The principle is general and has wide applications

and holds true if:

(i) The structure is elastic

(ii) The stress-strain relationship is linear

(iii) The deformations are small.

Saint-Venants Principle

Loads transmitted through rigid

plates result in uniform distribution

of stress and strain.

Concentrated loads result in large

stresses in the vicinity of the load

application point.

Stress and strain distributions

become uniform at a relatively short

distance from the load application

points.

Saint-Venants Principle:

Stress distribution may be assumed

independent of the mode of load

application except in the immediate

vicinity of load application points.

Saint-Venants Principle

The Stress, Strain and Displacement Fields Due to Two

Different Statically Equivalent Force Distributions on

Parts of the Body Far Away From the Loading Points Are

Approximately the Same.

P/2

P/2

xy

xy

x

y

Engineering Stress

Tensile stress, :

Ft

Ft

Area, A

Area, A

Ft

Ft

N

= 2

=

Ao m

original area

before loading

Shear stress, :

F

Fs

Fs

Fs

=

Ao

Ft

N/m2 or kgf/cm2 or Pa

Engineering Strain

Tensile strain:

Lateral strain:

/2

Lo

wo

L /2

Shear strain:

x

90 -

y

90

Lo

= tan = x/y

wo

Shear strain

When pure shear acts on an element, the

For convenience the element is rotated by an

angle

and represented as shown.

y

A

A

B B

tan =

C

AA

AD

x

(radians)

Shear strain

A pure shear strain is produced in torsion.

A

r

A A

= AA

AB

r

=

L

AA = r

AB to position AB

r: radius of cross-sectional area

D

T

T

d

A

A

Shear strain = = r /L

Angle of twist: = TL/GJ

Shear stress: = Tr/J

Maximum shear stress = max = TR/J

=G

G: Modulus of rigidity

r = T/J = G /L

T = Applied torque,

J = Polar moment of inertia

J = r2 dA

Cylindrical shell: J = D4 d4)/32

R= Outer radius

r = radius of consideration

Final

Necking

Fracture

/e = E or,

E: Youngs modulus

[approximate relation between shear and tensile strengths]

Ultimate Tensile Strength = Su

Tensile Yield Strength

= Syp

Material

Shear yield point

= S syp

Tensile-Relation

Yield-Relation

Ssu 0.75 x Su

Ductile Iron

Ssu 0.90 x Su

Cast Iron

Ssu 1.3 x Su

Ssu [0.6-0.9] x Su

Thermal Stresses

A temperature change results in a change in length or

thermal strain. There is no stress associated with the

thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by

the supports.

Treat the additional support as redundant and apply

the principle of superposition.

PL

T T L

P

AE

thermal expansion coef.

The thermal deformation and the deformation from

the redundant support must be compatible.

T P 0

T L

PL

0

AE

T P 0

P AE T

P

E T

A

Poisson's ratio,

Poisson's ratio,

nu :

Poisson's ratio .

L

metals:

ceramics:

polymers:

~ 0.33

~ 0.25

~ 0.40

F

/2

Ao

wo

Limit of

-1 < 0.5

Units:

: dimensionless

Lo

L /2

Volume increase with compressive stress

Change in volume

0

and since

it follows that

0.5

M

Elastic Shear

modulus, G:

simple

torsion

test

=G

M

Elastic Bulk

modulus, K:

V

P=-K

Vo

V P

Vo

G

E

2(1 )

E

3(1 2 )

P

P

pressure

test: Init.

vol =Vo.

Vol chg.

= V

1

x ( y z )

E

F o r h y d ro sta tic stre ss ,

i. e.

S im ila rly ,

2

1 2

E

E

y a n d z a re e a c h

v x y z

3

v

1 2

1 2

E

V o lu m e tric stra in

1 2

B u lk M o d u lu s , K

i. e.

V o lu m e tric stra in

v

E 3 K 1 2

and

E

3 1 2

Example: A bar made of mild steel has the dimensions shown. If an axial

force of P is applied to the bar, determine the change in its dimensions

after applying the load. The material is in elastic zone.

E= 200 Gpa

= P/A

/E

z=

Lz = L *

x = y= Lx = L *

Ly = L *

P

80 103

z

16.0 106 Pa

A 0.10.05

z 16.0106

6

80

10

mm/mm

9

Est 20010

z

z

x

y

x y vst z 0.3280106 25.6 m/m

x x Lx 25.6106 0.1 2.56m (Ans)

xy

xy

xy

Considering the conditions for equilibrium

of a triangular/ prismatic element

yy

xx

xx

xx

xy

xy

yx

yy

yy

x y

2

x y

2

x y

2

cos 2 xy sin 2

sin 2 xy cos 2

Principal Stresses

Principal stresses: Maximum and minimum normal stresses

Principal planes : Planes on which the principal stresses act

x y

2

x y

2

cos 2 xy sin 2

x y

d n

2 sin 2 2 xy cos 2

0

2

d

2 xy

tan 2p

x y

p : The angle defines the orientation of the principal planes.

