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Maintenance Manual

T-180S through T-360L


TH-300L, TH-350L
TB-180S through TB-300L

DEATH OR SERIOUS INJURY MAY RESULT FROM IMPROPER


OPERATION OF THIS MACHINE

D OPERATOR MUST BE TRAINED AND KNOWLEDGEABLE OF


THE OPERATORS GUIDE, SAFETY MANUAL, AND OSHA
STANDARD SECTION 29 CFR 1910.178 FOR POWERED
INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS.

D CAPACITY IS WITH MAST IN VERTICAL POSITION AND


LOAD RETRACTED.

D CAPACITY GREATLY DECREASES WITH TILTING, HIGH


LOAD LIFTING, ACCELERATION, BRAKING, SHARP
TURNING, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, AND POOR YARD
CONDITIONS.

D TILT (MAST AND LOAD OUT) ONLY WHEN LOAD IS OVER


A STACK.

D VISIBILITY MAY BE IMPAIRED BY STRUCTURAL

DESIGN. (ALWAYS LOOK IN DIRECTION OF TRAVEL;


DO NOT RELY ON MIRRORS.)

D DO NOT OPERATE WITH BYSTANDERS PRESENT.


D ALWAYS TRAVEL WITH LOAD IN LOWEST POSSIBLE
POSITION THAT ALLOWS GOOD VISIBILITY.

D ALWAYS WEAR SEAT BELT WHILE MACHINE IS IN


OPERATION.

D DO NOT ATTEMPT TO JUMP FROM MACHINE IN EVENT OF


TIP OVER. REMAIN SEATED WITH SEAT BELT FASTENED.

TAYLOR MACHINE WORKS, INC.


650 NORTH CHURCH AVENUE
LOUISVILLE, MISSISSIPPI 39339-2017

3374 715

T 180S - 360L (Rev. 12/03)


Observe The Following Precautions For Maximum Safety Of Machine Operation
1. Only trained and responsible operators shall be permitted to handle loads with this truck.
2. Operate the truck from the operators seat only. Do not allow riders.
3. Test hydraulic controls for proper response before using the machine.
4. Know your load. Do not attempt to lift or transport loads in excess of rated capacity.
5. When the load obstructs the view, operate the truck in the reverse range.
6. Do not stand or work under an elevated load.
7. Transport the load low and tilted back.
8. Avoid sudden stops with a load.
9. Evenly distribute the weight of the load on both forks.
10. Back down a ramp in excess of 10 percent when loaded.
11. Do not move the truck until the air system reaches recommended pressure. Air pressure is
required for the service brakes.
12. Have defects repaired immediately. Do not operate a truck with damaged or defective systems.
13. When leaving truck, lifting mechanism shall be fully lowered, controls shall be neutralized, power shut off, parking brake set, and key removed. Block wheels if on incline.

LIMITED WARRANTY
Products manufactured by Taylor Machine Works, Inc. (Taylor) and sold are warranted by Taylor to be free from
defects in material and workmanship, under normal use and service, when Taylor products are operated at or
below rated capacity* in accordance with operating instructions.
This warranty is limited to repair or replacement, (as Taylor may elect, and at an establishment authorized by
Taylor) of such parts as shall appear to Taylor upon inspection to have been defective in material or
workmanship.
This warranty period shall begin on the delivery date of the product to the Purchaser and end on the earlier of
twelve (12) months or two thousand (2000) hours. During the first six (6) months or one thousand (1000) hours,
Taylor will provide genuine Taylor parts, labor, and travel time to replace or repair any part furnished by Taylor and
found to be defective in material and workmanship. If a defect in material and workmanship is found during the
first six (6) months and/or one thousand (1000) hours whichever occurs first of the warranty period, Taylor will
replace lubricating oil, filters, antifreeze, and other service items made unusable by the defect. In the second six
(6) months and/or second one thousand (1000) hours after the delivery date of the truck, Taylor will approve parts
only. Only genuine Taylor parts provided by Taylors Sudden Service, Inc. will be used during the warranty period.

THE FOLLOWING ITEMS ARE NOT COVERED BY THIS WARRANTY:


1. Normal maintenance services and parts or supplies used therein including, without limitation, engine tune-up, wheel alignment, brake and linkage adjustment, lubrication services, tightening and
adjusting such as bolts, screws, hoses, fittings, etc., replacement of fuses, bulbs, filters, tune-up
parts, fluids and brake and clutch linings, glass; shop supplies such as rags, oil dry, hand soaps,
degreasers, cleaning solutions including brake clean, etc.; and adjustments which are a part of
the required or recommended predelivery inspection and periodic inspections in accordance with
Operators Manual. Electrical components including wiring will be excluded after the first six (6)
months or one thousand (1000) hours whichever occurs first.
2. Normal deterioration of appearance due to use and exposure; or conditions resulting from misuse, negligence, or accident.
3. Any product on which any of the required or recommended periodic inspections or services have
not been made.
4. Any parts or accessories, installed on the product which were not manufactured or installed by
Taylor whether or not such parts or accessories were selected, recommended or installed by Taylor (including without limitation, engines, tires, batteries, air conditioners, air dryers, etc.). Such
parts or accessories shall be covered by the warranties given by the manufacturers thereof and
any claim thereof shall be made to such manufacturers.
5. Loss of time, inconvenience, loss of equipment use, other consequential damages or other matters not specifically included.
Taylor parts and assemblies which are furnished and installed under this warranty are themselves within
the coverage of the machine warranty and are covered only for the duration of the original machine
warranty period.

NOTE:

All International warranty parts shipments are F.O.B. point of debarkation, duties, tariffs, or local
taxes excluded.

This warranty is expressly in lieu of any other warranties, expressed or implied, including any warranty of
merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
Replacement parts are warranted for ninety (90) days to be free from defects in material or workmanship. Parts
only, no labor.
Taylor Machine Works, Inc. does not authorize any person to create (for Taylor) any other obligation or liability in
connection with Taylor products.
*For example, a machine rated capacity at any stipulated load center is the rated lift capacity at less than
load center. That is, a machine rated at 20,000 pounds at 24-inch load center connotes 20,000 pounds
is the maximum lift capacity even though the load center may be less than 24-inches. Subjecting Taylor
products to conditions or loads exceeding those stipulated is justification for immediate cancellation of
warranty for products involved.

TAYLOR MACHINE WORKS, INC.


650 North Church Avenue
Louisville, Mississippi 39339
(662) 773-3421 / Fax 662-773-9146
TMW-057-3 (7/99)

Introduction
This manual is to be used as a guide for lubrication and maintenance as well as general equipment care.
A separate section is provided to discuss each major component or system. This method of presenting
the maintenance instructions enables Taylor Machine Works, Inc. to assemble a maintenance manual with
explicit instructions on the exact equipment installed on the machine.
No single rule in the booklet can be followed to the exclusion of others. Each rule must be considered in
light of the other rules, the knowledge and training of the man (operator), the limitations of the machine,
and the workplace environment.
Warnings and cautions are included to reduce the probability of personal injury, when performing maintenance procedures which if improperly performed could be potentially hazardous. Failure to comply with
these warnings and cautions can result in serious injury and possible death.
All circumstances and conditions under which service will be performed cannot be anticipated. Do not
perform any service if you are unsure that it can be done safely. Contact your Taylor Dealer or Taylor
Machine Works, Inc. if you have questions about the proper service techniques.

 Operating this powered industrial truck when it is in need of repair can result in
death or serious injury to the operator or other personnel or cause severe property damage.
Machine checks must be performed daily:
1. before the machine is placed in service,
2. by qualified, trained, and skilled personnel who have proper tools and knowledge, and
3. in accordance with the Operators Guide, Maintenance Manual and Safety Check booklet.

Maintenance Manual
OperatorsGuide

.
!

Regularly Scheduled maintenance, lubrication, and safety inspections will help ensure a safe and
productive work life for the machine and the operator(s).

 Do not operate the truck if it is in need of repair. Remove the ignition key and
attach a Lock-out tag.

 Do not attempt to perform maintenance procedures unless you have been
thoroughly trained and you have the proper tools.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Intro-1


 Use only genuine Taylor replacement parts. Lesser quality parts may fail,
resulting in property damage, personal injury or death.
Maintenance and / or service personnel who find it necessary to operate this machine, even for a short
period of time, must fully understand all operational literature including:

OSHA operating rules found in 29 CFR 1910.178; Appendix A in Safety Check


ANSI B56.1 rules for operating a powered industrial truck; Appendix B in Safety Check
The Operators Guide for the machine
The manufacturers Safety Booklet
The manufacturers Safety Video
The manufacturers Service Bulletins
The content and meaning of all machine decals

 Know how to avoid slip and fall accidents such as those described in the Slip and
Fall Accidents Section of Safety Check.

Intro-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Safety

Safety First
Important Safety Instructions
Observe these rules. They are recognized as
practices that reduce the risk of injury to yourself
and others, or damage to the lift truck or load.
This manual contains maintenance and service
procedures for filling, lubricating, removing, repairing, and installing various components comprising
a heavy duty industrial lift truck. Because of the
size and weight of the lift truck, and high pressures in some of the components and systems,
improperly performing service on the truck can be
dangerous.
Warnings and cautions are included to reduce the
probability of personal injury, when performing
maintenance procedures which if improperly performed could be potentially hazardous. Failure to
comply with these warnings and cautions can
result in serious injury and possible death.
No single rule in the booklet can be followed to
the exclusion of others. Each rule must be considered in light of the other rules, the knowledge
and training of the man (operator / maintenance),
the limitations of the machine, and the workplace
environment.
Report all mechanical problems to mechanics and
supervisors.
Proper Training:
Taylor Machine Works, Inc. publishes Safety
Check, TMW-072 a booklet citing some safety
precautions to observe during lift truck operation.
One copy is shipped with each lift truck; additional
copies are available at a nominal fee from the
authorized Taylor dealer from which the equipment was initially purchased.
Minimum Required Personnel Safety
Equipment
1. Hard Hat
2. Safety Shoes
3. Safety Glasses
4. Heavy Gloves
5. Hearing Protection
6. Reflective Clothing
Failure to follow the safety precautions outlined in
this manual can create a dangerous situation.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Some of the common ways this can occur are as


follows:
1. Use of hoisting devices not capable of
supporting the weight of the component being
lifted.
2. Improper attachment of slings to heavy
components being hoisted.
3. Use of inadequate or rotten timbers for support, or improper alignment of supporting
material.
4. Failure to securely block the wheels, when disconnecting or removing components that hold
the lift truck stationary under normal
conditions.
5. Failure to read and understand the safety
precautions in this manual.

 Know how to avoid accidents
such as those described in the Maintenance /
Service Accidents Section of Safety Check:
Some Maintenance / Servicing Accidents
Listed below:
1. Improperly refueling the truck.
2. Improperly checking for hydraulic leaks or fuel
leaks (gasoline, L.P. gas, or diesel).
3. Improperly checking the engine cooling
system.
4. Improperly checking battery fluid levels or
jump starting engines.
5. Putting air in a multi-piece tire and rim assembly without proper tools and training.
6. Attempting to service a multi-piece tire and rim
assembly without proper tools and training.
7. Using an improperly suited chain while
performing maintenance.
8. Using the lift truck hydraulic system as a substitute for a fixed stand.
9. Relying on jacks or hoists to support heavy
loads.
10. Operating a truck that is damaged or in need
of repair.
11. Climbing on the mast of a fork lift, on the top of
the cab, or other high places on the lift truck.
12. Operating a lift truck which has been modified
without the manufacturers approval. This

Safety-1

includes the attachment, counterweight, tires,


etc.
13. Lifting people with a fork lift not properly
equipped for elevating personnel.
14. Improperly using chains.
15. Improperly blocking and supporting mast,
carriage, or attachment before repairing truck.
Maintenance / Service Personnel:
1. Keep the truck clean, free of oil, grease, and
fuel.
2. Steam clean / wash the truck prior to performing maintenance. Wear anti-slip footwear
when performing maintenance procedures.
3. Use OSHA approved ladders and other proper
cleaning accessories to access hard to reach
maintenance places.
4. Keep gratings free of ice, dirt, and gravel.
5. Regularly inspect and replace anti-slip mastic
on the vehicle as needed.
6. Ensure all safety decals are in place on the
vehicle.
Mounting and Dismounting:
1. Face the lift truck when getting on or off the lift
truck.
2. One hand and two feet or two hands and one
foot must be in contact with the lift truck at all
times (3 point contact).
3. Use handrails and other grab points.

 Serious falls and injuries can
result from improper mounting or dismounting
of the lift truck.

 Serious falls or injuries can
result from riding on the lift truck! Do not ride
on the lift truck.
Lift Truck Lock-out / Tag-out:
The engine should be locked-out / tagged-out to
prevent it from being inadvertently started before
performing maintenance or repairs. The battery
should be locked-out / tagged-out to prevent accidental activation of the starter and possible starting of the engine. Refer to Lock-Out / Tag-Out
Procedure in the back of this section for the procedures to be followed to perform lock-out / tagout.

Safety-2


 Do not start the engine if the
ignition switch, or engine control panel has
been locked-out / tagged-out by maintenance
personnel. Doing so can result in personal
injury and / or damage to the equipment. If in
doubt, contact the maintenance supervisor.
Proper Training:
1. Taylor Machine Works, Inc. publishes Safety
Check, TMW-072 a booklet citing some safety
precautions to observe during lift truck operation. One copy is shipped with each lift truck;
additional copies are available at a nominal
fee from the authorized Taylor dealer from
which the equipment was initially purchased.

 Remove all rings, watches,
chains, other jewelry, and all loose clothing
before working around moving parts!

 If maintenance requires running the engine indoors, ensure the room has
adequate flow-through ventilation!

 Do not operate the vehicle or
attempt to perform maintenance on the vehicle
while under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or
any other medications or substances that slow
reflexes, alter safe judgement, or cause drowsiness.

 Never operate the lift truck
without proper instruction. Ignorance of
operational characteristics and limitations can
lead to equipment damage, personal injury, or
death.

 Maintenance and service
personnel should never operate this lift truck
unless they are thoroughly familiar with Safety
Check, TMW-072 and the Operators Guide for
this lift truck.

 This equipment is not electrically insulated. Contact with electricity can
cause severe injury or death. Electrocution
can occur without direct contact. Do not operate this lift truck in areas with energized power
lines or a power supply. Check local, state

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

and federal safety codes for proper clearance.


Use a groundman to ensure that there is proper clearance.

 Use only genuine Taylor
replacement parts. Lesser quality parts may
fail resulting in property damage, personal
injury, or death.

 Electrical, mechanical, and
hydraulic safety devices have been installed
on this lift truck to help protect against personal injury and / or damage to equipment. Under
no circumstances should any attempt be made
to disconnect or in any way render any of
these devices inoperable. If you discover that
any safety device is malfunctioning, Do Not
operate the lift truck; notify appropriate maintenance personnel immediately.

 Operating instructions,
warnings, and caution labels are placed on the
lift truck to alert personnel to dangers and to
advise personnel of proper operating procedures (of the lift truck). Do not remove or
obscure any warning, caution, danger, or
instructional sign or label.

 Keep all hydraulic components in good repair.

 Relieve pressure on
hydraulic system before repairing or adjusting
or disconnecting.

 Wear proper hand and eye
protection when searching for leaks. Use
wood or cardboard instead of hands.

 Turn the engine off and
remove the ignition key before entering the tire
pivot area to prevent death or serious injury
from pivoting tires.

 Deflate tires before removing
them. Always remove the valve core and
exhaust all air from a single tire and both tires
of a dual assembly prior to removing any rim
components or wheel components such as

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

nuts and rim clamps. Run a piece of wire


through the valve stem to make sure the valve
stem is not damaged or plugged and all air is
exhausted.

 Do not release the parking
brake or attempt to move the lift truck if there
is no indication on the air pressure gauge or if
the indication is below 100 psi.

