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FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering


College of Engineering and Computing
Miami, Florida

Civil Engineering PE Exam Refresher

Hydrologic Engineering

Fernando R. Miralles-Wilhelm, Ph.D., P.E., D.E.E.


Associate Professor of Water Resources Engineering
PN: (305) 348-3653
FN: (305) 348-2800
E-mail: miralles@fiu.edu

Hydrology Concepts, Principles and Applications

1) Hydrologic Cycle
2) Hydrologic Cycle Components
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Precipitation
Evaporation and transpiration
Infiltration
Surface Runoff
Groundwater Flow

3) Hydrologic Calculations
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)

Rainfall data
Runoff depth
Time of Concentration
Rational formula
CN-method
Infiltration data
Evapotranspiration data
Groundwater flow
Well hydraulics

It never stops moving, it never


goes away
Hydrologic Engineering
PE Refresher Course

Review Outline

Hydrologic Cycle
Rainfall data
S f
Surface
Runoff
R
ff
Evaporation and Transpiration
Infiltration and Groundwater Flow
Water balance calculations

The Hydrologic Cycle

Lets take it from the top: Rainfall


How much rain does my site get?
D
Do we llook
k att short
h t tterm (single
( i l rainfall
i f ll
events) or longer term (seasonal, annual)?
What aspect
p
of my
y design
g is affected by
y
rainfall?

Rainfall: sources of data


National/International: NOAA,
NOAA National
Weather Service, World Climate
State: SFWMD in Florida
Local: county
y water agencies
g
((Boston
Water and Sewer)

Rainfall Data
Annual Rainfall in the Continental US, 1895-2003
Source: NOAA (www.noaa.gov)
(www noaa gov)

Rainfall Data
Annual Rainfall in Key West, FL, 1895-2003
Source: NOAA (www.noaa.gov)
(www noaa gov)

Rainfall Data
BAGHDAD, IRAQ
Weather station BAGHDAD is at about 33
33.22
22N
N 44.20
44 20E
E.

Average Rainfall

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

mm

27.1

27.5

26.9

18.8

7.3

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.1

inch
es

1.1

1.1

1.1

0.7

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

2.6

20.0

26.3

154.8

0.1

0.8

1.0

6.1

Source: BAGHDAD data derived from GHCN 1. 967 months between 1888 and 1990

Are there regulatory requirements?


Figure 1: SFWMD 25-Year 72-Hour Design Storm
15.000
14.500
14.000
13.500
13.000
12.500
12.000
11 500
11.500
11.000
10.500
10.000
9.500
9.000
8.500
8.000
7.500
7.000
6.500
6.000
5.500
5.000
4.500
4.000
3.500
3 000
3.000
2.500
2.000
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00
T i m e ( H ou r s)

50.00

60.00

70.00

Rainfall Characteristics
Depth: volume of rainfall per unit area of
watershed
Duration: elapsed time of a rainfall event
Intensity: instantaneous rate of change of
rainfall
i f ll depth
d th with
ith titime
Return Period: statistical average of
separation time between events of similar
depth, duration and intensity

IIntensity-Duration-Frequency
t
it D ti F
(IDF) Curves

a
i=
c
(t d + b )
a, b, c are coefficients fitted to data
td is the rainfall duration

Following water: Surface Runoff


Depends on type of soil and slope
Should be a fraction of rainfall, since other
fractions either infiltrate into the soil
soil,
evaporate or are transpired by vegetation

Surface Runoff
Found as: The Rational Method

Q=CxixA
Where:
Q = Maximum (or Peak) Surface Runoff Rate (cfs)
C = Runoff Coefficient
I = Rainfall Intensity (in/hr)
A = Site Area (acre)

Surface Runoff
Soil Classification Groups
A: Sand and silts
B: Sandy loam (muddy) soils
C: Clayey loam (muddy) soils
D: Clay (swell when wet)

Source: McCuen [1998]:


Hydrologic Analysis and Design
Design,
Prentice Hall

Are there regulatory requirements?


Typically, the post-development
post development surface runoff
should not exceed pre-development values
Figure I-1
I1
Comparison of Pre- and Post-development Hydrographs in an Upstream
Catchment

50
45
40

Pre-development

Flow (c
cfs)

35
30
Post-development with peak
flow control

25
20
15
10
5
0
5

10

15
20
Time (hours)

25

30

Where do we put the excess


water?
?
Development typically means more
impervious areas (increase C more
runoff))
If we are not allowed to increase the peak
surface runoff, there will be excess water
post-development
Need to store water in storage
g basins,
detention ponds, or reservoirs (canals,
ponds, lakes); this is known as
t
stormwater
t management
t

Stormwater Management

Henderson Creek (Belle Meade, FL)

Stormwater Management

Stormwater drainage system, Immokalee, FL

Stormwater Management

Stormwater drainage canal, Kingston, Jamaica

How much storage do I need?