-- No Shear stress along principal directions

Principal Stresses..

I n

x y

2

O

R

II n

x y

xy 2

2

x y

2

x y

xy 2

2

I II

max

x y

2

2

xy 1

2

2

s p

1

s p

2

The angle defines the orientation of the maximum shear stress planes.

-- Maximum Shear stress direction is 450 to principal directions

Normal and shear strain on a plane making angle with y-axis

x

1

xy

1 1

x y

2

x y

x y

2

cos 2

sin 2

xy

2

xy

2

sin 2

cos 2

Differentiating wrt ,

we have:

Principal Strains:

I

II

x y

2

x y

2

y xy

x

2 2

y xy

x

2 2

xy

tan 2 P

x y

Mohrs circle for plane stress may be applied

with simple geometric considerations to

estimate graphically the principal stresses,

max. shear stress, normal & shear stress on a

defined plane.

For a known state of plane stress x , y , xy

plot the points P and P and construct the

circle centered at C.

ave

x y

2

x y

xy2

R

2

2 xy

I , II ave R & tan 2 p

x y

CP is the x-axis and CP is y-axis

Angle doubles and rotate in opposite direction

To find stress at an angle with respect to the y

axis, a new line CB may be drawn at an angle

2 with respect to CP location point B on circle

gives the stress values.

1. Identify the stresses x, y, and xy = yx with the proper sign.

2. Draw a set of n - coordinate axes with n being positive to the right

and being positive in the upward direction. Choose an appropriate scale for the

each axis. Locate the x ( point L) and y (point M) on n axis.

3. Plot the stresses on the x- face of the element in this coordinate system (

point P ). Repeat the process for the y -face (point P ).

4. Draw a line between the two point P and P. The point where this line

crosses the n axis establishes the center of the circle.

5. Draw the complete circle. Radius gives value of maximum shear stress.

6. The line from the center of the circle to point P identifies the x axis or

reference axis for angle measurements (i.e. = 0).

Note: The angle between the reference axis and the n axis is equal to 2p, (

angle PCQ) one of the principal plane angle.

7. The circle cross the n axis is at point Q and Q. OQ represents first

principal stress I and OQ represents second principal stress II. The angle

made by CQ with CP gives other principal plane angle 2p +.

8. To find stress at an angle with respect to the y axis, a new line CB may

be drawn at an angle 2 with respect to CP location point B on circle gives the

stress values, ie, BN= n and BS=

Mohrs circle for centric axial loading:

P

, y xy 0

A

x y xy

P

2A

x y 0 xy

Tc

J

x y

Tc

xy 0

J

The equations for the transformation of

plane strain are of the same form as the

equations for the transformation of plane

stress - Mohrs circle techniques apply.

Abscissa for the center C and radius R ,

ave

x y

x y xy

R

2 2

xy

tan 2 p

x y

max ave R

min ave R

max 2 R

x y 2 xy2

Cylindrical vessel with principal stresses

1 = hoop stress

2 = longitudinal stress

Hoop stress:

Fz 0 12t x p2r x

pr

1

t

Longitudinal stress:

0 2 2 rt p r 2

pr

2t

1 2 2

Points A and B correspond to hoop stress,

and longitudinal stress, 2

Maximum in-plane shearing stress:

1

2

max(in plane) 2

pr

4t

corresponds to a 45o rotation of the plane

stress element around a longitudinal axis

max 2

pr

2t

1,

1 2

pr

2t

transformations reduces to a point

1 2 constant

max(in -plane) 0

stress

max 12 1

pr

4t

Final

instantaneous values of area (Ai) and length (Li).