 Never park the lift truck on
an incline. Always park the lift truck on a level
surface; otherwise, the lift truck could possibly
roll resulting in possible injury to personnel or
damage to the lift truck or other property.
Battery Safety:

 Lighted smoking materials,
flames, arcs, or sparks may result in battery
explosion.
1. Keep all metal tools away from battery terminals.
2. Batteries contain sulfuric acid which will burn
skin on contact; wear rubber gloves and eye
protection when working with batteries.
3. Flush eyes or wash skin with water and seek
medical attention immediately in case of
contact.
4. When jump starting:
a. Do not lean over the battery while making
connection.
b. First, connect the positive (+) terminal of
the booster battery to the positive (+)
terminal of the discharged battery.
c. Then, connect the negative (-) terminal of
the booster battery to the engine or body
ground (-). Never Cross Polarity of
Terminals.
d. Disconnect cables in exact reverse order.

Lock-Out / Tag-Out Procedure


Purpose. This procedure establishes the minimum requirements for lock-out / tag-out of energy
sources that could cause injury to personnel. All
employees shall comply with the procedure.
Responsibility. The responsibility for seeing that
this procedure is followed is binding upon all
employees. All employees shall be instructed in
the safety significance of the lock-out / tag-out

Safety-3

procedure by (designate individual). Each new or


transferred affected employee shall be instructed
by (designate individuals) in the purpose and use
of the lock-out / tag-out procedure.
Preparation for Lock-Out / Tag-Out. Employees
authorized to perform lockout / tagout shall be certain as to which switch, valve, or other energy isolating devices apply to the equipment being
locked out / tagged out. More than one energy
source (electrical, mechanical, or others) may be
involved. Any questionable identification of
sources shall be cleared by the employees with
their supervisors. Before lock-out / tag-out commences, job authorization should be obtained.
Sequence of Lock-Out / Tag-Out Procedure
1. Notify all affected employees that a lock-out /
tag-out is required and the reason therefor.
2. If the equipment is operating, shut it down by
the normal stopping procedure.
3. Operate the switch, valve, or other energy isolating device so that the energy source(s)
(electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, etc.) is disconnected or isolated from the equipment.
Stored energy, such as that in capacitors,
springs, elevated crane members, rotating flywheels, hydraulic systems, and air, gas,
steam, or water pressure, etc. must also be
dissipated or restrained by methods such as
grounding, repositioning, blocking, bleedingdown, etc.
4. Lock-out / tag-out the energy isolating devices
with an assigned individual lock / tag.
5. After ensuring that no personnel are exposed
and as a check on having disconnected the
energy sources, operate the push button or
other normal operating controls to make certain the equipment will not operate.

Procedure Involving More Than One Person.


In the preceding steps, if more than one individual
is required to lock-out / tag-out equipment, each
shall place his own personal lock / tag on the
energy isolating device(s). One designated individual of a work crew or a supervisor, with the
knowledge of the crew, may lock-out / tag-out
equipment for the whole crew. In such cases, it
shall be the responsibility of the individual to carry
out all steps of the lock-out / tag-out procedure
and inform the crew when it is safe to work on the
equipment. Additionally, the designated individual
shall not remove a crew lock / tag until it has been
verified that all individuals are clear.
Rules for Using Lock-Out / Tag-Out Procedure.
All equipment shall be locked out / tagged out to
protect against accidental or inadvertent operation
when such operation could cause injury to personnel. Do not attempt to operate any switch, valve,
or other energy isolating device bearing a lock /
tag.

 Return operating controls to


neutral after the test.
6. The equipment is now locked out / tagged out.
Restoring Equipment to Service
1. When the job is complete and equipment is
ready for testing or normal service, check the
equipment area to see that no one is exposed.
2. When equipment is all clear, remove all locks /
tags. The energy isolating devices may be
operated to restore energy to equipment.

Safety-4

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Major Components Locations

LIFT CHAIN
CHAIN ROLLER

TILT CYLINDER
ANCHOR

TILT CYLINDER
RADIATOR

HYDRAULIC
RESERVOIR

STEER AXLE
PIVOT

STEER LINK

MAST
MAIN ROLLER

CARRIAGE
MAIN ROLLER

FORK PIN
STEER
AXLE HUB
SPINDLE
(UPPER AND (FRONT AND
BACK)
LOWER)

FORK

MAST
HANGER PIN

ENGINE

TRANSMISSION

PLANETARY HUB
DRIVE SHAFT
DIFFERENTIAL

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

1-2

(Rev. 11/94)

Contents
Maintenance Manual

Section
Introduction
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Air Intake System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Exhaust System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Electrical System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Closed Circuit TV Cameras and Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6A
Engine Protection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A
Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Transmission Cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9A
Transmission Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9C
Drive Shaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Steer Axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Drive Axles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Brake Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Wet Disc Brakes Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15C
Air Dryer System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15D
Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Tires and Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Air Conditioning System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20A
Heating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20H
Hydraulic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Side Shift and Fork Positioners Carriage Hydraulic Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22A
Accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22E
Mast Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Type C Carriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Appendices

Section 1

Engine

OIL
DIPSTICK
OIL
FILLER
CAP

OIL
FILTER

Illustration 1-1. Cummins QSB5.9-C155 Engine Service Points


Introduction. The Cummins QSB5.9-C155
engine is pressure lubricated, generating 155
horsepower at 2200 governed rpm and delivering
440 ft-lbs of peak torque at 1500 rpm. Oil pressure is supplied by a gear-type lubricating oil
pump and controlled by a pressure regulator. The
filter bypass valve ensures that a supply of oil, in
the event the filter becomes plugged, is present.
One full flow oil filter is incorporated in the lubricating system to provide maximum cleansing and
filtration of the engine lubricating oil.

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

Checking The Lubricating Oil (Illustration 1-1).


The engine lubricating oil should be checked daily
on the oil dipstick to ensure that the engine has
the proper amount of oil for operation.
Changing The Oil and Filter Element (Illustration
1-1). The engine lubricating oil should be
changed monthly or every 250 hours, whichever
comes first. The oil filter should be replaced each
time the engine oil is changed. Refer to the Fuel
and Lubricant Specifications chart in the
Appendices for the proper grade of oil to use.

1-1

S
S



Do not use ether to start an engine equipped
with an electric heater starting aid. Use of
ether to start an engine equipped with an
electric heater starting aid may cause explosion and severe injury.
Death or serious injury could result from a
runaway truck. Park the truck on a hard,
level surface, apply the parking brake, block
the wheels in both directions to prevent
movement of the truck and Lock Out & Tag
Out the truck.
Avoid touching exhaust components while
changing the oil. Severe burns may occur.
Some state and federal agencies in the
United States have determined that used
engine oil can be carcinogenic and can
cause reproductive toxicity. Avoid inhalation of vapors, ingestion and prolonged
contact with used engine oil.


S Dispose of oil and filter in accordance with
federal and local regulations.
S Do not use a strap wrench to tighten the oil
filter. Mechanical over-tightening may
distort the threads or damage the filter
gasket.
S Never operate the engine with the oil level
below the ADD mark or above the FULL mark
on the oil dipstick.
1. The engine should be at operating temperature before the oil is changed.
2. Place a suitable container under the drain plug
of the oil pan. Remove the drain plug (or open
drain valve if equipped) to drain the oil.
3. When the oil has completely drained, re-install
the O-ring and drain plug (or close drain valve
if equipped) on the Cummins engine and apply
a torque value of 60 ft-lbs to tighten the drain
plug.
4. Unscrew the spin-off type oil filter (see Illustration 1-1). It should be possible to unscrew the
oil filter by hand; however, a band type filter
wrench may be used if necessary. Discard the
used oil filter.

1-2

5. Clean the area on the filter base that will contact the gasket on the new oil filter.
6. Fill the new filter with clean engine oil before
installation.
7. Apply a light film of engine oil on the gasket of
the new filter. Screw the new filter onto the
filter base until the gasket comes in contact
with the filter base and then tighten filter 1/2 to
3/4 turn by hand only.
8. Remove the oil fill cap and fill crankcase with
oil to the FULL mark on the oil dipstick (see
Illustration 1-1).
9. Start the engine and allow to idle. Visually
check the drain plug and oil filter for leaks.
10. Shut down the engine and wait 15 minutes for
the oil to drain back into the oil pan. When the
engine has cooled, recheck the oil level and
add oil as necessary to bring the oil level to
the FULL mark on the oil dipstick.
Drive Belts (Illustration 1-2). Visually inspect the
drive belt daily. Check the belt for intersecting
cracks. Transverse cracks (across the belt width)
are acceptable. Longitudinal cracks (direction of
belt length) that intersect with transverse cracks
are not acceptable. Replace the drive belt if belt
is frayed or has pieces of material missing. Adjust
drive belts that have a glazed or shiny surface
which indicates belt slippage. Correctly installed
and tensioned drive belts will show even pulley
and belt wear. After installation of a new drive
belt, check the tension and adjust if necessary.
NOTE: Ensure each rib of the drive belt is properly aligned in the corresponding grooves of each
pulley or damage to the belt will occur.
Drive belt damage can be caused by:
S Incorrect tension
S Incorrect size or length
S Pulley misalignment
S Incorrect installation
S Severe operating environment
S Oil or grease on the belts
Drive Belt Tension. Proper drive belt tension is
automatically maintained by a belt tensioner
supplied with the engine. Refer to the engine

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

manufacturer s operation and maintenance


manual.
Air Conditioning Drive Belt Tension (if equipped
with air conditioning). Tension on the air conditioning drive belt should be such that a firm push
with the thumb at a point midway between the two
pulleys will deflect the belt about 3/8 to 1/2 inch. If
the deflection measured is greater than the
amount specified above, the drive belt must be
replaced.
Checking Engine Mounting Bolts. The engine
mounting bolts should be checked for the
appropriate torque every 6 months or 1500 hours,
whichever comes first. If a locknut requires retorquing, remove and clean the bolt and locknut.
Apply LoctiteR to the threads of the bolt, and
re-install the bolt and locknut. Torque the locknuts
on the Cummins engine mounting bolts to 200 220 ft-lbs. Inspect the rubber mounts for deterioration and age hardening. Replace any broken or
lost bolts and damaged rubber mounts.

Some special applications may use engine


speed settings that are different from the standards shown. The proper settings are permanently stamped on a metal tag affixed to the
engine.

Engine Repair. If repair of the engine is needed,


contact a Taylor Machine Works, Inc. authorized
dealer for service.

OEM
PLUG

CUMMINS
PLUG

Illustration 1-3. ECM Plugs

Illustration 1-2. Drive Belt Inspection


Cummins QSB5.9-C155 Engine General
Information

Calibration Of Electronic Accelerator Pedal To


ECM Of Engine. The Cummins QSB5.9-C155
engine uses an electronic accelerator to control
engine speed. Each time the accelerator pedal is
changed, disconnected and the ignition switch is
turned on, or ECM (Electronic Control Module) is
changed out, the accelerator pedal must be calibrated to the ECM. Calibration procedures are as
follows:
1. Apply the parking brake, place the shifter in
neutral, and turn the ignition switch to the Ignition position (first click).

Oil Pressure

30 - 55 psi

2. Cycle the accelerator pedal through its full


range of travel three times.

Oil Capacity
(includes filter change)

15 Quarts

3. Turn the ignition switch to the Off position for


30 seconds.

High RPMs (no load)

2350 rpm

Low RPMs (no load)

750 rpm

Diagnostic Lights (Illustration 1-4). The diagnostic lights, located on the right side of the dash, are
used to alert the operator of engine related problems. At initial power up, all 3 lights will be illuminated for 2 seconds. After 2 seconds, the yellow
light will turn off. After 2.5 seconds, the red light
will turn off. After 3 seconds from power up, the

NOTES:
S Setting high rpms under no load conditions to
2350 rpm ensures that the engine will have
2200 rpms under a loaded condition.

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

1-3

blue light will turn off. Each lights function is listed


as follows:
1. Blue Light. This light will flash at KEY-ON
(engine not running), indicating that routine
engine maintenance is required. To reset the
blue light, perform the following procedures:
a. Turn the ignition key to its accessory position (first click).
b. Allow all the diagnostic lights to complete
the flash sequences prior to starting procedure c.
c. Flip the diagnostic switch to the ON position for more than 3 seconds and then flip
it to the OFF position.

is restarted. There are no limits on the number of times the engine may be restarted.
NOTES:
S The engine should be shut off as soon as it
can be shut off safely. The engine should not
be run until the fault is corrected.
S

This light is also used to flash out the fault


code number in the diagnostic mode.
BLUE
LIGHT

YELLOW
LIGHT

RED
LIGHT

d. Flip the diagnostic switch to the ON position for less than 3 seconds and then flip it
to the OFF position.
e. Flip the diagnostic switch to the ON position for less than 3 seconds and then flip it
to the OFF position.
f.

Flip the diagnostic switch to the ON position for more than 3 seconds and then flip
it to the OFF position.

NOTE: Procedures c. through f. must be completed within 30 seconds.


g. The yellow light will flash three quick
flashes signifying that the ECM has
responded to the reset command.
2. Yellow Light (System Fault). This light illuminates during a non-fatal system error. The
engine can still be run, but the fault should be
corrected as soon as possible.

Illustration 1-4. Diagnostic Lights


Diagnostic Fault Codes (Illustration 1-4). If the
red light (Engine Shutting Down) or yellow light
(System Fault) light comes on when the engine is
running, it means a fault code has been recorded.
The light will remain on as long as the fault exists.
The severity of the fault will determine the light
that will come on. Only active fault codes can be
viewed by use of the diagnostic lights. To view
inactive fault codes, a lap top computer equipped
with Cummins Insite software is required.
To view active fault codes, perform the following:

NOTE: In the diagnostic mode, the yellow light


will flash after the red light completes the threedigit fault code.

1. Turn off the engine.

3. Red Light (Engine Shutting Down). This light


illuminates when the engine needs to be shut
off before permanent damage occurs to the
engine. Should the red light illuminate while
operating, the fault can be engine disabling
after approximately 32 seconds. Should the
engine shut down due to the severity of the
fault, it can be restarted and will run for
approximately 32 seconds. The engine will
run for approximately 32 seconds each time it

3. Turn the ignition key to its accessory position


(first click). If no active fault codes are recorded, the yellow light (System Fault) and red
light (Engine Shutting Down) will illuminate
and stay on. If active fault codes are recorded, the yellow light and red light will illuminate
momentarily, and then the red light will begin
to flash the three-digit code of the recorded
fault(s).

1-4

2. Toggle the diagnostic switch (located inside


the dash on the right side) to the ON position.

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
04/04)

4. The fault code will flash in the following


sequence:
a. First, the yellow light will flash beginning
the sequence. There will be a short 1 or 2
second pause after which the red light will
flash the first, second, and third digits of
the recorded fault code. There will be a 1
or 2 second pause between each number
of the code. When all three digits of the
fault code have flashed, the yellow light will
illuminate again and repeat the sequence
until the fault is cleared or the Diagnostic
switch is toggled to the OFF position.
Example:
Fault Code 432
4 flashes, pause
3 flashes, pause
2 flashes
b. If multiple fault codes have been stored,
the first fault code must be cleared before
the second fault code can be displayed.
Fault Code Information. All fault codes identified
in bold print on the preceding fault code information chart deal with engine and transmission
protection systems external to the Cummins
QSB5.9 engine. Fault code #151 can be caused
by both engine and external components. Contact Taylor Machine Works Sudden Service
Department for additional assistance if needed.

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
02/04)

1-5

Cummins QSB5.9 Engine Fault Code Information


Fault Code - Light

Failure Description

Failure Results

111* - Yellow

ECM internal hardware error.

Possible no effect or engine may run rough or


not start.

115* - Yellow

No engine speed or position signal detected at


pin 17 of the engine harness.

Engine power derate. Possible white smoke.

122 - Yellow

High voltage detected at the boost pressure


sensor signal pin 45 of the engine harness.

Engine will derate to no-boost fueling.

