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The steps in questionnaire design:

Step 1 Formulate hypotheses

'Hypothesis- setting can vary from creation of a rigid set of statements to that of an informal list of
questions needed to help understand the problem at hand. At this fi rst step in questionnaire design,
the researcher is best advised to take a wide view and to generate numerous hypotheses to test. At
this stage, it is perfectly acceptable for the wording to be raw and unrefined; it can be fine- tuned
later in the process. For questionnaire development, an understanding of hypothesis to test. At this
stage, it is perfectly acceptable for the wording to be raw and unrefi ned; it can be fine- tuned later in
the process. For questionnaire development, an understanding of hypothesis wording can help in
developing powerful questionnaires and the reader is advised to develop a full understanding of
hypothesis- setting wording can help in developing powerful questionnaires and the reader is
advised to develop a full understanding of hypothesis- setting."

Step 2 Choose collection method

"The choice of collection method must take into consideration costs, timing, and sampling. It must
also embrace the effi cacy of the data capture options (personal, phone, self-completion) and mode
(language, by computer, etc.). It should include decisions on incentives, interviewer briefing, and
Step 3 List topics
"The process of listing the topics forms the basis of the questionnaire. At this point, it is important to
be fully aware of the different types of question available to the researcher."

Step 4 Plan analysis

"It is a good idea to plan how the collected data will be processed at an early stage in
questionnaire development. This simple step ensures that the questionnaire covers the
necessary subject area. If more than fi fty questionnaires are likely to need analysing, formal
tabulationsm will be employed. At this stage, the researcher can usefully draw up a series of blank
tables that show the major breakdowns and side- headings that will help to explore the aims of the
study. Consideration needs to be paid to the method by which the collected data is processed
before the analysis can take place. Areas of specifi c concern will be whether the data will be input
manually or by some other means (such as automatic scanning). The matter of coding also needs
to be considered."

Step 5 Draw a diagram

" A useful tool for planning questionnaires, topic guides, or any other instrument, is the diagram.
Some researchers feel comfortable using the flow chart as a planning tool, where a diagram shows
the key pathway for the respondent answers."
Step 6 Lay out the form

Write out the questionnaire (or topics) in a linear way. Start new sections on new pages to allow
related questions to be viewed together easily.

The progression of any interview should be fl uent; there should be a good fl ow. The step of
laying out the questionnaire form involves a careful wording of each question and a
thoughtful choice of the sequence used. At this stage, the researcher needs to be aware of the
questions and words that the chosen respondent will fi nd neutral; there are also issues that may
cause some type of reaction. Some words may cause informants to react positively or negatively
and the researcher must anticipate what these are. This understanding can allow the researcher to
order the questions in such a way that respondents cooperate fully. Integrity questions help to check
the consistency of both respondent and fi eldworker. Two such devices can be incorporated into
questionnaires to assist with validity and reliability: sleeper questions and cheater questions. The
sleeper question is one that is used to decide whether a respondent is giving incorrect answers
(either by guessing or misleading). Conversely, the cheater question is embedded in a questionnaire
to detect interviewers who may not be following the required procedures (either deliberately or
through negligence). The physical appearance of the questionnaire is important. In self- completion
questionnaires the colour chosen for the questionnaire may affect whether a questionnaire is
completed and returned. The effect is not fully understood; it appears to be linked to impact and
visibility among other papers on the respondents desk. A questionnaire printed on yellow paper is
hard to lose under a busy desk, and this may lead to a greater level of cooperation. Response
rate improvement is the main reason why colors other than white are chosen. Fox et al. (1988) put
the increased response rate at 2 per cent. Additionally, the researcher can use typeface size,
Conversely, a form that appears complicated can be damaging to response rates. Color can also
be used to help the interviewer, both on paper or on- screen. For example, if there are different
sections to a questionnaire, color coding can help the interviewer to navigate the materials. If a
similar questionnaire is used for different respondent types, then one type might be allocated to
yellow, another to pink, etc."

Step 7 Approve and pilot the form

'It is at Step 7 that the researcher should seek full approval from the client. With pen and
paper questionnaires (sometimes known as PAPI) this does not pose a problem; they are selfexplanatory.