L

P

dL

dL

L

d

ln

L

L

L0

Ai

L

0

Ai instantaneous area

P applied load

d strain increament

Necking

Fracture

original area, A0 and original length L0. s P

Li L 0 L

A0

region of the test, true strain can be expressed as

L0

L

A

D

D

ln ln 0 ln 0 2 ln 0

A

D

D

L0

L0

fracture

A0 L 0 AL

If, specimen is a round rod and D indicate

diameter

D 0 L0 DL

fracture

Let A0, L0 are original dimensions and Ai and Li are dimensions

A

L

at a particular instant. From volume constancy A 0 L 0 =A i L i 0 i

Ai

P

Ai

L

P A0

s i s 1 i 1 s (1 e)

A0 Ai

L0

L0

dL

L

ln

L

L0

L0

ln 1

L

1 ln(1+e)

L0

s( 1 e)

ln ( 1 e)

L0

Valid till

necking starts

As we shall see that during the tension test localized plastic deformation occurs after

some strain (called necking). This leads to inhomogeneity in the stress across the

length of the sample and under such circumstances true stress should be used.

Comparison between true strain and engineering strain

True strain ()

0.01 0.10

0.20

0.50

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

0.01 0.105

0.22

0.65

1.72

6.39

19.09

53.6

Note that for strains of about 0.4, true and engineering strains can be assumed to

be equal. At large strains the deviations between the values are large.

A typical true stresstrue strain curve is typically approximated

by the equation.

strength coefficient

hardening exponent

n

n = 0.15 (some steels)

K

to n = 0.5 (some coppers)

with increasing strain.

Y Yield Stress

Yf flow stress

K strength coefficient

K n

ends, a wall thickness of 5 mm, and a diameter at midthickness of 3 mm. If the vessel is filled with air to a pressure

of 2 MPa, how much do the length, diameter, and wall

thickness change, and in each case state whether the change is

an increase or a decrease. The vessel is made of a steel having

elastic modulus E = 200,000 MPa and the Poissons ratio =

0.3. Neglect any effects associated with the details of how the

ends are attached.

The ratio of radius to thickness, r/t, is such that it is reasonable to employ the thin walled

tube assumption, and the resulting plane stress equations.

Denoting the pressure as p, we have

pr (2 MPa)(1500mm)

300MPa

2t

2(5mm)

The value of z varies from -p on the inside

wall to zero on the outside, and for a thin

pr (2 MPa)(1500mm)

y

600MPa

walled tube is everywhere sufficiently small

t

5

mm

that z 0 can be used. Substitute these

Law, which gives

x 6.00 *10 4

y

2.55 *10

z 1.35 *103

(d ) , diameter d , and thickness t , as follows:

t

(d ) d

L

z

y

x

t

d

d

L

Substituting the strains from above and the known dimensions gives

L 6mm

d 7.65mm

t 6.75 *103

Thus, there are small increases in length and diameter, and a tiny

decrease in the wall thickness.

Example

Answer:

Example

Answer:

Example

Answer:

Example

Answer:

- Energy Notes mechanics of machinesTransféré parvarjith007
- Hillerborg Strip MethodTransféré parKreen132
- Orthodontic Wires -Properties / orthodontic courses by Indian dental academyTransféré parindian dental academy
- Structural AnalysisTransféré parAsraf Muidin
- Zdiri et alTransféré parvinodsn
- CH01 Basic ConceptsTransféré parcjones2013
- Structural AnalysisTransféré parAsraf Muidin
- congelando el macizo rocosoTransféré paroscar2302
- Yield StrengthTransféré parShanmuga Sundaram
- Rel Assess Using Finite Element Techniques ADA216907Transféré parCrusaderKing
- unlined tunnel.pdfTransféré parRenan Dela Cruz
- 38Transféré parTariq Abdulsalam
- Very Good Reading for 17.2Mpa Concrete and SteelTransféré parYasir Ali Khan
- 2013-Influence of Adhesive Thickness on High Velocity Impact Performance of Ceramicmetal Composite TargetsTransféré parvenkatesanjs
- Construction DetailsTransféré parVõ Quang Kiệt
- F5 CW5 29 Nov 2012 AnswerTransféré parLeo Chan
- Strain Based Evaluation of Dents in Pressurized PipesTransféré parmaziar60
- NHPC Intern ReportTransféré parVijay Nehra
- Significance of the Ratio of Tensile StrengthTransféré parPaul Pinos-an
- 9Transféré parhend mahmoud
- 8Transféré parhend mahmoud
- Mechanical Properties of MaterialsTransféré parApurvHajare
- TriangleTransféré parBiprajit Saha
- Plasticity and Metal Forming-piTransféré parselva_raj215414
- Materials Prac Lab NotesTransféré parHaris Mazlan
- 17424-55619-1-SMTransféré parNuzulul Kusuma Putri
- 2016 ju unit 1 msTransféré parDhanBahadur
- Prediction of Joint Strength and Effect of the Surface Treatment on the Single Overlap Adhesive JointsTransféré parFilipe Giesteira
- VP2_D2_CoronelChristianTransféré parChristian Coronel T
- The Size Effect on Void Growth in Ductile MetalsTransféré parChandra Clark