123 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at the boost pressure


sensor signal pin 45 of the engine harness.

Engine will derate to no-boost fueling.

131 - Yellow

High voltage detected at the throttle position


signal pin 30 of the OEM harness.

Engine idles when idle validation switch indicates idle and ramps up to a default set speed
when the idle validation switch indicates offidle.

132 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at the throttle position


signal pin 30 of the OEM harness.

Engine idles when idle validation switch indicates idle and ramps up to a default set speed
when the idle validation switch indicates offidle.

133 - Yellow

High voltage detected at the remote throttle


position signal pin 9 of the OEM harness.

Engine will not respond to the remote throttle


input.

134 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at the remote throttle


position signal pin 9 of the OEM harness.

Engine will not respond to the remote throttle


input.

135 - Yellow

High voltage detected at the oil pressure signal pin 33 of the engine harness.

Default value used for oil pressure. No engine


protection for oil pressure.

141 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at the oil pressure signal


pin 33 of the engine harness.

Default value used for oil pressure. No engine


protection for oil pressure.

143 - Yellow

Oil pressure signal indicates oil pressure is


below the low minimum engine protection limit.

Power derate and possible engine shutdown if


the engine protection shutdown feature
enabled.

144 - Yellow

High voltage detected at the coolant temperature signal pin 23 of the engine harness.

Default value used for coolant temperature.


No engine protection for oil pressure.

145 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at the coolant temperature signal pin 23 of the engine harness.

Default value used for coolant temperature.


No engine protection for coolant temperature.

146 - Yellow

Coolant temperature signal indicates coolant


temperature has exceeded the minimum
engine protection limit.

Power derate and possible engine shutdown if


the engine protection shutdown feature is
enabled.

151 - Red

Coolant temperature signal indicates coolant


temperature has exceeded the maximum
engine protection limit.

Speed derate and possible engine shutdown if


the engine protection shutdown feature is enabled.

153 - Yellow

High voltage detected at the intake manifold


temperature signal pin 34 of the engine harness.

Default value used for intake manifold temperature. No engine protection for intake manifold
temperature.

154 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at the intake manifold


temperature signal pin 34 of the engine harness.

Default value used for intake manifold temperature. No engine protection for intake manifold
temperature.

155 - Red

Intake manifold temperature signal indicates


intake manifold temperature is above the maximum engine protection limit.

Speed derate and possible engine shutdown if


the Engine Protection Shutdown feature is
enabled.

191 -

Air conditioner clutch drive signal indicates a


short to ground when commanded on.

Can not turn on air conditioner.

1-6

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Fault Code - Light

Failure Description

Failure Results

234 - Red

Engine speed signal indicates engine speed


has exceeded the overspeed limit.

Fuel to injectors disabled until engine speed


falls below the overspeed limit.

235 - Blue

Coolant level signal at pin 37 of the engine


harness indicates coolant level is low.

Power derate and possible engine shutdown if


Engine Protection Shutdown feature is
enabled.

241 - Yellow

Vehicle speed signal on pins 8 and 18 of the


OEM harness has been lost.

Engine speed limited to Maximum Engine


Speed without Vehicle Speed Sensor. Cruise
control, gear-down protection and the road
speed governor will not work. Trip information
data that is based on mileage will be incorrect.

242 - Yellow

Invalid or inappropriate vehicle speed signal


indicated on pins 8 and 18 of the OEM harness indicating connection or possible tampering.

Engine speed limited to Maximum Engine


Speed without Vehicle Speed Sensor. Cruise
control, gear-down protection and the road
speed governor will not work. Trip information
data that is based on mileage will be incorrect.

243 - None

Error detected in the exhaust brake relay


enable control circuit at pin 42 of the engine
harness.

Exhaust brake will not work.

245 - None

Error detected in the fan clutch relay enable


circuit at pin 31 of the engine harness.

Electronic Control Module (ECM) can not control the engine cooling fan. Fan will remain on
or off.

261* - Yellow

VP44 Fuel Pump Control Module indicates the


fuel temperature has exceeded the pump
protection limit.

Power derate.

264 - Yellow

High or low voltage detected at the fuel temperature sensor signal circuit inside the VP44
pump controller.

Default value used for fuel temperature. Possible low power.

278* - Yellow

Error detected in the lift pump circuit at pin 11


of the engine harness.

Possible low power; engine may die, run


rough, or be difficult to start.

283 - Yellow

High voltage detected at the main engine


speed / position sensor voltage supply pin 8 of
the engine harness.

ECM will use the VP44 pump speed as a


backup. Possible white smoke and power
loss.

284 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at the main engine


speed / position sensor voltage supply pin 8 of
the engine harness.

ECM will use the VP44 pump speed as a


backup. Possible white smoke and power
loss.

297 - Yellow

High voltage detected at the OEM pressure


signal pin 48 of the OEM harness.

Default value used for OEM pressure. Lose


ability to control OEM pressure.

319 - Blue

Power to the real time clock has been interrupted and its setting is no longer valid.

Time stamp in ECM powerdown data will be


incorrect.

349 - Yellow

Auxiliary device speed signal on pins 8 and 18


of the OEM harness is out of the range of the
ECM thresholds.

Lose ability to control speed of the Auxiliary


device.

352 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at the engine position


sensor +5 VDC supply pin 10 of the engine
harness.

Default value used for sensors connected to


this +5 VDC supply. Engine will power derate
to no-boost fueling and loss of engine protection for oil pressure, intake manifold, and ambient air pressure.

361 - Red

High current detected at the VP44 fuel pump


control valve.

Fueling to the injectors disabled and engine is


shut down.

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
08/04)

1-7

Fault Code - Light

Failure Description

Failure Results

362 - Yellow

Low or no voltage detected at the VP44 fuel


pump control valve.

Engine will lose power and may shut down.

363 - Yellow

No fuel control valve movement detected by


the VP44 fuel pump controller.

Engine power loss.

364* - Yellow

No communications or invalid data transfer


rate detected on data link between ECM and
VP44 fuel pump controller at pins 4 and 13 of
the engine harness.

Engine will run at a backup mode set speed


when throttle is off-idle.

365 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at VP44 fuel pump controller supply voltage circuit.

Engine may lose power and may shut down.

366 - Yellow

VP44 fuel pump controller battery voltage


measurement is outside the range between 6
and 24 VDC.

Engine will lose power and may shut down.

367 - Red

VP44 fuel pump speed / position sensor signal


lost.

Fueling to injectors disabled and engine will


shut down.

368 - Yellow

VP44 fuel pump controller can not achieve the


timing value being commanded by the engine
ECM.

Significant engine power loss.

369 - Yellow

VP44 fuel pump controller does not detect


engine position pulse at pin 7 of the engine
harness.

Significant engine power loss. Possible white


smoke.

372 - Yellow

VP44 fuel pump controller detects continuous


voltage at idle pump select pin 16 of the
engine harness ... OR...fuel pump controller
detects an open circuit or short circuit to
ground at idle select pin 16 of the engine
harness.

If communication is lost between the ECM and


VP44 fuel pump controller, engine will only
operate at a speed slightly higher than idle,
regardless of throttle position.

373 - Red

High voltage detected at VP44 fuel shut off


signal pin 6 of the engine harness.

Fueling to injectors is disabled and engine will


shut down.

374* - Yellow

VP44 fuel pump controller has detected an


internal error.

Response will vary from some power loss to


the engine shutting down.

375 - Yellow

Engine ECM is commanding a fueling or


timing value that the VP44 pump can not
achieve.

Possible no effect or engine may exhibit some


power loss.

376* - Red

No calibration in the VP44 fuel pump controller.

Fueling to injectors disabled and engine will


shut down.

377 - Yellow

VP44 fuel pump controller is not powering


down when key switch power is removed from
the ECM.

Equipment batteries may be drained low during long shutdown periods.

381* - Yellow

Error detected in cold start aid relay 1 enable


circuit at pin 41 of the OEM harness.

Intake air heater can not be fully energized by


the ECM. Possible white smoke and / or hard
starting.

382* - Yellow

Error detected in cold start aid relay 2 enable


circuit at pin 41 of the OEM harness.

Intake air heater can not be fully energized by


the ECM. Possible white smoke and / or hard
starting.

385 - Yellow

High voltage detected at OEM harness sensor


+5 VDC supply pin 10 of the OEM harness.

Sensors connected to this +5 VDC supply (i.e.


remote throttle position sensor) will not function.

1-8

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Fault Code - Light

Failure Description

Failure Results

386 - Yellow

High voltage detected at the engine position


sensor +5 VDC supply pin 10 of the engine
harness.

Default value used for sensors connected to


this +5 VDC supply. Engine will derate to noboost fueling and loss of engine protection for
oil pressure, intake manifold temperature, and
coolant temperature.

387 - Yellow

High voltage detected at the throttle position


sensor +5 VDC supply pin 29 of the OEM
harness.

Engine idles when the idle validation switch


indicates idle and ramps up to a default set
speed when idle validation switch indicates
off-idle.

391 - Yellow

Error detected in VP44 power supply relay


enable circuit at pin 43 of the engine harness.

Possible no effect on performance or engine


may not run.

415 - Red

Oil pressure signal indicates oil pressure is


below the very engine protection limit.

Speed derate and possible engine shutdown if


Engine Protection Shutdown feature is enabled.

418 - ????

Water-in-fuel signal indicates the water in the


fuel filter needs to be drained.

Excessive water in the fuel can lead to severe


fuel system damage.

419 - Yellow

An error in the intake manifold pressure sensor signal was detected by the ECM.

The engine is derated to no air setting.

422 - Yellow

Voltage detected simultaneously on both the


coolant level high and low signal pins (27 and
37) of the engine harness ...OR...no voltage
detected on either pin. (Fault is active for
Switch type coolant level sensors only)

No engine protection for coolant level.

429 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at water-in-fuel signal


pin 40 of the OEM harness.

No water-in-fuel protection.

431 - Yellow

Idle validation signals on pins 25 and 26 of the


OEM harness indicate voltage detected simultaneously on both pins (Open Circuit).

No effect on performance, but loss of idle


validation.

432 - Yellow

Idle validation signal at pin 26 of the OEM harness indicates the throttle is at the idle position
when the throttle position signal at pin 30 of
the OEM harness indicates the throttle is not
at the idle position when the throttle position
signal at pin 30 of the OEM harness indicates
the throttle is at the idle position.

Engine will only idle.

433 - Yellow

Boost pressure signal indicates boost pressure is high when other engine parameters
(i.e., speed and load) indicate boost pressure
should be low.

Possible overfueling during acceleration.


Increase in black smoke.

434* - Yellow

Supply voltage to the ECM fell below 6.0 VDC


for a fraction of a second ...OR...the ECM was
not allowed to power down correctly (retain
battery voltage for 30 seconds after key off).

Possible no noticeable performance effects


OR engine dying OR hard staring. Fault information, trip information, and maintenance
monitor data may be inaccurate.

441 - Yellow

Voltage detected at ECM power supply pins


38, 39, and 40 of the engine harness indicates
ECM supply voltage fell below 6 VDC.

Engine will die or run rough.

442 - Yellow

Voltage detected at ECM power supply pins


38, 39, and 40 of the engine harness indicates
ECM supply voltage is above the maximum
system voltage level.

None on performance.

443 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at throttle position sensor +5 VDC supply pin 29 of the OEM harness.

Engine idles when idle validation switch indicates idle and ramps up to a default set speed
when idle validation switch indicates off-idle.

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
1/04)

1-9

Fault Code - Light

Failure Description

Failure Results

444 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at OEM harness sensor


+5 VDC supply pin 10 of the OEM harness.

Sensors connected to this +5 VDC supply (i.e.,


remote throttle position sensor) will not function.

488 - Yellow

Intake manifold air temperature signal indicates intake manifold air temperature is above
the minimum engine protection threshold.

Power derate and possible engine shutdown if


Engine Protection Shutdown feature is
enabled.

489 - Yellow

Auxiliary device speed signal on pins 8 and 18


of the OEM harness is out of range of the ECM
threshold.

Lose ability to control the speed of the auxiliary device.

515 - Yellow

High voltage detected at the coolant level +5


VDC sensor supply voltage pin 49 of the
engine harness.

No engine protection for coolant level.

516 - Yellow

Low voltage detected at the coolant level +5


VDC sensor supply voltage pin 49 of the
engine harness.

No engine protection for coolant level.

517 - Yellow

A mechanically stuck fuel control valve has


been detected by the VP44 fuel pump controller.

Engine may shut down.

524 - Yellow

Error detected on the High Speed Governor


Droop selection switch input pin 24 of the
engine harness.

Operator can not select alternate HSG Droop,


Normal droop is used.

527* - Yellow

Error detected in the Dual Output Driver A


circuit pin 5 of the OEM harness.

The device controlled by the Dual Output Drive


A signal will not function properly.

528 - Yellow

Error detected on the Torque Curve Selection


switch input pin 39 of the OEM harness.

Operator can not select alternate torque


curves. Normal torque curve is used.

529* - Yellow

Error detected in the Dual Output Driver B


circuit pin 21 of the engine harness.

The device controlled by the Dual Output Driver B signal will not function properly.

551 - Yellow

Idle validation signals on pins 25 and 26 of the


OEM harness indicate no voltage on either
pin.

Engine will only idle.

599 or 779 - Yellow

Transmission temperature exceeds 245_F.

Engine will shut down.

611* - None

ECM detected the engine has initiated a


protection shutdown or has been keyed-off
while above a specified load limit.

No effect.

768 - Yellow

Error detected in the Output Device Driver


(Transmission Shift Modulation Signal) signal
pin 21 on the OEM harness.

Can not control the Transmission.

* Indicates multiple errors can generate this fault code.

1-10

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
08/04)

Engine Troubleshooting
The following chart includes some of the problems
that an operator may encounter during the service
life of a Cummins diesel engine. Always check the
easiest and obvious things first, such as the master
disconnect switch, the neutral start switch, an empty
fuel tank, closed fuel shut off, dead battery or corroded terminals. Study the problem thoroughly
before starting to work on the engine. Ask yourself
the following questions.
1. What were the warning signs preceding the
trouble?
Problem
1. Engine will not
crank or cranks
slowly

continued

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
08/04)

2. Has the engine been subjected to recent


repair or maintenance?
3. Has a similar trouble occurred before?
4. If the engine still runs, is it safe to continue
operation of the engine in an effort to diagnose the trouble?
Check the items most easily and inexpensively corrected before proceeding to the more difficult, time
consuming and expensive items. After a malfunction has been corrected, locate and correct the
cause of the trouble to prevent recurrence of the
same trouble.

Cause

Correction

1. Battery disconnect switch is turned


off.
2. Engine drive units are engaged.
3. Battery connections are broken,
loose or corroded.
4. Low battery charge.

1. Turn battery disconnect switch on.

11. Defective truck power solenoid


(L1).

11. Replace truck power solenoid (L1).

12. Defective neutral start relay (K5).

12. Replace neutral start relay (K5).

13. Defective starter solenoid (L2).

13. Replace starter solenoid (L2).

14. Defective starter.

14. Replace or repair starter.

15. Defective ignition switch (S1).

15. Refer to Component 4. of the


Component Troubleshooting
chart in Section 6.

2. Disengage engine driven units.


3. Check for damage. Replace, tighten or clean.
4. Check electrolyte level and specific
gravity. Recharge or replace batteries.
5. Battery rating is too low.
5. Replace with correct rated battery.
6. Oil for operating conditions is
6. Change oil and filter. Refer to the
incorrect.
Fuel and Lubricant Specifications in the Appendices for the
proper type of oil to be used.
7. Oil level is too high.
7. Check the oil level. Verify the oil
pan capacity. Drain excess oil if
necessary. Fill the system to the
specified level.
8. Oil temperature is too low.
8. Install oil pan heater.
9. Shifter is not in the neutral position. 9. Place shifter in the neutral position.
10. Circuit breaker (CB1, CB5, CB7,
10. Reset or replace circuit breaker.
CB19 or CB20; Illustrations 1-5
and 6-12) is tripped or defective.