The volume of excess water will be the
difference between the surface runoff
volumes post-pre
post pre
This is the volume of storage you will need
to insure that peak runoff is not exceeded
Do you have it or do you need to build it?
Thi gets
This
t iinto
t permitting
itti with
ith llocall and
d
state agencies

Runoff Characteristics
Depth: volume of runoff generated per unit
watershed area
Time of concentration: travel time of water
from the furthermost point in the
watershed to the outlet
Runoff hydrograph

Runoff Depth
Calculated using the NRCS (formerly
SCS) TR-55 Method
Curve Number (CN) is calculated based
on soil type and land use
CN iis adjusted
dj t d ffor antecedent
t
d t runoff
ff
conditions
Runoff depth is calculated from the
adjusted CN

Runoff Depth
I: Dry soils

4.2CN II
CN I =
10 0.058CN II

II: Normal moisture conditions (from table)


III: Soil is wet; at or near saturation

CN III

23CN II
=
10 + 0.13CN II

Runoff Depth (in) is calculated as:

( P 0 .2 S ) 2
R=
( P + 0 .8 S )
Where P is the rainfall depth in inches,
and S is given by:

1000
S=
10
CN

Time of Concentration
0.6

6.99(nL)
tC =
0.3
0.4
q S0

tC = minutes
n = Manning roughness coef
L = flow path length
q= excess rainfall (mm/hr)
S0 = land
l d slope
l

Runoff Hydrograph
NRCS Triangular Hydrograph
Note: QP from Rational
Method and tP is time of
concentration.

NRCS Dimensionless
Unit Hydrograph

Evaporation
Linkage between the hydrologic and
energy (sun) cycles; energy is transformed
(
y)
to moisture (humidity)
The rate of evaporation (how much, how
quick) depends primarily on temperature
Requires knowing how much energy is
required to evaporate (dry) a drop of water

Evaporation
Found by evaporation pans

Actual Evaporation =
Pan Evaporation x 0.70

Transpiration
Vegetation uptake and release of water for
metabolic (growth) purposes
Uptake takes place through the roots
Release takes place through the leaves
(sto ata)
(stomata)
Vegetation functions as a pass-through
pass through for
water

Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
Source: Laio et al., Advances
In Water Resources 24, p. 708,
2001

Source: Hanson,
Hanson U
U.S.
S Geological
Survey Water-Supply Paper 2375,
1991

Infiltration
Leakage of water through the ground
surface and into aquifers
Soil tends to hold-up some of the water;
soda
d and
d iice analogy
l
Actual infiltration does not exceed the
soils infiltration capacity
p
y

Infiltration Capacity Measurement


Very site specific !!!

Double-Ring Infiltrometer

Groundwater Flow
Aquifers and aquifer properties
Darcys equation
Well drawdown

Aquifers
Portion of geologic porous material that is
able to store and transmit water

Aquifer properties
Porosity (n): fraction of porous material volume
that is void (%)
Permeabilityy ((k):
) measure of typical
yp
p
pore size
(units of L2)
y
conductivityy ((K):
) abilityy of the media to
Hydraulic
transmit water (units of LT-1)
Storage coefficient (S): capacity of porous media
to store water, expressed as volume of water
stored per unit media volume (dimensionless)

kg

About k and K K =

Darcys
Darcy
s Equation

h
Q = KA
L
K: hydraulic conductivity
A: cross sectional area (perpendicular to
flow);
h/L = hydraulic gradient (head change
per unit length of flow)
Notice that flow occurs from higher to
lower head (basic hydraulics)

Groundwater drawdown near a well


Pumping near a well creates a localized
depression in the groundwater level (water
table)
This depression diminishes with distance
from the pumping location (r)
(r).
Drawdown (s) is defined as the head
diff
difference
between
b t
the
th before
b f
and
d after
ft
pumping, i.e., s = h-y

Calculating groundwater drawdown

Q=

K ( y22 y12 )
r2
ln
r1

Unconfined Aquifer

2KY ( y2 y1 )
Q=
r2
ln
r1
Confined Aquifer

Water Budget for a Site


Rainfall
Transpiration

Evaporation

SITE
Surface Runoff

I filt ti
Infiltration

Water Budget
[INs] [OUTs] = [Net]
[INs]
[IN ] = R
Rainfall
i f ll
[OUTs] = Evap + Trans + Inf + Runoff
[Net] = Change in surface water depth =
d

Water Budget
So,
So we have:

d = R (Q + E + T + I)
This budget must be made over a defined
ti
time
period
i d ((year, season, month,
th d
day))

What you need to know


R: rainfall intensity (i)
Surface Runoff: runoff coefficient (C)
(C), site
area (A)
Evapotranspiration: www.usgs.gov
Infiltration: local site measurement

Calculation Example: Las Vegas,


NV
Site area: 5000 acre, Soil Type B, flat slope
Rainfall Intensity = 7 in/yr
4.5
5 in/yr
Evapotranspiration Rate (E) = 4
Change in surface water depth d= 0 (arid area)
Before development: 82% open land; 18%
paved roads;
After development: 52% residential; 18% paved
roads; 16% open land; 14% parking lots,
schools,, commercial

Calculation Example
Before: C = 0.82 x 0.08 + 0.18 x 0.85 =
0 22
0.22
After: C = 0.52 x 0.17 + 0.18 x 0.85
+ 0.16 x 0.08 + 0.14 x 0.85 = 0.37
So, development increases the surface
runoff coefficient, and therefore the runoff
water (lesser water availability, higher
fl d risk)
flood
i k)

Calculation Example
Before water budget (annual basis):
Rainfall: 7 in/yr x 1 ft/12 in = 0.58 ft/yr
Runoff: 0.22 x 0.58 ft/yr = 0.13 ft/yr
ET: 4.5 in/yr x 1 ft/12 in = 0.38 ft/yr
Infiltration: I = R - Q ET (d=0)
Before: 0.58-0.13-0.38 =0.06 ft/yr = 0.7 in annually
After: 0.58-0.22-0.38=-0.02 ft/yr = -0.2 in annually

Conceptual Solution
Need to capture excess surface runoff
generated by development.
To break even (no net water loss due to
d
development),
l
t) you would
ld need
d tto b
build
ild a
0.9 in x 5000 acre = 375 acre-ft reservoir,
which
hi h would
ld replenish
l i h th
the iinfiltration
filt ti water
t