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Chi-squared (2) test: How to decide if the data fits any of the Mendelian ratios?

## 2 Let's test the following data to determine if it fits a 9:3:3:1 ratio:

3 Assume there is no difference between observed numbers &
expected numbers.
This assumption of no difference is called the null hypothesis.
Phenotype

Predicted
ratio

Round, yellow
seeds
Round, green
seeds
Wrinkled, yellow
seeds
Wrinkled, green
seeds
Total seeds

Observe
d
(O)
315

108

101

32
556

Expected
(E)

(O-E)2
E

(9/16)(556) =
312.75
(3/16)(556) =
104.25
(3/16)(556) =
104.25
(1/16)(556) =
34.75
556

0.016
0.135
0.101
0.218
0.470

= 0.470
Chi-square Table
freedom (df) = n-1,
Degrees4of Degrees of
Probability
freedom where
0.95 0.90
0.5 no
0.1of classes.
0.05
n is the
1
0.01 0.02 0.46 2.71 3.84
2
0.10 0.21 1.39 4.61 5.99
of classes
= 4, 7.82
so df = 3
3 5 No
0.35
0.58 2.37(n)6.25
4
0.71
1.06 = 4-1
3.36 =7.78
(df
= n-1
3); 9.49
5
1.15 1.61 4.35 9.24 11.07

## 6 In biology, we use 0.05 (5%) probability level as our critical value.

7 Calculated X2 value (0.470) is found to be lower than value (7.82)
given in x2 table (P0.05, df=3).
Therefore the deviation is not significant & the result fits 9:3:3:1
ratio.
(If 2 value is less than 0.05 value, we accept the null hypothesis.)
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## 8 Results would not due to chance & the results would be

significant.
Remember:
A value less than the number in the table means the Null
Hypothesis is accepted.
A value greater than that in the table means that the results are
significant at the X% level and the Null Hypothesis is rejected (i.e.
some other explanation must be sought).

## 1 When Mendel self-crossed heterozygous tall plants, he obtained

787 tall
and 277 dwarf plant. On the basis of his law of segregation, the
expected
ratio is 3:1. Test the result using chi square test.
Phenotype

Predicted
ratio

Observed
(O)

Expected (E)

Total seeds

(O-E)2
E

X2 =

Degree of freedom =

Conclusion:
2 In pea plants, the allele for smooth seed, W, is dominant over the
allele for
wrinkled seed, w, while the allele for yellow seed, G, is dominant
over the
allele for green seed, g. In one of Mendels dihybrid crosses, pea
plants of
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## genotypes wwGG were crossed with WWgg. The F1 obtained

were selfed
and yielded 315 F2 plants with phenotypes of smooth and yellow,
108
smooth and green, 101 wrinkled and yellow, and 32 wrinkled and
green seeds. Using the X2 test at 5% level, determine whether
(STPM 2007)
(a) the result fits a 9:3:3:l ratio
[7 m]
(b) the number of phenotypes of smooth seeds to wrinkled seeds
fits a 3:1
ratio.
[4 m]
(c) the number of phenotypes of yellow seeds to green seeds fits a
3:1 ratio.
[4 m]
Table of chi-square values at 5% level

Degree of
freedom
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

5%
level
3.841
5.991
7.815
9.488
11.070
12.592
14.067
15.507
16.919
18.307

## 3 The inheritance of body colour in fruit flies was investigated. Two

fruit
flies with grey bodies were crossed.
Of the offspring, 152 had grey bodies and 48 had black bodies.
(a) Using suitable symbols, give the genotypes of the parents.
Explain
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your answer.
[2]
Genotypes :
...............................................................................................................
................................

Explanation: ..........................................................................................
.....................................................
(b) (i) Explain why a statistical test should be applied to the data
obtained in this investigation.
[2]
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................
(ii) The chi-squared (2) test was applied to the data obtained.
The formula is given below.

## Use the formula to determine the value of 2 for the results of

this investigation.
[3]

Degrees of freedom
1
2
3
4

0.99
0.0002
0.020
0.115
0.297

9.95
0.0039
0.103
0.352
-40.711

Probability value
0.1
0.05
2.71
3.84
4.61
5.99
6.25
7.81
7.78
9.49

0.01
6.63
9.21
11.34
13.28

0.001
10.83
13.82
16.27
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(iii)The null hypothesis in this investigation predicted that there would be no difference
between the
observed and expected values. Use the table to determine whether this hypothesis can be
supported.
Explain how you arrived at your answer.
[2]

4 When a heterozygous black rat is crossed with another heterozygous black rat, 43 black, 15
creams, 22 albino
offspring are produced. Using Chi-square test the genetic hypothesis 9:3:4 is consistent with the
data.
- Null hypothesis - the genetic hypothesis 9:3:4 is consistent with the data.
- Level of significance 5%
- Degrees of freedom = n-1 = 3-1 = 2
- Determining expected frequencies ( E )
Black- 9 Total offspring- 80 Black = E = 80 X 9 / 16 = 45
Cream = 80 X 3 / 16 = 15
Albino = 80 X 4 / 16 = 20
Calculated value = 0.28 Table value = 5.96

## Inference The calculated value is less than the table value .

Therefore the hypothsis is accepted . In other words the observed value is in consistent with the ratio 9:3:4.