1-11

Problem

Cause

Correction

1. Engine will not


crank or cranks
slowly
(Continued)

16. Blown fuse(s) to the ECM.

16. Replace fuse(s).

17. Loose or broken wires between


any of the components in Causes
9. thru 16. of this Problem.

17. Isolate and repair.

2. Engine difficult to
start or will not
start (no exhaust
smoke present)

1. Improper starting procedure.


2. Low fuel level.
3. Incorrect fuel grade is being used
or fuel quality is poor.
4. Electronic fault codes are active.

1. Verify proper starting procedure.


2. Fill the fuel tank.
3. Use the correct grade of fuel.

5. Fuel shutoff is malfunctioning.


6. Battery voltage is low.
7. Battery voltage supply to the electronic control module (ECM) is low,
interrupted, or open.
8. Moisture is in the wiring harness
connectors.
9. Air is in the fuel system.

10. Electronic control module (ECM) is


locked up.
11. Fuel filter is restricted.
12. Fuel supply is restricted.
13. Fuel pump overflow valve is malfunctioning.
14. Throttle linkage is mis-adjusted or
damaged.

1-12

4. Refer to Diagnostic Fault Codes


found earlier in this section for
instructions on how to read active
fault codes. If fault codes are
active, contact a Cummins Authorized Repair Facility.
5. Check for loose wires and verify
that the fuel shutoff valve is functioning properly.
6. Check the batteries and the
unswitched battery supply circuit.
7. Check the battery connections.
8. Dry the connectors with an electronics cleaner.
9. Check for air in the fuel system.
Tighten or replace the fuel connections, fuel lines, fuel hoses, and
fuel filters as required. Vent air
from the system.
10. Disconnect the battery cables for
30 seconds. Connect the battery
cables and start the engine.
11. Measure the fuel pressure before
and after the fuel filter.
12. Check fuel lines for restrictions.
13. Check / replace overflow valve.
14. Adjust or repair the linkage.

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Problem

Cause

3. Engine difficult to
start or will not
start (exhaust
smoke present)

1. Low fuel level.


2. Battery voltage is low.

4. Engine starts, but


will not keep running

1. Low fuel level.


2. Battery voltage supply to the electronic control module (ECM) is low,
interrupted, or open.
3. Idle speed is set too low for accessories.
4. Engine driven units are engaged.
5. Malfunctioning engine shut down
device.
6. Air is in the fuel system.

continued

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

Correction

1. Fill the fuel tank.


2. Check the batteries and the
unswitched battery supply circuit.
3. Engine cranking speed is too slow. 3. Check engine cranking RPM.
Refer to Problem 1. in this troubleshooting chart.
4. Starting aid needed for cold weath- 4. Check-repair or replace cold starter or is not working properly.
ing aid, if necessary.
5. Air is in the fuel system.
5. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
6. Fuel supply is restricted.
6. Check fuel lines for restrictions.
7. Fuel filter is restricted.
7. Measure the fuel pressure before
and after the fuel filter.
8. Fuel pump overflow valve is mal8. Check / replace overflow valve.
functioning.
9. Fuel lift pump is malfunctioning.
9. Check fuel lift pump for correct
operation. Check the pump output
pressure. Replace the fuel lift
pump if necessary.
10. Air intake system is restricted.
10. Check intake system.
11. Incorrect fuel grade is being used
11. Use the correct grade of fuel.
or fuel quality is poor.
12. Engine block heater is malfunction- 12. Check the electrical sources and
ing (if equipped).
wiring to the cylinder block heater.
Replace the block heater is necessary.
13. Fuel heater is malfunctioning (if
13. Check the fuel heater. Replace if
equipped).
necessary.
14. Electronic fault codes are active.
14. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.

7. Fuel filter or fuel suction line is


restricted.

1. Fill fuel tank.


2. Check the battery connections.
3. Check and adjust the low idle
screw.
4. Disengage the engine driven units.
5. Make sure shutdown is not occurring too soon.
6. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
7. Replace the fuel filter or remove
restriction from fuel suction line.

1-13

Problem

Cause

Correction

4. Engine starts, but


will not keep running
(Continued)

8. Incorrect fuel grade is being used


or fuel quality is poor.

8. Use the correct grade of fuel.

5. Engine speed
surges at low or
high idle

1. Low fuel level.


2. Engine idle speed is set too low.
3. Electronic fault codes are active.

1. Fill fuel tank.


2. Adjust the idle speed.
3. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
4. Dry the connectors with an electronics cleaner.
5. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
6. Measure the fuel pressure before
and after the fuel filter.
7. Check fuel lines for restrictions.
8. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
3. in this troubleshooting chart.
9. Use the correct grade of fuel.

4. Moisture is in the wiring harness


connectors.
5. Air is in the fuel system.
6. Fuel filter is restricted.
7. Fuel supply is restricted.
8. Fuel lift pump is malfunctioning.
9. Incorrect fuel grade is being used
or fuel quality is poor.

6. Engine runs rough


at idle

1. Engine is cold.

2. Electronic fault codes are active.


3. Idle speed is set too low for accessories.
4. Air is in the fuel system.
5. Fuel filter is restricted.
6. Fuel supply is restricted.
7. Fuel lift pump is malfunctioning.
8. Engine mounts are worn or
damaged.
9. Moisture is in the wiring harness
connectors.
10. Incorrect fuel grade is being used
or fuel quality is poor.

1-14

1. Allow the engine to warm to operating temperature. If the engine


will not reach operating temperature, refer to Problem 15. of this
troubleshooting chart.
2. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
3. Check and adjust the low idle
screw.
4. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
5. Replace fuel filter.
6. Check fuel lines for restrictions.
7. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
3. in this troubleshooting chart.
8. Replace engine mounts.
9. Dry the connectors with an electronics cleaner.
10. Use the correct grade of fuel.

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Problem
7. Engine runs rough
or misfires

Cause
1. Engine is cold.
2. Electronic fault codes are active.
3. Air is in the fuel system.
4. Incorrect fuel grade is being used
or fuel quality is poor.
5. Fuel leak.
6. Fuel filter is restricted.
7. Fuel supply is restricted.
8. Fuel lift pump is malfunctioning.
9. Engine mounts are worn or
damaged.
10. Moisture is in the wiring harness
connectors.

8. Lubricating oil
pressure is low

1. Engine angularity during operation


exceeds specification.
2. Oil does not meet specifications.

3. Oil filter is plugged.


4. Oil is contaminated with coolant or
fuel.
5. External oil leak.

6. Incorrect oil level.


7. Electronic fault codes are active.
8. Oil pressure switch, gauge, or
sensor is malfunctioning.

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

Correction
1. Refer to Correction 1. of Problem
6. in this troubleshooting chart.
2. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
3. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
4. Use correct grade of fuel.
5. Check the fuel lines, fuel connections, and fuel filters for leaks.
6. Replace fuel filter.
7. Check fuel lines for restrictions.
8. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
3. in this troubleshooting chart.
9. Replace engine mounts.
10. Dry the connectors with an electronics cleaner.

1. Refer to the Cummins Engine Data


Sheet.
2. Change the oil and filter. Refer to
Fuel and Lubricant Specifications in the Appendices for the
proper type of oil to be used.
3. Change oil and replace oil filter.
4. Refer to Problem 11. in this troubleshooting chart.
5. Inspect the engine for external oil
leaks. Tighten the capscrews, pipe
plugs, and fittings. Replace damaged gaskets.
6. Check the oil level. Add or drain
engine oil.
7. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
8. Check the oil pressure switch,
gauge, or sensor for correct operation.

1-15

Problem
9. Lubricating oil
pressure is high

Cause
1. Engine coolant temperature is too
low.
2. Oil pressure switch, gauge, or
sensor is malfunctioning.
3. Oil does not meet specifications.
4. Electronic fault codes are active.

10. Lubricating oil loss

1. External oil leak.


2. Low oil level.

3. Oil does not meet specifications.


4. Oil pressure switch, gauge, or
sensor is malfunctioning.
5. Electronic fault codes are active.
6. Oil cooler is leaking.
7. Air compressor is pumping oil into
the air system.
8. Blowby is excessive.
9. Turbocharger oil seal is leaking.

11. Lubricating oil is


contaminated

1. Oil sludge is excessive.


2. Oil is contaminated with coolant or
fuel.
3. Fuel lift pump is malfunctioning.
4. Bulk oil supply is contaminated.

1-16

Correction
1. Refer to Problem 15. of this troubleshooting chart.
2. Check the oil pressure switch,
gauge, or sensor for correct operation.
3. Refer to Correction 2. of Problem
8. in this troubleshooting chart.
4. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.

1. Refer to Correction 5. of Problem


8. in this troubleshooting chart.
2. Check the oil level. Verify the dipstick calibration and the oil pan
capacity. Fill the system to the
specified oil level.
3. Refer to Correction 2. of Problem
8. in this troubleshooting chart.
4. Check the oil pressure switch,
gauge, or sensor for correct operation.
5. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
6. Check the oil cooler for coolant
leaks and cracks.
7. Check the air lines for carbon buildup and oil.
8. Check for excessive blowby.
9. Check the turbocharger for oil
seals and leaks.

1. Change the oil and filter. Refer to


Problem 45. in this troubleshooting
chart.
2. Change the oil and filter. Replace
leaking cooling and/or fuel system
components.
3. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
3. in this troubleshooting chart.
4. Check bulk oil supply. Drain the oil
and replace with non-contaminated
oil. Replace oil filter(s).

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Problem
12. Coolant temperature is above normal (Gradual
Overheat)

Cause

1. Charge air cooler fins, radiator fins, 1. Inspect the charge air cooler, radiaor air conditioner condenser fins
tor, and air conditioner condenser
are damaged or obstructed with
fins. Clean if necessary.
debris.
2. Coolant level is low.
2. Inspect the engine and cooling system for external coolant leaks.
Repair if necessary. Add coolant.
3. Electronic fault codes are active.
3. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
4. Fan shroud is damaged or missing, 4. Inspect the shroud and recirculaor the air recirculation baffles are
tion baffles. Repair, replace, or
damaged or missing.
install if necessary.
5. Incorrect oil level.
5. Add or drain engine oil.
6. Oil is contaminated with coolant or 6. Refer to Problem 11. in this troublefuel.
shooting chart.
7. Radiator hose is collapsed,
7. Inspect the hoses and replace any
restricted, or leaking.
defective hoses.
8. Incorrect coolant mixture of anti8. Verify the concentration of antifreeze and water.
freeze in the coolant. Add antifreeze or water to bring concentration to the proper mixture. Refer to
Coolant in Section 5 for the correct coolant concentration.
9. Oil level is above or below proper
9. Check the oil level. Add or drain oil
level.
if necessary.
10. Coolant temperature gauge is mal- 10. Test the temperature gauge.
functioning.
Replace the gauge if necessary.
11. Fan drive belt is loose, tight, or not 11. Check belt tension and tighten /
correctly aligned.
loosen if necessary. Replace drive
belt if necessary.

13. Coolant tempera- 1. Coolant level is low.


ture is above normal (Sudden Overheat)
2. Electronic fault codes are active.
3. Air is in the cooling system.
4. Fan drive belt is broken.
5. Radiator cap(s) is incorrect, malfunctioning, or has low-pressure
rating.
6. Radiator hose is collapsed,
restricted, or leaking.

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

Correction

1. Inspect the engine and cooling system for external coolant leaks.
Repair if necessary. Add coolant.
2. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
3. Inspect and vent the cooling system. Refer to Filling The Cooling
System in Section 5.
4. Replace drive belt.
5. Replace radiator cap(s).
6. Inspect the hoses and replace any
defective hoses.

1-17

Problem

Cause

Correction

13. Coolant tempera- 7. Coolant temperature gauge is mal- 7. Test the temperature gauge.
ture is above norfunctioning.
Replace the gauge if necessary.
mal (Sudden Over- 8. Charge air cooler fins, radiator fins, 8. Inspect the charge air cooler, radiaheat)
or air conditioner condenser fins
tor, and air conditioner condenser
(Continued)
are damaged or obstructed with
fins. Clean if necessary.
debris.
14. Coolant loss

1. Low coolant level.

2. External coolant leak.

3. Radiator cap(s) is incorrect, malfunctioning, or has low-pressure


rating.
4. Radiator hose is collapsed,
restricted, or leaking.
5. Coolant fill line is restricted or
obstructed.
6. Coolant is rusty and contains
debris.

7. Engine is overheating.

15. Coolant temperature is below


normal

1. Coolant temperature gauge is malfunctioning.


2. Electronic fault codes are active.
3. Fan drive or fan controls are malfunctioning.
4. Incorrect thermostat or thermostat
is malfunctioning.

1-18

1. Inspect the engine and cooling system for external coolant leaks.
Repair / replace damaged cooling
components. Add coolant.
2. Inspect the engine for coolant leaking from hoses, draincocks, water
manifold, jumper tubes, expansion
and pipe plugs, fittings, radiator
core, air compressor and cylinder
head gaskets, lubricating oil cooler,
water pump seal, cylinder block, and
cab heater. Repair / replace damaged components.
3. Replace radiator cap(s).
4. Inspect the hoses and replace any
defective hoses.
5. Check the coolant fill line for
restrictions or obstructions.
6. Drain and flush the cooling system.
Fill with correct mixture of antifreeze and water (refer to Coolant
in Section 5 for the correct coolant
concentration).
7. Refer to Problems 12. and 13. in
this troubleshooting chart.
1. Test the temperature gauge.
Replace the gauge if necessary.
2. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
3. Check the fan drive and controls.
4. Check the thermostat for the correct part number and for correct
operation.

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Problem

Cause

16. Coolant is contam- 1. Coolant is rusty and contains


inated
debris.
2. Transmission oil cooler or torque
converter cooler is leaking.
3. Oil cooler on engine is leaking.
4. Cylinder head gasket is leaking.

17. Engine will not


shut off

1. Fuel shutoff is malfunctioning.


2. Engine is running on fumes drawn
into the air intake.
3. Fuel leak.

18. Fuel or oil leaking


from the exhaust
manifold

1. Intake air restriction is high.


2. Turbocharger drain line is
restricted.
3. Turbocharger oil seal is leaking.

19. Exhaust smoke is


excessive under
load

1. Engine is being lugged down.


2. Air is in the fuel system.
3. Air filter is restricted.
4. Air intake or exhaust leaks.

5. Turborcharger is malfunctioning.

Correction
1. Refer to Correction 6. of Problem
14. in this troubleshooting chart.
2. Check the transmission oil cooler
and torque converter cooler for
coolant leaks.
3. Check the oil cooler for coolant
leaks and cracks.
4. Check the cylinder head gasket.
Replace if necessary.
1. Check for loose wires and verify
that the fuel shutoff valve is functioning properly.
2. Inspect the air intake ducts.
Locate and isolate the source of
the fumes. Make repairs as
needed.
3. Check the fuel lines, fuel connections, and fuel filter for leaks using
a combustible gas detector service
tool.
1. Check the air intake system for
restriction.
2. Remove the turbocharger drain line
and check for restriction. Clean or
replace the drain line.
3. Check the turbocharger oil seal for
leaks and condition of seal.
1. Use lower gear.
2. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
3. Check air filter for restrictions.
Replace air filter if required.
4. Check the intake and exhaust systems for loose or damaged piping
connections and / or missing pipe
plugs. Check the turbocharger and
exhaust manifold mounting.
5. Monitor the turbocharger boost
pressure with an electronic service
tool.

continued

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

1-19

Problem
19. Exhaust smoke
excessive under
load
(Continued)

Cause
6. Engine is cold.

7. Air-fuel (AFC) control is leaking or


obstructed.