- 14. Chain Rule _important Facts and FormulaeTransféré parz1y2
- BW1.pdfTransféré parAnurag Jasti
- ColorTransféré parAnurag Jasti
- satish.pdfTransféré parAnurag Jasti
- 34. Heights and DistancesTransféré parz1y2
- 18. Problems on TrainsTransféré parz1y2
- Windows Upgrade Offer - Registration ConfirmationTransféré parAnurag Jasti
- How to Create a Transparent Background in PhotoshopTransféré parAnurag Jasti
- 27. CalendarTransféré parz1y2
- 21. Simple InterestTransféré parz1y2
- 39.Line GraphsTransféré parz1y2
- This Section Comprises of Questions in Which the Data CollectedTransféré parz1y2
- 24 .Area Fundemental ConceptsTransféré parz1y2
- 23. LogarithmsTransféré parz1y2
- 36. TabulationTransféré parz1y2
- 33. Banker's Discount Important Concepts Banker's Discount : Suppose ATransféré parz1y2
- 15. Time and Work Iimportant Facts and FormulaeTransféré parz1y2
- 30. Permutations and CombinationsTransféré parz1y2
- 32. True Discount Important Concepts Suppose a Man Has ToTransféré parz1y2
- ProbabilityTransféré parz1y2
- 17. Time and Distance Important Facts and FormulaeTransféré parz1y2
- IMPORTANT FACTS the Face or Dial of a Watch IsTransféré parz1y2
- 29. Stocks and SharesTransféré parz1y2
- 26. Races and Games Important Facts Races: A Contest OfTransféré parz1y2
- 22.Compound InterestTransféré parz1y2
- 25.Volume and Surface AreaTransféré parz1y2
- 20. Alligation or MixtureTransféré parz1y2
- 19.Boats and Streams Important Facts and FormulaeTransféré parz1y2
- 13. PartnershipTransféré parz1y2
- 16. Pipes and CisternsTransféré parz1y2

- Stainless Steel Grade Selection.pdfTransféré parLuis Nunes
- ANSYS Explicit Dynamics Analysis GuideTransféré parSuri Kens Michua
- DIN 2391Transféré parMartin1973-03
- ASME Code Calculation BMI RepairTransféré parAndres_Pastor1987
- 05 Heat Treatments to Produce Ferrite and PerliteTransféré parRicardo Fidel Duarte Sánchez
- Simufact - Professional forming simulationTransféré parMrLantern
- Metals and how to Weld Nickel Alloys like Inconel 718.docxTransféré parErick Hogan
- chapter 7 Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms.docxTransféré parapril heramiz
- Deformation of Single CrystalsTransféré parNitin
- print 01.pptTransféré parfa
- Yield LocusTransféré parshanthakumar
- Hot Dip Galvanized SheetTransféré parBrian Knight
- Surface WearTransféré parEdgar Ojeda Castillo
- Fastener Facts.pdfTransféré parSyed Majeed
- Aalco Metals Ltd Aluminium Alloy 5754 H22~H24~H26 153Transféré parआनंद चव्हाण
- Ductility Troughs in Microalloyed SteelTransféré parAtanu Mukherjee
- buckling of steelTransféré parChiranjaya Hulangamuwa
- video_3Transféré parlazem.360
- The Safe Design of Hot on Bottom PipelinesTransféré parZadeh Norman
- A 962 _ A 962M _ 04 ;QTK2MI9BOTYYTQ__Transféré parsachinguptachd
- ALCOA 6063 Material Data SheetTransféré parAmin Alisadeghi
- 06 Strengthening MechanismsTransféré parpranavkumarparit
- Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structure With Fracture and Damage Mechanics Constitutive ModelsTransféré parsahashi
- ESI Korea Forum 2012.09.13_NGUYEN.pdfTransféré parNguyễn Hữu Hào
- Chapter 6 Mechanical Properties of MetalsTransféré parsgarrab
- 08 Plasticity 06 Strain HardeningTransféré parmicael_89
- DNV RP C204 Design Against Accidental LoadsTransféré parMuhammad Habib
- Datasheet-316-316L-imperial-hpsa-outokumpu-en-americas.pdfTransféré pargauravme1983
- 21194 Itatech Report Pfrcs Bdp DraftTransféré parSérgio Bernardes
- bs.na.en.1993.1.4.2006.pdfTransféré parkamvala