5 When two heterozygous pea plants are crossed, 1600 plants are produced in the F 2 generation out
of which
940 are yellow round, 260 are yellow wrinkled, 340 are green round and 60 are green wrinkled. By
means of
chi- square test whether these values are deviated from Mendels dihybrid ratio of 9:3:3:1 or by
means of
chi-square test prove whether it is a real independent assortment.
- Null hypothsis There is real independent assortment .
Levels of significance 5%.
- Degrees of freedom n-1 = 4-1=3
- Determining expected frequencies (E) Mendels dihybrid ratio = 9:3:3;1

Yellow round = 9 . Total = 1600 Expected Yellow round = (E) = 1600 X 9 / 16 = 900.
Yellow wrinkled = 3 Expected Yellow wrinkled = 600 X 3 / 16 = 300
Green round = 3 Expected Green round = 1600 X 3 / 16 = 300
Green wrinkled = 1 Expected Green wrinkled = 16600 X 1 / 16 = 100 5 )
Calculated value = 27.43.
Table value = 7.83 Inference :
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## The calculated value ( 27.43 ) is greater than the table value.

Therefore the hypothesis is rejected, there is no real independent assortment or the observed values are
deviated from
Mendels dihybrid ratio of 9:3:3:1.
6

Snapdragons are a type of garden plant. A pure breeding strain of a white flowering variety was obtained
and crossed with a pure breeding red flowered strain. The two strains were crossed producing F1 plants
all with pink flowers. The F1 plants were then interbred to produce F2 plants with the following flower
colours:
red
62
pink
131
white
67
The following hypothesis was proposed:
Flower colour in snapdragons is controlled by a single gene with two codominant alleles.
(a)

Complete the genetic diagram to explain this cross. Use the following symbols to represent the
alleles:
R = red flowers

W = white flowers

## Parental phenotypes: Red flowers x White flowers

Parental genotypes
[1m]
Gametes.
[1m]
F1, genotypes
[1m]
F1, phenotypes
[1m]
Gametes
[1m]
F2, genotypes
[1m]
F2, phenotypes
[1m]
Expected F2 phenotype ratio
[1m]

(b) A chi-squared test is carried out on the data to determine whether the hypothesis is supported or
rejected.
The statistic is calculated in the following way:
(i) Complete the following table.
[2m]

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2

(ii) Calculate the X value for the above data. Show your working.
[1m]

(c) A suitable Null hypothesis would be that there is no significant difference between the observed and
expected numbers.
Biologists consider that if the probability is greater than 5% the deviation is statistically non significant.

(i) Using the figures from the table for 2 degrees of freedom, explain whether you would accept or reject
the Null hypothesis.
[2m]
(ii) What does this suggest about the inheritance of flower colour in snapdragons?
[1m]
GCE A-June 2010

Answers
2 a) Refer to above example
b)
Phenotype
Expected
ratio
Smooth
Wrinkled
Total

3
1

Observed
number
(o)
423
133
556

Expected
number
(e)
417.000
139.000

Divergence
(o-e)

Divergence2
(o-e)2

6.000
-6.000

36.000
36.000

(o-e)2
e
0.086
0.259
= 0.345

The calculated X2 value (0.345) is found to be lower than the value (3.841) given in the X2 table (P0.05,
degree freedom, df = l). Therefore the deviation is not significant and the result fits the 3:1 ratio.

c)
Phenotype
Yellow
Green
Total

Expected
ratio
3
1

Observed
number
(o)
416
140
556

Expected
number
(e)
417.000
139.000

Divergence
(o-e)

Divergence2
(o-e)2

-1.000
1.000

1.000
1.000

(o-e)2
e
0.002
0.007
= 0.009

The calculated X2 value (0.009) is found to be lower than the value (3.84 1) given in the X2 table (P0.05,
degree freedom, df =1). Therefore the deviation is not significant and the result fits the 3:1 ratio.

(a)

Gg / suitable equivalent;
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## Grey : black about 3: 1;

[Note: Can be in table/ diagram]
(b)

(i)

## To determine the probability; [Accept: Likelihood]

Of the results being due to chance; [Accept: Coincidence]

(ii)
O

O-E

(O-E)2
E

(OE)2

152
48

150]
50]

2
2

4
4

0.027]
0..08] method ignore calc'n errors);

## [Note: Alternative showing of E and method]

[(152 150) 2 ( 48 50) 2 ]

150
50
2 = 0. 107 / 0.11;
(iii)

## df = 1 and p = 0.05 / 95% level or critical value / described = 3.84;

[Accept: Ringed/ indicated on table]
Accept hypothesis because 2 is less than (table / critical) value / there
is no significant difference / difference is due to chance;

[Note: Check carry forward of 2 value or critical value for interpretation or converse argument]

6 (a) RR
R
RW
Pink

WW (allow: Cr Cw/key) 1
W

RW
RR
RW
Red
1

Pink
2

RW

WW
White
1

## (b) (i) E Column:

65
130
65
O-E2 column 9 1 4 (1 mark)
O.21 (A. O.207 O.208. ) (not: 0.05)
(c) (i) Accept null hypothesis
Less than critical value / 0.90 probability / 90% probability/
deviation from expected due to chance/< 95%/> 5%
ref. chance or significance needed
If calcn wrong e.g. 5.99 or above then reverse above i.e. ecf
reject null hypothesis etc
(ii) Snapdragon flower colour is controlled by a single gene with 2 codominant alleles (not genes)

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