20. Engine vibration is


excessive

1. Belt-driven accessories are malfunctioning.

2. Air compressor pumping time is


excessive.
3. Engine idle speed is set too low
(electronically-controlled fuel systems).
4. Engine mounts are worn or
damaged.
5. Fan is loose, damaged, or has
excessive hub bearing end play.
6. Engine is misfiring.
7. Electronic fault codes are active.
8. Vibration damper is damaged.
9. Alternator bearing is worn or
damaged.
21. Engine noise is
excessive (Combustion Knocks)

1. Engine is operating at low ambient


temperature.
2. Ether starting aid (if equipped) is
malfunctioning.
3. Incorrect fuel grade is being used
or fuel quality is poor.
4. Air is in the fuel system.
5. Coolant temperature is below
normal.

1-20

Correction
6. Allow the engine to warm to operating temperature. If the engine
will not reach operating temperature, refer to Problem 15. in this
troubleshooting chart.
7. Check the AFC for leaks. Repair
any leaks found. Check and clean
AFC tubing and fittings for obstructions.
1. Check the fan hub, alternator, and
air conditioner compressor for
interference. Isolate belt-driven
accessories and check for vibration.
2. Refer to Problem 31. in this troubleshooting chart.
3. Verify the correct idle speed setting. Increase the idle speed with
the idle increment switch or an
electronic service tool.
4. Replace engine mounts.
5. Check the fan. Replace fan if
blade is missing or fan is damaged.
6. Refer to Problem 7. in this troubleshooting chart.
7. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
8. Inspect the vibration damper.
Replace if necessary.
9. Clean and replace the alternator.

1. Use under-the-hood intake air in


cold weather.
2. Repair or replace the ether starting
aids.
3. Use correct grade of fuel.
4. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
5. Refer to Problem 15. in this troubleshooting chart.

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Problem
22. Engine will not
reach rated speed
(rpm)

Cause
1. Electronic fault codes are active.
2. Truck speed is too low for
adequate cooling with high engine
load.
3. Tachometer is not calibrated or is
malfunctioning.

4. Air-fuel tube is leaking, wastegate


diaphragm is ruptured, or wastegate plumbing is damage.
5. Charge air cooler is restricted.
6. Fuel supply is restricted.
7. Exhaust back pressure is too high.
8. Fuel lift pump is malfunctioning.
9. Truck parasitics are excessive.

10. Engine power output is low.

23. Engine power output is low

1. Electronic fault codes are active.


2. Incorrect fuel grade is being used
or fuel quality is poor.
3. Engine is operating above recommended altitude.
4. Tachometer is not calibrated or is
malfunctioning.
5. Intake and exhaust system is
restricted.
6. Air intake or exhaust leaks.

Correction
1. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
2. Reduce the engine load. Increase
the engine (fan) rpm by downshifting.
3. Compare the tachometer reading
with a handheld tachometer or an
electronic service tool reading.
Calibrate or replace the tachometer
as required.
4. Tighten the fittings, repair plumbing, or replace wastegate diaphragm.
5. Inspect the charge air cooler for
internal and external restrictions.
6. Remove restriction from fuel
supply.
7. Measure and correct if back pressure is above specification.
8. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
3. in this troubleshooting chart.
9. Check the truck brakes for dragging, transmission malfunction,
cooling fan operation cycle time,
and engine-driven units.
10. Refer to Problem 23. in this troubleshooting chart.
1. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
2. Use correct grade of fuel.
3. Engine power decreases above
recommended altitude. Operate
this engine in altitudes under
11,000 feet.
4. Refer to Correction 3. of Problem
22. in this troubleshooting chart.
5. Check the intake and exhaust systems for restrictions. Inspect the
intake air filter and replace as
required.
6. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
19. in this troubleshooting chart.

continued

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

1-21

Problem
23 Engine power output is low
(Continued)

Cause
7. Air leak between the turbocharger
and intake manifold.

8. Charge air cooler is restricted or


leaking.
9. Fuel leak.

10. Air is in the fuel system.


11. Fuel supply is restricted.
12. Fuel return restriction is excessive.
13. Fuel filter is restricted.
14. Fuel pump overflow valve is malfunctioning.
15. Fuel lift pump is malfunctioning.
16. Truck parasitics are excessive.
17. Oil level is too high.

24. Fuel consumption


is excessive

1. Operator technique is incorrect.


2. Electronic fault codes are active.
3. Fuel leak.
4. Hourmeter is miscalibrated.

5. Air intake or exhaust leaks.


6. Air filter is restricted.

Correction
7. Check for leaks in the air crossover
tube, charge air cooler connections, hoses, or through holes in
the manifold cover and repair or
replace if necessary.
8. Inspect the charge air cooler for air
restrictions or leaks.
9. Check the fuel lines, fuel connections, and fuel filter(s) for leaks.
Check the fuel lines to the fuel
tank.
10. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
11. Remove restriction from fuel
supply.
12. Inspect the fuel return lines for
restrictions.
13. Replace fuel filter.
14. Check the overflow valve. Replace
if necessary.
15. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
3. in this troubleshooting chart.
16. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
22. in this troubleshooting chart.
17. Check the oil level. Verify the oil
pan capacity. Drain excess oil if
necessary. Fill the system to the
specified level.

1. Review operation for correct gear


shifts, deceleration, and idling.
2. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
3. Check the fuel lines, fuel connections, and fuel filters for leaks.
4. Check the hourmeter. Calibrate or
replace the hourmeter if necessary.
Calculate fuel consumption with
new figures.
5. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
19. in this troubleshooting chart.
6. Check air filter for restrictions.
Replace air filter if required.

continued

1-22

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Problem

Cause

Correction

24. Fuel consumption


is excessive
(Continued)

7. Equipment and environmental fac- 7. Consider ambient temperatures,


tors are affecting fuel consumption.
wind, and routes when evaluating
fuel consumption.
8. Additional loading from malfunc8. Check / repair accessories and
tioning accessories.
vehicle components.
9. Oil level is too high.
9. Refer to Correction 17. of Problem
23. in this troubleshooting chart.

25. Engine noise is


excessive

1. Fan drive belt is loose, tight, or not 1. Check belt tension and tighten /
correctly aligned.
loosen if necessary. Replace drive
belt if necessary.
2. Oil is thin or diluted.
2. Use proper quality engine oil (refer
to the Fuel and Lubricant Specifications in the Appendices for the
proper type of oil to be used).
3. Vibration damper is damaged.
3. Inspect the vibration damper.
Replace if necessary.
4. Air intake or exhaust leaks.
4. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
19. in this troubleshooting chart.
5. Air filter is restricted.
5. Check air filter for restrictions.
Replace air filter if required.
6. Coolant temperature is above
6. Refer to Problems 12. and 13. in
normal.
this troubleshooting chart.
7. Engine mounts are worn or
7. Replace engine mounts.
damaged.
8. Air conditioner compressor noise is 8. Isolate component and check for
excessive.
noise.
9. Fan is loose, damaged, or has
9. Check the fan. Replace fan if
excessive hub bearing end play.
blade is missing or fan is damaged.

26. Alternator is not


charging or insufficiently charging

1. Alternator pulley is loose on shaft.


2. Batteries have malfunctioned.
3. Battery cables or connections are
loose, broken or corroded (excessive resistance).
4. Alternator is overloaded or alternator capacity is below specification.
5. Alternator or voltage regulator is
malfunctioning.
6. Electrical system is open (tripped
circuit breakers, broken wires, or
loose connections).

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

1. Tighten pulley.
2. Check the condition of the batteries. Replace batteries if required.
3. Check battery cables and connections.
4. Install an alternator with a higher
capacity.
5. Test the alternator output. Replace
the alternator or voltage regulator if
required.
6. Reset circuit breakers, repair wires,
or make good connections.

1-23

Problem

Cause

27. Alternator is overcharging

1. Batteries have failed.

28. Excessive white


smoke

1. Improper starting procedure.


2. Engine is cold.

1. Check the condition of the batteries. Replace batteries if required.


2. Voltage regulator is malfunctioning. 2. Check the voltage regulator.
Replace the voltage regulator if
required.

3. Engine is operating at low ambient


temperature.
4. Electronic fault codes are active.
5. Starting aid (if equipped) is malfunctioning.
6. Coolant temperature is below
normal.
7. Incorrect fuel grade is being used
or fuel quality is poor.
8. Air intake or exhaust leaks.
9. Air filter is restricted.
10. Charge air cooler is restricted or
leaking.
29. Excessive black
smoke

1. Electronic fault codes are active.


2. Air filter is restricted.
3. Air intake or exhaust leaks.
4. Charge air cooler is restricted or
leaking.

30. Air compressor air


pressure rises
slowly

continued

1-24

Correction

1. Air system leaks.

1. Verify proper starting procedure.


2. Allow the engine to warm to operating temperature. If the engine
will not reach operating temperature, refer to Problem 15. in this
troubleshooting chart.
3. Use under-the-hood intake air in
cold weather.
4. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
5. Check for correct operation of the
cold starting aid.
6. Refer to Problem 15. in this troubleshooting chart.
7. Use the correct grade of fuel.
8. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
19. in this troubleshooting chart.
9. Check air filter for restrictions.
Replace air filter if required.
10. Inspect the charge air cooler for air
restrictions or leaks.
1. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
2. Check air filter for restrictions.
Replace air filter if required.
3. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
19. in this troubleshooting chart.
4. Inspect the charge air cooler for air
restrictions or leaks.
1. Block the truck wheels and check
the air system for leaks with the
parking brake applied and
released. Check for leaks from the
air compressor gaskets and the air
system hoses, fittings, tanks, and
valves.

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Problem

Cause

Correction

30. Air compressor air


pressure rises
slowly
(Continued)

2. Carbon buildup is excessive in the


air discharge line, check valve, or
cylinder head.

2. Check for carbon buildup. Replace


the air compressor discharge line
and cylinder head assembly if
required.

31. Air compressor


cycles frequently

1. Air system leaks.

1. Refer to Correction 1. of Problem


30. in this troubleshooting chart.
2. Check for carbon buildup. Replace
the air compressor discharge line if
required.
3. Check the air compressor duty
cycle.

2. Carbon buildup is excessive in the


air discharge line, downstream air
valves, or cylinder head.
3. Air compressor pumping time is
excessive.

32. Air compressor


noise is excessive

1. Carbon buildup is excessive in the


air discharge line, check valve, or
cylinder head.
2. Ice buildup in the air system components.

33. Air compressor is


pumping excess
lubricating oil into
the air system

1. Lubricating oil drain interval is


excessive.
2. Air intake system restriction to air
compressor is excessive.
3. Air compressor pumping time is
excessive.
4. Carbon buildup is excessive in the
air discharge line, check valve, or
cylinder head.

34. Air compressor will 1. Air system leaks.


not maintain adequate air pressure
(not pumping continuously) or air
compressor will
not stop pumping

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

1. Check for carbon buildup. Replace


the air compressor discharge line
and cylinder head assembly if
required.
2. Check for ice in low spots of the air
discharge line, dryer inlet (if
equipped), and elbow fittings. On
HolsetR models, also check the
Econ valve (if equipped).
1. Verify the correct lubricating oil
drain interval.
2. Check the air intake piping.
3. Check the air compressor duty
cycle.
4. Check for carbon buildup. Replace
the air compressor discharge line
and cylinder head assembly if
required.
1. Refer to Correction 1. of Problem
30. in this troubleshooting chart.

1-25

Problem

Cause

35. Cranking fuel pres- 1. Low fuel level.


sure is low
2. Fuel filter is restricted.
3. Fuel connections on the low-pressure side of the pump are loose.
4. Fuel suction standpipe in the fuel
tank is broken.
5. Fuel lift pump is malfunctioning.

36. Engine acceleration or response is


poor

1. Low fuel level.


2. Truck parasitics are excessive.
3. Electronic fault codes are active.
4. Fuel leak.
5. Intake manifold air temperature is
above normal.
6. Charge air cooler is restricted or
leaking.
7. Air intake or exhaust leaks.
8. Air is in the fuel system.
9. Air filter is restricted.
10. Incorrect fuel grade is being used
or fuel quality is poor.
11. Fuel filter is restricted.
12. Fuel lift pump is malfunctioning.

37. Engine shuts off


unexpectedly or
dies during deceleration

1. Engine will not start.


2. Low fuel level.
3. Electronic fault codes are active.
4. Idle shutdown feature is activated.
5. Moisture is in the wiring harness
connectors.

Correction
1. Fill fuel tank.
2. Replace fuel filter.
3. Tighten all fuel fittings and connections between the fuel tanks and
the fuel pump.
4. Check and repair the standpipe if
necessary.
5. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
3. in this troubleshooting chart.
1. Fill fuel tank.
2. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
22. in this troubleshooting chart.
3. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
4. Check the fuel lines, fuel connections, and fuel filters for leaks.
5. Refer to Problem 42. in this troubleshooting chart.
6. Inspect the charge air cooler for air
restrictions or leaks.
7. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
19. in this troubleshooting chart.
8. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
9. Check air filter for restrictions.
Replace air filter if required.
10. Use the correct grade of fuel.
11. Replace fuel filter.
12. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
3. in this troubleshooting chart.
1. Refer to Problems 2. and 3. in this
troubleshooting chart.
2. Fill fuel tank.
3. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
4. Check the time limit on idle shutdown with an electronic service
tool.
5. Dry the connectors with an electronics cleaner.

continued

1-26

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Problem
37. Engine shuts off
unexpectedly or
dies during deceleration
(Continued)

Cause
6. Battery voltage supply to the electronic control module (ECM) is low,
interrupted, or open.
7. Air is in the fuel system.
8. Fuel shutoff is malfunctioning.

38. Engine surges


under load or in
operating range

1. Low fuel level.


2. Electronic fault codes are active.
3. Moisture is in the wiring harness
connectors.
4. Air is in the fuel system.
5. Fuel filter is restricted.
6. Truck parasitics are excessive.
7. Incorrect fuel grade is being used
or fuel quality is poor.

Correction
6. Check the battery connections.
7. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
8. Refer to Correction 1. of Problem
17. in this troubleshooting chart.
1. Fill fuel tank.
2. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
3. Dry the connectors with an electronics cleaner.
4. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
5. Replace fuel filter.
6. Refer to Correction 9. of Problem
22. in this troubleshooting chart.
7. Use the correct grade of fuel.

39. Fault code warning 1. Diagnostic shorting plug is


lamps stay on (no
installed.
apparent reason)
2. Diagnostic switch is in the ON
position.
3. Electronic fault codes are active.

1. Remove the diagnostic shorting


plug.
2. Turn off the diagnostic switch.

40. Fault code warning 1. Ignition switch is in the OFF posilamps do not illution.
minate
2. Battery voltage supply to the electronic control module (ECM) is low,
interrupted, or open.

1. Turn the ignition switch to the ON


position.
2. Check the battery connections.

41. Fuel is in the oil

1. Low oil and coolant temperatures


can be caused by long idle time
(greater than 10 minutes). Shut off
the engine rather than idle for long
periods. If idle time is necessary,
raise the idle speed.
2. Check the bulk oil supply. Drain
the oil and replace with non-contaminated oil. Replace oil filter.

1. Engine idle time is excessive.

2. Bulk oil supply is contaminated.

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

3. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem


2. in this troubleshooting chart.

1-27

Problem
42. Intake manifold air
temperature is
above normal

Cause

1. Charge air cooler fins, radiator fins, 1. Inspect the charge air cooler, radiaor air conditioner condenser fins
tor, and air conditioner condenser
are damaged or obstructed with
fins. Clean if necessary.
debris.
2. Fan drive belt or water pump belt is 2. Check the fan drive belt and water
broken.
pump belt. Replace belts if
required.
3. Fan shroud is damaged or missing, 3. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
12. in this troubleshooting chart.
or the air recirculation baffles are
damaged or missing.
4. Truck speed is too low for
4. Reduce the engine load. Increase
adequate cooling with high engine
the engine (fan) rpm by downshifting.
load.
5. Verify that the engine and truck
5. Truck cooling system is not
adequate.
cooling systems are using the correct components.