However, with computer- assisted questionnaires (CAPI, CATI, and CAWI) the way a
questionnaire works may be unclear because the working is hidden inside the software. It does need
to be clearone solution is to create the questionnaire as a respondent would see it but then have a
column on the right to explain what happens to the software. This type of instruction is needed when
communicating with web designers anyway.
Before a questionnaire is used in the real survey, it should be tested well; this is called a pilot test or
a pretest. Respondents in a pilot test should be similar to those that will be included in the actual
study. They are likely to be familiar with the topic. The test may be informal, involving
trying out the draft on friends, or formal, involving using hundreds of interviewees; this depends on
the importance of the study. It is always good advice for the research team to be part of the pilot
interviews, if only as an interviewer.
"There are distinct phases to the pilot. First of all, the researcher will conduct the interview.
Second, another interview will take place with the same respondent to discuss what he or she
was thinking, intending, or understanding. Finally, when all pilots are conducted, a debrief
meeting will be held with the research team. Further piloting may be necessary. An alternative
method is to ask a respondent to speak his/her mind during the interview; this thinking aloud can
help to capture the reaction at the moment a question is asked because it may be forgotten
later. Sometimes notes are taken or a debrief questionnaire form is created; sometimes
researchers find that tape recording of pilot interviews is useful for later analysis and debate within
the research team. Typical issues are: do respondents understand the questions; does the
routing work; does the wording need changing; do the pre- codes cover the real situation?
Piloting is the best way to see whether a questionnaire is working as expected. The pilot test
may also test the sampling procedures, field force, and other resources."

Step 8 Fine- tune the form

"The questionnaire should now be ready for use in the fi eld. Interviewers should carry out
dummy interviews. These are intended to make them familiar with the questionnaire and
are part of their training. They are not included in the analysis and there will be no feedback
to the researcher, therefore dummy interviews are not pilot interviews. At this point, it is worth
considering who the rightful owner of the questionnaire is. The ICC/ESOMAR Code of
Conduct states that the questionnaire is the property of the client, if that client has paid for it to
be developed.The Market Researchers Toolbox Checklist for questionnaires can be used as a
guide to check whether your questionnaire is fi t for purpose. After honestly answering each
question carefully, inspect why you answer No for some questions."


Albaum, G. (1997) The Likert scale revisited,

Journal of the Market Research Society, 39,

pp. 331348.
Barnes, J.H., Banahan, B.F., and Fish, K.E. (1995)
The response effect of question order in
computer- administered questioning in the
social science, Social Science Computer Review,
13, pp. 4753.
Bearden, W.O. and Netemeyer, R.G. (1999)
Handbook of Marketing Scales, 2nd edn.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Benton, E.J. and Daly, J.L. (1991) A question order
effect in a local government survey, Public
Opinion Quarterly, 55, pp. 640642.

How do you determine the supply in a supply/demand analysis?

First, you must identify who and where the direct competitors? After identifying them, classify them
according to size, product quality, location, performance, and market segment performance. It is
important to determine the type of competition existing. Are there only a few big firmsproducing the
product being considered? Are there many small firms with no single firm controlling the market? Or
is it an industry of big and small firms? The type of competition in existence would influence the
decisions on the production capacity and marketing strategies.
Second, Determine historical domestic supply as comprised by the local production and
Third, If there are foreign market, determine the historical supply patterns in the targeted countries as
comprised by their local production and importations.
Fourth, evaluate supply growth patterns and project future supply by applying appropriate projection
Development Academy of the Philippines (1984) "How to Develop Project Feasibility Studies"
Points to Consider When We Include Attitude in our Survey
Most often attitudes are the subject of surveys. Analyzing it further, attitudes come before behaviour
and affect the way the person will act. People change their mind when they receive additional
information, or experience or perceive the object of the attitude differently. Just like when we
compute for our budget for our Christmas Party. Our budget for food changes after receiving
additional confirmation of attendance from the secretariat.
An attitude always focuses on some object. It can be physical or material thing, a person or group, or
an idea or issue. Attitudes have three parts: (1) what the individual know or believes about the topic,

(2) how the person feels about the topic and how its valued, and (3) the likelihood that the individual
will take action based on the attitude. When attitudes are measured, the survey questions should
include all three attitude components.
Pamela L. Alreck, Robert B. Settle The Survey Research Handbook
Market Feasibility Study
I. Executive Summary
a. Name of Firm
b. Location
i. Head Office
ii. Plant Site
c. Brief Description of the Study
d. Summary
i. Market Feasibility
II. Introduction/Background of the Study
a. Brief background of the Study
b. Objectives of the Study
c. Operational Definition of Terms
d. Scope and Limitations of the Study
III. Market Study
a. Methodology
b. Demand
i. Consumption for the past years
ii. Major consumers of the product/service
iii. Projected Demand
c. Supply
i. Supply for the past years (imported and locally produced)
ii. Projected Supply
d. Demand and Supply Analysis, Demand/Supply Gap
e. Projected Sales/Market Share
f. Marketing Strategies/Programs
i. Product Category/Quality and Style
ii. Positioning
iii. Brand
v. Packaging
g. Pricing
h. Place of Distribution
i. Promotions
i. Advertising

ii. Public Relations

iii. Sales Promotions
iv. Online initiatives: PR, Advertising, Social Networks, Mobile, Blogs, etc.
IV. Budget