43. Intake manifold


1. Air intake or exhaust leaks.
pressure (boost) is
below normal
2. Air filter is restricted.
3. Charge air cooler is restricted or
leaking.
4. Electronic fault codes are active.
5. Engine power output is low.

44. Lubricating oil


consumption is
excessive

1. Crankcase ventilation system is


plugged.
2. Oil does not meet specifications.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1-28

Correction

1. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem


19. in this troubleshooting chart.
2. Check air filter for restrictions.
Replace air filter if required.
3. Inspect the charge air cooler for air
restrictions or leaks.
4. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem
2. in this troubleshooting chart.
5. Refer to Problem 23. in this troubleshooting chart.

1. Check and clean the vent tube.

2. Refer to Correction 2. of Problem


8. in this troubleshooting chart.
Oil drain interval is excessive.
3. Verify the correct oil drain interval.
External oil leak.
4. Refer to Correction 5. of Problem
8. in this troubleshooting chart.
Verify the oil consumption rate.
5. Check the amount of oil added
versus the hours of operation.
Air compressor is pumping lubricat- 6. Check the air lines for carbon building oil into the air system.
up and oil.

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Problem
45. Lubricating oil
sludge in the
crankcase is
excessive

46. Turbocharger
leaks engine oil or
fuel

Cause
1. Bulk oil supply is contaminated.
2. Coolant temperature is below
normal.
3. Crankcase ventilation system is
plugged.
4. Incorrect fuel grade is being used
or fuel quality is poor.
5. Oil does not meet specifications.

1. Engine is being operated for


extended periods under light or no
load conditions.
2. Lubricating oil or fuel is entering
the turbocharger.
3. Turbocharger drain line is
restricted.
4. Turbocharger oil supply line is
loose or leaking.

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

Correction
1. Refer to Correction 2. of Problem
41. in this troubleshooting chart.
2. Refer to Problem 15. in this troubleshooting chart.
3. Check and clean the vent tube.
4. Use the correct grade of fuel.
5. Refer to Correction 2. of Problem
8. in this troubleshooting chart.

1. Operate engine under loaded conditions.


2. Remove the intake and exhaust
piping, and check for oil or fuel.
3. Remove the turbocharger drain line
and check for restriction. Clean or
replace the drain line.
4. Check and tighten the oil supply
line fitting(s) if necessary.

1-29

Cummins QSB5.9-C155 Diesel Engine


2200 rpm

Engine Operating Conditions


Lubrication System

English

Metric

Lubricating oil pressure (at rated speed with engine at . . . . . . . . . . . . psi (kPa)
operating temperature)

80

551

Minimum for safe operation (at idle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . psi (kPa)

30

207

*Lubrication oil temperature maximum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F (C)

260

126.7

Oil pan capacity High / Low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qt (L)

13 / 12.3

12.3 / 11.6

Total engine oil capacity with filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qt (L)

15

14.2

Dirty air cleaner . . . . . in H2O (mm H2O)

25

635

Clean air cleaner . . . . in H2O (mm H2O)

15

381

Exhaust back pressure maximum full load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in Hg (mm Hg)

3.0

76

Max. allowable air temp. rise over ambient at intake manifold . . . . . . . F (C)

30.6

17

Dirty fuel filter . . . . . . . . . in Hg (mm Hg)

203

Clean fuel filter . . . . . . . . in Hg (mm Hg)

101

Max. fuel drain restriction before (or without) check valve . . . . . in Hg (mm Hg)

20

507

Maximum supply fuel flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lb/hr (kg/hr)

176

80

Normal temp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F (C)

190

88

Full load speed . . . . . . . gal/min (L/min)

46

174

Engine coolant capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qt (L)

10.4

9.8

Min. pressure cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . psi (kPa)

48

Max. top tank temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F (C)

212

100

Min. top tank temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F (C)

160

71

Start to open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F (C)

180

82

Fully open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F (C)

200

93

Air System
Air inlet restriction,
full load maximum

Fuel System
Maximum fuel inlet restriction

Cooling System
Coolant flow

Thermostats

*The lubricating oil temperature range is based on the temperature measurement in the oil gallery. When measuring the oil temperature in the pan, it will normally be approximately 10F higher than the oil gallery temperature.

1-30

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
08/04)

Hoist Circuit

PLACE THE FOLLOWING ILLUSTRATION IN


A FOLDER ENVELOPE:
Illustration 1-5 - 06B2132

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

1-31

1-32

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Section 2

Fuel System (Cummins QSB5.9-C155)


Introduction. Fuel is drawn from the fuel tank
through an inline fuel filter, fuel / water separator
and fuel filter by the fuel pump. From here, the
fuel is sent to the fuel injection pump and on to
the injectors. Unused fuel is returned to the fuel
tank.
Major Components. The fuel system consists of
a fuel tank, fuel lift pump, fuel injection pump, fuel
filters, fuel solenoid relay, fuel injectors and fuel
lines.
Adding Fuel (Illustration 2-5). When adding diesel fuel to the fuel tank, make sure the fuel strainer is in the filler neck. Adding fuel with the strainer
removed could lead to debris entering the fuel
tank, resulting in poor engine performance.
Changing The Fuel Filter (Illustrations 2-1 and
2-2). With the engine shut down, perform the following procedures to replace the fuel filter and
fuel / water separator. They should be changed
every 250 hours or more often if conditions warrant.

BLEED
SCREW

DRAIN VALVE

Illustration 2-1. Fuel Filter Change (T250S-360L)


BLEED
SCREW


S Dispose of used fuel filters and drained
fuel in accordance to federal and local
regulations.
S Mechanical tightening of the fuel filters may
result in seal and / or cartridge damage.
Tighten the filters by hand only.
1. Provide a suitable container to catch drained
fuel and use a strap wrench to remove the filters from the adapter.
2. Clean the area around the filter heads.
3. Fill the new filters with clean fuel and lubricate
the O-ring seals with clean oil.
4. Lubricate the seal on the fuel filters with clean
fuel.
5. Install filters and tighten them 1/2 turn after the
seals contact the adapter.
Changing The In-line Fuel Filter (Illustration 2-3).
The in-line fuel filter, located in the suction fuel
line, should be changed every 6 months or 1500
hours, whichever comes first, or more often if
conditions warrant.
 Dispose of used fuel filter in
accordance to federal and local regulations.

TT180S
180S -- 360L
360L (Rev.
(10/02)
02/04)

FUEL
FILTER

DRAIN
VALVE

FUEL / WATER
SEPARATOR

Illustration 2-2. Fuel Filter Change (T180S-220S)


Draining The Fuel / Water Separator (Illustrations 2-1 and 2-2). The fuel / water separator
should be drained daily to remove water and sediments from the fuel. Perform the following procedures to drain the water from the fuel / water separator:

S Dispose of drained fuel in accordance to
federal and local regulations.
S Do not overtighten the drain valve. Overtightening may cause thread damage.

2-1

1. Provide a suitable container to catch drained


water and open the drain valve approximately
4 complete turns (counterclockwise) until the
valve drops down 1. Drain the fuel / water
separator of water until clear fuel is visible.

IN-LINE
FUEL
FILTER

2. Once the water has drained, push the valve up


and turn clockwise to close the drain valve.
NOTE: If more than 2 ounces is drained, refilling
of the filter is required to prevent hard starting.
Fuel System Air Bleeding. If the fuel filter is
changed in accordance with the procedures on
this and the previous page, no manual bleeding of
the fuel lines is required. Small amounts of air,
introduced by changing the filters or the injection
pump supply line, will be vented automatically at
the injection pump through the fuel drain manifold.

Illustration 2-3. In-line Fuel Filter Change

NOTE: Manual bleeding is required if:


S the fuel filter is not filled prior to installation.
S the injection pump is replaced.
S the high pressure fuel line connections are
loosened.
S initial engine start up or start up after an
extended period of no engine operation.
S the truck fuel tank has run empty.
Manual Fuel System Air Bleeding (Illustration
2-1). If any of the conditions, listed in the note
above, have occurred, perform the following procedures to manually bleed air from the fuel system:

LEVER

1. Remove the fuel filter(s) and fill completely


with fuel. Re-install fuel filter(s).
2. Open the bleed screw located on the filter
housing.

Illustration 2-4. Fuel Lift Pump

3. Operate the lever on the fuel lift pump (Illustration 2-4) until the fuel flowing from the fitting is
free of air.
4. Tighten the bleed screw to a torque value of
7 ft-lbs.
General Information
Fuel Capacity:
T180S - 220S
T250S - 360L

2-2

35 Gallons
50 Gallons

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

FILLER
NECK
FUEL LEVEL
SENDING UNIT

FILLER CAP

FUEL
STRAINER

DRAIN PLUG

Illustration 2-5. Fuel Tank

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

2-3

Section 3

Air Intake System

SAFETY
FILTER

AIR
CLEANER
HOUSING
VACUATOR
PRECLEANER CAP

PRIMARY
FILTER

COVER
LATCH
IF EQUIPPED

Illustration 3-1. Air Intake System Components


Introduction. The air cleaner is designed to be
serviced efficiently and quickly. Intake air enters
the air cleaner through the cap or optional precleaner. When the air reaches the inlet of the air
cleaner housing, a helical ramp imparts a highspeed circular motion to the intake air. This action
separates up to 85% of the dust from the air by
centrifugal action. The dust is then forced out the
vacuator. The air then passes through the primary
and safety filters, where the rest of the dust is
removed, before the air enters the engine.
Major Components (Illustration 3-1). The air
cleaner consists of the primary filter, safety filter,

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

air cleaner housing, cap (or optional precleaner),


vacuator and an air restriction indicator.
Servicing (Illustration 3-1). If the equipment is
being operated under extremely dusty conditions,
the vacuator should be checked every day to be
certain it is not clogged. Perform the following
procedures to service the filters and air cleaner
components. Overservicing of the filters is not
recommended. Filter efficiency increases with
initial operation.

 Death or serious injury could

3-1

result from a runaway truck. Park the truck on


a hard, level surface, apply the parking brake,
block the wheels in both directions to prevent
movement of the truck and Lock Out & Tag Out
the truck.

S Normally the primary filter should be
changed after 1500 hours of operation or
when the air restriction indicator shows red.
In dusty conditions, the primary filter may
have to be changed more often.
S Replace the safety filter yearly or every 3000
hours, whichever comes first.
S Do Not use ether type fuels to help start the
engine for this may damage the engine.

cleaner housing.
S

Never use the latches on the cover to force


the primary filter into the air cleaner housing.
Using the latches to push the filter in could
cause damage to the air cleaner housing. Do
not use the cover to push the primary filter into
place.

9. Push the reset button on the top of the air


restriction indicator.
10. Clean and inspect the vacuator.
11. Inspect the air intake system for leaks.

1. Park the truck on a hard, level surface, block


the wheels in both directions and apply the
parking brake.
2. When the air restriction indicator (see Illustration 3-2) indicates filter servicing is required or
the service interval has occurred, unlatch and
remove the cover. Remove the primary filter.
In high humidity situations, the air restriction
indicator may indicate a restricted condition
due to moisture in the filter. When the filter
dries out, restriction levels drop back to normal. The indicator will now have to be reset
(refer to procedure 9. to reset the indicator).
3. Remove the safety filter.
4. Remove all dust and debris from the air cleaner housing with a water-dampened cloth.

Illustration 3-2. Air Restriction Indicator

 Do not use flammable liquids


to clean the inside of the air cleaner housing.
Only use a cloth dampened with water.
5. Replace the safety filter. Change the safety
filter if at the yearly (or 3000 hours) service
interval or as conditions warrant.
6. Change and replace the primary filter.
7. Re-install the primary filter in the air cleaner
housing.
8. Re-install the cover.
NOTES:
S Ensure that cover gasket is assembled to
cover before re-installing the cover onto the air

3-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Air Intake System Troubleshooting


Problem
1. Short filter life
(primary filter)

2. Short filter life


(safety filter)

3. Airborne contaminants entering the


engine

Cause

1. Improper assembly when prior filter 1. Properly install.


was replaced.
2. Damaged or missing vacuator.

2. Replace vacuator.

3. Damaged seal on the cover


assembly.

3. Replace seal on the cover


assembly.

4. Damaged air cleaner body.

4. Replace air cleaner body.

5. Latch is unclamped on cover.

5. Clamp latch down.

6. Excessively dusty environment.

6. Replace filter as needed.

7. Incorrect filter used.

7. Replace with proper filter.

8. Seal on dust cover is not sealing.

8. Ensure that no foreign object is


between seal and metal mating
surface.

1. Bypassing primary filter.

1.

a. Seal of primary filter is not sealing.

a. Replace filter.

b. Damaged primary filter.

b. Replace primary filter.

1. Damaged filter(s).

1. Replace filter(s).

2. Damaged seals or sealing surfaces.

2. Replace damaged components.

3. Damaged or loose connections


between air cleaner body and
engine.

3. Replace or repair connections.

4. Incorrect filter used.

4. Replace with proper filter.

4. Air restriction indi- 1. Restriction in air hose between the


cator indicates
air restriction indicator and the
green condition
safety fitting.
and primary filter is
2. Air leak in air hose between the air
clogged
restriction indicator and the safety
fitting.

180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
TT180S
08/03)

Correction

1. Remove restriction.

2. Repair or replace air hose.

3. Damaged air restriction indicator.

3. Replace air restriction indicator.

4. Damaged safety fitting.

4. Replace safety fitting.

5. Loose system connections.

5. Tighten connections.

3-3

Section 4

Exhaust System
Introduction. The exhaust system is responsible
for venting exhaust gases, generated by the
engine, to the atmosphere. It also provides noise
suppression.


S Do not service exhaust system until exhaust
system is cool. Failure to do so may result
in severe burns.
S Keep all flammable materials away from
exhaust components.
S Avoid breathing toxic exhaust fumes.
S All internal combustion engines produce
carbon monoxide, which can become concentrated in enclosed areas. Exposure to
carbon monoxide can result in serious injuries or health hazards, including death.
Properly ventilate work areas, vent exhaust
fumes, and keep shop clean and dry.
(A) Initial symptoms of carbon monoxide
poisoning include headaches, dizziness, and nausea. The smell of lift truck
exhaust means carbon monoxide is
present.
(B) If you experience initial symptoms, shut
off the lift truck engine, notify your
employer, and obtain medical attention.
S Never rely on a control device to reduce carbon monoxide output. Carbon monoxide
levels can change depending on maintenance. Make sure carbon monoxide level
testing is included in regular maintenance
procedures and that ventilation is used as
the primary control for emissions.
Maintenance. There is minimal maintenance
required on the standard exhaust system.
1. Check for leaks at all pipe connections.
2. Check for holes in the muffler and exhaust
piping.
3. Keep muffler guard clean and in place.
4. Keep guard clean and in place.
5. Keep handle clean and in place.
6. Keep exhaust system free of debris.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Exhaust Purifier (if equipped). The exhaust purifier converts up to 90% of the harmful diesel
exhaust gases, such as carbon monoxide and
hydrocarbons, into harmless carbon dioxide and
water vapor by forcing the exhaust gases to pass
through a porous ceramic honeycomb configured
catalyst. This design promotes uniform gas flow
through the catalyst element while generating only
minimal back pressure.
 Avoid using fuel and oil additives which contain lead, sodium, arsenic,
phosphorus, mercury, antimony, zinc, copper,
tin, iron, nickel, and chrome. These additives
will poison the exhaust purifier and reduce its
useful life.
Exhaust Purifier Maintenance (Illustration 4-1).
If the diesel engine is allowed to idle for long periods of time, the exhaust purifier may accumulate
deposits of soot. These deposits can block the
effectiveness of the exhaust purifier and gradually
reduce the engines power. The exhaust purifier
can be removed and cleaned using the procedures listed below.
1. Remove the clamps to remove the exhaust
purifier from the exhaust system.
2. Remove clamps to remove the end cones to
expose the catalyst.
3. Wash the exhaust purifier by using steam or
high pressure water (not greater than 100 psi),
keeping the tip of the nozzle at least 2 inches
away from the face of the catalyst. Do not use
detergents. Wash the exhaust purifier through
both the inlet and outlet ends. Continue the
washing operation until the water, coming from
the exhaust purifier, is clear or almost clear.
4. Dry the exhaust purifier with compressed air
(no greater than 100 psi), keeping the nozzle
at least 2 inches away. The purpose of this
operation is to remove as much water from the
exhaust purifier as possible. The exhaust purifier should now be clean.
5. Place the exhaust purifier back into the
exhaust system and operate the engine. Be
sure to tighten all clamps and fittings as
necessary.

4-1

CLAMPS

Illustration 4-1. Exhaust Purifier

4-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Section 5

Cooling System
Introduction. The engine cooling system cools
the engine. Refer to Section 9A for transmission
cooling system and Section 15C for the wet disc
brakes cooling system (if equipped) to find more
detailed cooling information on these particular
cooling systems.

to do so may result in personal injury from


heated coolant spray.

Major Components (Illustration 5-3). The


engine cooling system consists of coolant, radiator, recovery bottle, hoses connecting the radiator
to the engine and a water pump to circulate the
coolant.

1. Always use a properly corrosion inhibited


coolant.

Operation (Illustration 5-4). When the engine is


started, the water pump draws coolant from the
radiator into the engine block. The coolant is circulated through the engine until it reaches a temperature of approximately 180_F, at which point
the thermostat will start to open. This will allow
coolant to flow back into the top of the radiator
core.

Cooling Requirements. The following requirements must be followed for trouble-free operation
of the cooling system.

2. Maintain prescribed inhibitor strength.


3. Use low silicate antifreeze with an ethylene
glycol base.
4. Always follow the manufacturers recommendations on inhibitor usage and handling. Refer
to the engine operation and maintenance
manual for coolant requirements.
5. Do Not use soluble oil!
6. Sealer type antifreeze should Not be used.

Coolant. The cooling system of this equipment is


protected to -34_F (-36_C) and 228_F (108.9_C).
The solution is a 50 - 50 mixture of ethylene glycol
base antifreeze to water solution. Use soft water
in the coolant mixture. It is recommended that
50% solution be maintained year round.
Radiator (Illustration 5-3). The radiator is forcedair-cooled. Access to its core is provided through
a 15 psi radiator cap located in the top of the
radiator and is accessible by removing the access
cover located behind the right hood door (see
Illustration 5-2). When changing the coolant,
remove cap and fill the radiator from this port.
This will allow for a quicker, more efficient method
of filling the radiator.
Checking The Coolant Level (Illustration 5-1).
The coolant level should be checked daily. Normally, the coolant level can be maintained by adding coolant to the recovery bottle. The coolant
level is full when the coolant is visible at the cold
mark (engine has not been operated) on the side
of the coolant recovery bottle. The coolant level is
also full when the coolant is visible at the hot mark
(engine has reached operating temperature). If
the coolant level is too low, add coolant until the
coolant level reaches the cold mark on the side of
the recovery bottle. Do not overfill.

 Coolant should only be added
to the cooling system when the engine has
been shut down and allowed to cool. Failure

TT180S
180S -- 360L
360L (Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

Illustration 5-1. Coolant Level


Draining / Flushing The Cooling System. The
cooling system should be drained and flushed
every 2 years or 6000 hours, whichever comes
first. The cooling system is drained by opening
the drain cock on the bottom of the radiator.
Removal of the radiator filler cap will allow air to
enter the cooling passages and ensure that the

5-1

coolant drains completely from the system. To


gain access to the radiator cap, remove the
access cover located behind the right hood door
(see Illustration 5-2). Leave the drain cock open
until all coolant has been allowed to drain from the
system.


S Shut down the engine and allow the engine
to cool before opening the radiator cap and
the drain cock to drain the cooling system.
S Coolant should only be added to the cooling
system when the engine has been shut down
and allowed to cool. Failure to do so may
result in personal injury from heated coolant
spray.
S Dispose of coolant in accordance with
federal and local regulations.
 When freezing weather is
expected, any cooling system not adequately
protected by antifreeze should be drained.
RADIATOR CAP
ACCESS COVER


 Coolant should only be added
to the cooling system when the engine has
been shut down and allowed to cool. Failure
to do so may result in personal injury from
heated coolant spray.
General Information
Coolant Capacity

9 Gallons

Coolant Temperature. When the engine warms


up, the indicator for the coolant temperature
gauge should be in the green temperature area
(180_F - 210_F). The thermostat will start to open
at approximately 180_F and fully open when the
coolant temperature reaches approximately
200_F.
Inspection. Components of the cooling system
should be checked periodically to keep the engine
operating at peak efficiency. The radiator should
be inspected externally for excessive dirt or oil
buildup. The radiator should be cleaned externally as conditions warrant. The cooling system
hoses should be inspected and any hose that is
abnormally hard or soft should be replaced immediately. Check the hose clamps to make sure they
are tight. All external leaks should be corrected
as soon as detected. The shroud should be tight
against the radiator core to prevent recirculation of
air which may lower cooling efficiency. Check the
fan belts for proper tension.
Drive Belt Tension. The proper tension should
be maintained on all drive belts. Refer to Drive
Belt Tension in Section 1 for the proper tension
values.

Illustration 5-2. Coolant Level


Filling The Cooling System. Before starting the
engine, close the drain cock and fill the cooling
system. If the capacity of the cooling system is
unknown, measure the amount of water necessary to fill the cooling system. Drain the cooling
system and refill with the desired amounts of
water and antifreeze, or pre-mix to proper proportions before filling.

5-2

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

RADIATOR

15 PSI
PRESSURE CAP

BRAKE FLUID COOLER


(USED IF EQUIPPED WITH
WET DISC BRAKES)

OVERFLOW
TANK

TRANSMISSION
FLUID COOLER

FAN
PLATE
SHROUD

Illustration 5-3. Cooling Components Identification

TT180S
180S -- 360L
360L (Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

5-3

Hoist Circuit

5-4

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Illustration 5-4. Cooling System Circuit (Cummins QSB5.9-C155)

COOLANT RECOVERY
BOTTLE

DEAERATION
LINE

UPPER
RADIATOR
HOSE

RADIATOR
LOWER
RADIATOR
HOSE
CUMMINS QSB5.9-C155
ENGINE

COOLANT FLOW

MAIN FLOW, THERMOSTAT OPEN


DEAERATION REMOVES UNWANTED AIR FROM COOLING CIRCUIT
RECOVERY / MAKE UP FLOW

TT180S
180S -- 360L
360L (Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

05-2340

5-5

Section 6

Electrical System
Introduction. This machine incorporates a
12-volt DC electrical system. Optional equipment
selected by the customer will determine the electrical equipment to be installed in addition to the
standard electrical system.
Major Components. The 12 volt electrical system consists of a battery, battery charging alternator, voltage regulator, starter switch, starter, and
starter solenoid. The remainder of the electrical
system consists of lights and / or gauges,
switches, circuit breakers, and accessory circuits.
The above items are included as standard equipment in the electrical system. Refer to Illustrations
6-1 through 6-14 for location of components and
wiring diagrams.
Battery. The machine is equipped with an industrial type, long life battery. The battery is perishable and requires servicing on a regular basis.
Batteries that are properly cared for can be
expected to give long trouble-free service. Perform the following procedures to maintain the battery in a serviceable condition.


S Under no circumstances allow any sparks or
open flames around battery. No smoking.
Batteries produce a highly flammable gas
which could lead to battery explosion if
ignited.
S Never check the battery by placing a metal
object across the battery posts.
 Overfilling cells of the battery
can cause poor performance or early failure.
1. Check the level of the electrolyte regularly.
Add distilled water if necessary to bring the
electrolyte level to 3/8 inch above the separator plates. Do not overfill.
2. Keep the top of the battery, terminals, and
cable clamps clean. When necessary, wash
them with a solution of baking soda and water,
and rinse with clean water.
 Do not allow the soda and
water solution to enter the battery cells.
3. Inspect the cables, clamps, and hold down
bracket regularly. Replace any damaged
parts. Clean and re-apply a light coating of

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
04/04)

grease to the terminals and cable clamps


when necessary.
NOTE: A number of devices and applications are
available on the commercial market to deter corrosion on battery terminal connections.
4. Check the electrical system if the battery
becomes discharged repeatedly.
5. If the battery indicator illuminates, the alternator or alternator circuit is defective.
NOTE: If the truck is to be inoperative or idle for
more than 30 days, remove the battery. The battery should be stored in a cool, dry place. The
electrolyte level should be checked regularly and
the battery kept fully charged.
Booster Battery Connection Procedure. Accidentally reversing the battery connections must be
avoided. If a booster battery is to be used, first
connect the positive (+) terminal of booster battery
to the positive (+) terminal of discharged battery
and then connect the negative (-) terminal of
booster battery to engine or body ground (-)
(Refer to the decal below). Never cross polarity of
the battery terminals. Disconnect cables in the
exact reverse order from above.

DANGER

SMOKING, FLAMES, ARCS, OR SPARKS MAY RESULT IN BATTERY EXPLOSION.


KEEP METAL TOOLS AWAY FROM BATTERY TERMINALS.
BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID WHICH WILL BURN SKIN ON CONTACT;
WEAR RUBBER GLOVES AND EYE PROTECTION WHEN WORKING WITH BATTERY.
FLUSH WITH WATER AND SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION IN CASE OF CONTACT.
WHEN JUMP STARTING:
DO NOT LEAN OVER BATTERY WHEN MAKING CONNECTION.
FIRST CONNECT POSITIVE (+) TERMINAL OF BOOSTER BATTERY TO
POSITIVE (+) TERMINAL OF DISCHARGED BATTERY.
THEN CONNECT NEGATIVE (-) TERMINAL OF BOOSTER BATTERY TO ENGINE OR
BODY GROUND (-). NEVER CROSS POLARITY OF TERMINALS.
DISCONNECT CABLES IN EXACT REVERSE ORDER.
3375 245

Alternator. The standard alternator for the


Cummins QSB5.9-C155 engines is a 100 amp
alternator. It should be expected to give long,
trouble-free service; however, the diodes and transistors in the alternator circuit are very sensitive
and can be easily destroyed. The following precautions should be observed when working on or
around the alternator.

6-1

Avoid grounding the output wires or the field wires


between the alternator and the regulator. Never
run an alternator on an open circuit.
Grounding an alternators output wires or terminals, which are always hot regardless of whether
or not the engine is running or accidentally reversing of the battery polarity, will destroy the diodes.
Grounding the field circuit will also result in the
destruction of the diodes. Some voltage regulators provide protection against some of these circumstances; however, it is recommended that
extreme caution be used.
Never disconnect the battery while the alternator
is in operation. Disconnecting the battery will

result in damage to the diodes, caused by the


momentary high voltage and current induced by
the instantaneous collapse of the magnetic field
surrounding the field windings.
 Accidentally reversing the
battery polarity will destroy the diodes of the
alternator circuit.
NOTE: It is normal for alternator light to stay on
when engine is started. Once engine is accelerated, the light should go out.

06-2355 SHT. 01

Illustration 6-1. Dash Panel

6-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

CB5 CB6
20
15
AMP AMP

HORN &
WORK
LIGHTS

CB7
15
AMP

CB8
20
AMP

CB18 CB4 CB3 CB2


20
20
15
20
AMP AMP AMP AMP

CB9
10
AMP

FUEL
HEATER DEFROSTER ELECTRIC
CUTOFF
SHIFTER
VALVE
POWER
&
APC
AUTO /
MANUAL
SWITCH

AIR RIDE
SEAT
POWER

GAUGE & FRONT


PANEL
WIPER
LIGHT
POWER

CB1
10
AMP

TOP &
REAR
WIPER

IGNITION
SWITCH
POWER

NOTE: Circuit breakers are located on the


bottom side of the dash.

Illustration 6-2. Dash Circuit Breakers

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

6-3

CB13 (15 amp) FORWARD


ALARM, REVERSE ALARM,
& STROBE

CB17 (20 amp) AUXILIARY


LIGHTS
CB16 (20 amp) WORK
LIGHTS

CB12 (15 amp) HYDRAULIC


CONTROL SWITCHES
CB10 (15 amp) DOME LIGHT,
CAB FAN, & CAMERA
SYSTEM
CB15 (38 amp) AIR
CONDITIONER

Illustration 6-3. Electrical Box Circuit Breakers (Later Model Trucks)

6-4

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

CB13 (15 amp) FORWARD


ALARM, REVERSE ALARM,
& STROBE
CB12 (15 amp) HYDRAULIC
CONTROL SWITCHES

CB17 (20 amp) AUXILIARY


LIGHTS
CB16 (20 amp) WORK
LIGHTS

CB10 (15 amp) DOME LIGHT,


CAB FAN, & CAMERA
SYSTEM
CB15 (38 amp) AIR
CONDITIONER

Illustration 6-4. Electrical Box Circuit Breakers (Early Model Trucks)

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

6-5

Component Troubleshooting
Alternator. The alternator provides 13.8 - 14.4
VDC at 100 amps of power for the electrical system and trickle charges the battery when the
engine is being operated.
The most effective way to troubleshoot an alternator is with an ammeter on the output of the alternator. Another good check is with a voltmeter
across the battery. With the engine operating at a
moderate speed, the voltmeter reading should
never exceed 15.5 VDC. If reading exceeds 15.5
VDC, the alternator is defective and requires
replacing. Should the alternator output drop
below 12 VDC, the alternator is defective and
requires replacing.
Perform the following procedures below for abnormal charging system operation.
1. Insure that the undercharged condition (below
12 VDC) has not been caused by accessories
having been left on for extended periods of
time.
2. Check the drive belt for proper tension (refer to
Drive Belt Tension in Section 1).
3. Ensure that battery is good and capable of
holding a charge.
4. Inspect the wiring for defects. Check all connections for tightness and cleanliness, including the slip connectors at the alternator and
connections at the battery.
5. With the ignition switch on and all wiring harness leads connected, connect a voltmeter
from:
a. alternator BAT terminal to ground
b. alternator #1 terminal to ground
c. alternator #2 terminal to ground
An infinity reading indicates an open circuit
between the voltmeter connection and battery. Repair if required.
6. With all accessories turned off, connect a voltmeter across the battery. Operate engine at
moderate speed. If voltage is 15.5 VDC or
higher, replace the alternator.
Circuit Breakers. Circuit breakers are employed
in the electrical system and act similar to fuses,
protecting the electrical circuits and valuable components from overloads which could damage

6-6

them. Perform the following troubleshooting procedures to troubleshoot a circuit breaker.


1. Turn the ignition key to the Ignition position.
2. If the circuit breaker is tripped, reset the circuit
breaker.
3. If the circuit breaker immediately retrips,
remove all wires from the output side (load
side) of the circuit breaker.
4. Reset the circuit breaker. If the circuit breaker
retrips, the circuit breaker is bad and must be
replaced.
5. If the circuit breaker maintains a set state, one
of the output circuits is shorted. Reconnect
the wires one by one to the output side (load
side) until the circuit breaker trips. Troubleshoot the circuit of the wire, that tripped the
circuit breaker, for a short.
6. Isolate and remove the short from the circuit.
Automatic 90 amp Circuit Breaker. The automatic 90 amp circuit breaker is located on the right
side of engine. It will automatically reset itself if
it trips. If the circuit breaker cannot maintain a
set state, perform the following troubleshooting
procedures to troubleshoot the automatic circuit
breaker.
1. Turn the ignition key to the Off position.
2. Remove all wires from the output side (load
side) of the circuit breaker.
3. Turn the ignition key to the Ignition position.
If the circuit breaker retrips, the circuit breaker
is bad and must be replaced.
4. If the circuit breaker maintains a set state, one
of the output circuits is shorted. Reconnect
the wires one by one to the output side (load
side) until the circuit breaker trips. Troubleshoot the circuit of the wire, that tripped the
circuit breaker, for a short.
5. Isolate and remove the short from the circuit.
Single-Pole, Single-Throw 30 amp Relays
(Illustration 6-5). A relay is nothing more than an
electrically controlled switch. Relays are always
shown on electrical circuits in a de-energized
state. The internal switch, common at pin 30,
toggles between pins 87A (when de-energized)
and 87 (when energized). Pins 86 and 85 of the
relay will energize the coil of the relay. Pin 85, in
most cases, is always the ground side and pin 86,

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

in most cases, is always the hot side. Either signal can be sent to the relay to energize it. Ensure
that pin 85 is properly grounded, when required,
and / or that 12 VDC is present at pin 86 when it is
required.
When the relay is de-energized, the internal
switch connects pins 30 and 87A completing the
circuit of the two pins. When the relay is energized, the coil shifts the switch, connecting pins
30 and 87 completing the circuit of the two pins.
The most effective way to troubleshoot the relay is
with an ohmmeter. This can be accomplished by
removing the female spade connectors from pins
30, 87, and 87A. In a de-energized state, ensure
that pins 30 and 87A have continuity between
them. With an ohmmeter, check the resistance
between pins 30 and 87a. The ohmmeter should
indicate a reading of 0 - 40 ohms. Energize the
relay and check the resistance between pins 30
and 87. The ohmmeter should indicate a reading
of 0 - 40 ohms. If these two checks are good, the
relay is good. If one of these checks fails and 12
VDC required at pin 86 was or was not present, or
ground signal at pin 85 was or was not present,
dependant on the desired state of relay (ener-

Common
Contact

Normally Closed
Contact (when relay
is de-energized)
Normally Open
Contact (when relay
is de-energized)

gized or de-energized), the relay is bad and must


be replaced.
Single-Pole, Single-Throw 10 amp Relays with
L.E.D.s (Illustration 6-6). A relay is nothing more
than an electrically controlled switch. Relays are
always shown on electrical circuits in a de-energized state. The positive side of the relay coil is
pin 14 while the negative side of the coil is pin 13.
Either signal, 12 VDC or ground (or both), can be
sent to the relay coil to energize the relay.
When the relay is de-energized, the internal
switch connects pins 9 and 1 completing the circuit of the two pins. When the relay is energized,
the coil shifts the switch, connecting pins 9 and 5
completing the circuit of the two pins.
When the L.E.D. is illuminated, the coil of the relay
is energized. This does not indicate that the contact points of the internal switches are functioning
properly. Do not rely on the L.E.D. to give the full
operational status of the relay.
The most effective way to troubleshoot this type
relay is with an ohmmeter. This can be accomplished by removing the wires at relay socket terminals 9, 5, and 1. In a de-energized state,
ensure that terminals 9 and 1 have continuity
between them. With an ohmmeter, check the
resistance between terminals 9 and 1. The ohmmeter should indicate a reading of 0 - 40 ohms.
Energize the relay and check the resistance
between terminals 9 and 5. The ohmmeter should
indicate a reading of 0 - 40 ohms. If these two
checks are good, the relay is good. If one of
these checks fails and 12 VDC required at terminal 14 was or was not present, or ground signal at
terminal 13 was or was not present, dependant on
the desired state of relay (energized or de-energized), the relay is bad and must be replaced.
Double-Pole, Double-Throw 10 amp Relays
with L.E.D.s (Illustration 6-7). A relay is nothing
more than an electrically controlled switch. Relays
are always shown on electrical circuits in a de-energized state. The positive side of the relay coil is
pin 14 while the negative side of the coil is pin 13.
Either signal, 12 VDC or ground (or both), can be
sent to the relay coil to energize the relay.
When the relay is de-energized, the internal
switch connects pins (9 and 1) and pins (12 and
4) completing the circuit of both sets of pins.

Illustration 6-5. SP, ST 30 amp Relay

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

When the relay is energized, the coil shifts the


switch, connecting pins (9 and 5) and pins (12 and

6-7

nal 14 was or was not present, or ground signal at


terminal 13 was or was not present, dependant on
the desired state of relay (energized or de-energized), the relay is bad and must be replaced.

1
5
14

13
9

4
8

14

13

Illustration 6-6. SP, ST 10 amp Relay


9

8) completing the circuit of both sets of pins.


When the L.E.D. is illuminated, the coil of the relay
is energized. This does not indicate that the contact points of the internal switches are functioning
properly. Do not rely on the L.E.D. to give the full
operational status of the relay.
The most effective way to troubleshoot this type
relay is with an ohmmeter. This can be accomplished by removing the wires at relay socket terminals (12, 8, and 4) and terminals (9, 5, and 1).
In a de-energized state, ensure that terminals (9
and 1) and terminals (12 and 4) have continuity
between them. With an ohmmeter, check the
resistance between terminals (9 and 1) and terminals (12 and 4). The ohmmeter should indicate a
reading of 0 - 40 ohms. Energize the relay and
check the resistance between terminals (9 and 5)
and terminals (12 and 8). The ohmmeter should
indicate a reading of 0 - 40 ohms. If these two
checks are good, the relay is good. If one of
these checks fails and 12 VDC required at termi-

6-8

12

Illustration 6-7. DP, DT 10 amp Relay


Double-Pole, Double-Throw 15 amp Relays
(Illustration 6-8). A relay is nothing more than an
electrically controlled switch. Relays are always
shown on electrical circuits in a de-energized
state. The positive side of the relay coil is pin 14
while the negative side of the coil is pin 13. Either
signal, 12 VDC or ground (or both), can be sent to
the relay coil to energize the relay.
When the relay is de-energized, the internal
switch connects pins (9 and 1) and pins (12 and
4) completing the circuit of both sets of pins.
When the relay is energized, the coil shifts the
switch, connecting pins (9 and 5) and pins (12 and
8) completing the circuit of both sets of pins.

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L- (Rev.
360L (10/02)
07/03)

The most effective way to troubleshoot this type


relay is with an ohmmeter. This can be accomplished by removing the wires at relay socket terminals (12, 8, and 4) and terminals (9, 5, and 1).
In a de-energized state, ensure that terminals (9
and 1) and terminals (12 and 4) have continuity
between them. With an ohmmeter, check the
resistance between terminals (9 and 1) and terminals (12 and 4). The ohmmeter should indicate a
reading of 0 - 40 ohms. Energize the relay and
check the resistance between terminals (9 and 5)
and terminals (12 and 8). The ohmmeter should
indicate a reading of 0 - 40 ohms. If these two
checks are good, the relay is good. If one of
these checks fails and 12 VDC required at terminal 14 was or was not present, or ground signal at
terminal 13 was or was not present, dependant on
the desired state of relay (energized or de-energized), the relay is bad and must be replaced.

14

13

Double-Pole, Double-Throw Latching Relays


(Illustration 6-9). A relay is nothing more than an
electrically controlled switch. This type of relay is
shown in a reset state. A latching relay has a
power saving feature. It does not require the relay
coil to be energized at all times to maintain the set
state. The positive side of the relay coil is pin 14
while the negative side of the coil is pin 13 for the
set state of the relay. The internal red flag of the
relay will be visible in the small window, located at
the top of relays cover, indicating a set state. In a
set state, pins (10 and 5) and pins (6 and 8) of the
relay will be closed and continuity exists between
each set of pins. In a reset state, the positive side
of the relay coil is pin 12 while the negative side of
the coil is pin 9. In a reset state, pins (10 and 1)
and pins (6 and 4) of the relay will be closed and
continuity exists between each set of pins. The
internal red flag of the relay will not be visible in
the small window in the top of the relays cover,
indicating a reset state. A constant 12 VDC signal
is not required to set or reset the latching relay. A
momentary 12 VDC signal is required at either the
set or reset coil, depending on the desired state of
the relay, to set or reset the relay.
The most effective way to troubleshoot this type
relay is with an ohmmeter. This can be accomplished by removing the wires at relay socket terminals (10, 1, and 5) and (6, 8, and 4). Set the
relay by applying 12 VDC to pin 14. In a set state
(the internal red flag is visible in the window),
ensure that terminals (10 and 5) and (6 and 8)
have continuity between them. With an ohmmeter, check the resistance between terminals (10
and 5) and then terminals (6 and 8). The ohmmeter should indicate a reading of 0 - 40 ohms.
Reset the relay by applying 12 VDC to pin 12 (the
internal red flag should not be visible in the window). Check the resistance between terminals (6
and 4) and then terminals (10 and 1). The ohmmeter should indicate a reading of 0 - 40 ohms. If
these four checks are good, the relay is good. If
one of these checks fails and 12 VDC required at
terminals (14 or 12) was or was not present and
ground signal at terminals (13 or 9) was present,
dependant on the desired state of relay (set or
reset), the relay is bad and must be replaced.

12

Illustration 6-8. DP, DT 15 amp Relay

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

6-9

switch will switch, closing the circuit of the white


and orange wires. The white and orange wires
will have continuity between them only as long as
the proximity switch senses its target. The maximum targeting distance is approximately 3/8.

2
4

The most effective way to troubleshoot the proximity switch is with an ohmmeter. This can be
accomplished by disconnecting the weatherpack
connector (located approximately 3 foot from the
proximity switch), jumpering the red wires at each
end and jumpering the black wires at each end.
Target the proximity switch (the red L.E.D. should
illuminate) and check the continuity of the white
and orange wires located on the proximity switch
side of the weatherpack. The ohmmeter should
indicate a reading of 0 - 40 ohms. Remove the
target from the proximity switch and with an ohmmeter, check the continuity between the white and
orange wires. The ohmmeter should now read
infinity If these two checks are good, the proximity
switch is good. If one of these checks fails, the
proximity switch is bad and must be replaced. Do
not rely on the red L.E.D. as a sole indicator that
the internal switch did, in fact, close. Always
check the continuity between the white and
orange wires as described above.

6
14

13

9
10

L.E.D.

12

Illustration 6-9. DP, DT Latching Relay


30mm Proximity Switches (Illustration 6-10).
The proximity switches employed on Taylor equipment are state-of-the-art switching devices. The
red wire of the proximity switch powers the proximity switch itself and also powers the red L.E.D.
on the cable side of the proximity switch. The
black wire is the ground side of the proximity
switch while the white wire is the common post of
the internal switch. The blue wire is the normal
closed post of the internal switch and the orange
wire is the normally open post of the internal
switch.
The proximity switch will be energized when the
proximity switch senses its target. Once this happens, the red L.E.D. will illuminate and the internal

6-10

RED

BLUE
WHITE

BLACK

ORANGE

NC
COM.
NO

Illustration 6-10. Proximity Switch

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Single-Pole, Single-Throw, Maintain Contact


Switches. A switch is designed with the purpose
of controlling an electrical circuit by completing or
opening the circuit. With an ohmmeter, check the
resistance between the contact points of the
switch. With the switch closed (completing the
circuit), the ohmmeter reading should indicate 0 40 ohms. With the switch open (opening the circuit), the ohmmeter reading should be infinity. If
the above checks are good, the switch is good. If
any of the above checks fail, the switch is bad and
must be replaced.
Single-Pole, Double-Throw, Momentary Rocker
Switches. This type of switch operates on the
principle that the circuit is closed only when the
switch is held in the closed state. Once the switch
is released, the circuit will open. This switch is
checked like an On-Off switch with the exception
that the switch must be held closed to complete
resistance checks.
Solenoids. A solenoid is an electrical component. When electricity is applied to the coil, the
solenoid will form an electromagnet. The magnetic field will pull or push an armature into the coil
(based on application). The armature can be connected to a switch in electrical circuits to turn the
switch on or off. An armature can also be used to
open or close valves.
Solenoids employed as electrical switches can be
troubleshot with an ohmmeter. Remove the two
wires from the two larger posts of the solenoid.
Energize the solenoid. With an ohmmeter, check
the resistance between the two larger posts. The
ohmmeter should indicate between 0 - 40 ohms
nominally.

Exercise care not to reverse polarity because


some solenoids employ internal diodes which can
be destroyed when the polarity is reversed. The
solenoids employed on the transmission control
valve contain diodes. The black wire of the coil
connects to the ground side of the circuit while the
red wire goes to the positive side of the circuit.
Diodes (Illustration 6-11). Diodes are one-way
conductors that provide isolation. Current flow
through a diode is from anode to cathode. They
are easily proven good by using an ohmmeter.
When using the ohmmeter, place the leads of the
ohmmeter on the opposite ends of the diode.
Observe the ohmmeter reading. Then reverse the
ohmmeter leads on the ends of the diode.
Observe the ohmmeter reading. The ohmmeter
readings should indicate a higher ohm resistance
in one direction opposed to the other direction
because the current generated by the ohmmeter
is sufficient enough to forward-bias the diode.
Current Flow

Cathode

Anode

Illustration 6-11. Diode

Solenoids employed as hydraulic switches are


used to open and close spools of valves. The
simplest way to prove the solenoid coil good is to
energize the solenoid and then, with a metal
object, touch the nut that secures the coil to the
cartridge. The magnetic field generated when the
coil becomes an electromagnet will be significant
enough to pull the metal object to the nut (some
solenoids employ a metal nut encased in plastic
and will require removal in order to detect the
magnetic field). This will prove the coil good; however, the armature may be stuck. If the hydraulic
circuit is still defective at this point, remove the coil
and cartridge. Now energize the coil, the armature inside the cartridge should shift. If the armature inside the cartridge did not shift and the coil is
magnetized, replace the cartridge.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

6-11

Refer to Illustrations 6-12 thru 6-14 for component reference


Component
1. Battery

Problem
1. Low voltage.

Correction
1.
a. Low electrolyte level. Check
electrolyte level in battery, fill
with distilled water as required,
and recharge battery.
b. Alternator output is bad. Refer
to the Alternator troubleshooting section below.
c. Loose, broken, or corroded
wires. Repair or replace wires.
d. Ensure that low voltage condition has not been caused by
accessories having been left
on for extended periods of
time.

2. Alternator

1. Low output voltage (voltage is


below 12 VDC).

1.
a. Ensure drive belts are tight.
b. Inspect the wiring for defects.
Check all connections for tightness and cleanliness, including the slip connectors at the
alternator and connections at
the battery.
c. Defective alternator. Replace
alternator.

3. Battery Disconnect
Switch (if equipped)

6-12

2. High output voltage (voltage


exceeds 15.5 VDC).

2. Defective alternator. Replace


alternator.

1. When key switch is in the ON


position, contact points of switch
do not close.

1. Remove wires from the switch,


turn the switch on. With an ohmmeter, check the resistance across
the contact points. The ohmmeter
reading should indicate 0 - 40
Ohms.

2. When key switch is in the OFF


position, contact points of switch
do not open.

2. Remove wires from the switch,


turn the switch off. With an ohmmeter, check the resistance across
contact points. The ohmmeter
reading should indicate infinity.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Component
4. Ignition Switch

continued

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Problem

Correction

1. Ignition switch (S1, Illustration


6-12) does not close (accessory
position).

1. On the back of the ignition switch


(S1, Illustration 6-12), at the B terminal, you should see 12 VDC
straight from the battery, provided
that the truck is not equipped with
a battery disconnect switch. If
equipped with a battery disconnect switch, ensure that it is
turned on. Turn the key to the
ignition position, at the I terminal,
you should see 12 VDC, if not,
remove the wires from the I terminal and recheck voltage. If 12
VDC is now present, you have a
short. If 12 VDC is not present
and 12 VDC was present at the B
terminal, replace the ignition
switch (S1). To isolate short,
reconnect the wires to the I terminal one at a time checking voltage
with each connection. When the
voltage drops, the wire, that was
just connected, is shorted. Isolate
and remove short.

2. Ignition switch (S1, Illustration


6-12) does not close (start position).

2. The truck is equipped with an antirestart ignition switch (S1).


Should the truck fail to start on the
first attempt, the key must be
turned fully off to reset the ignition
switch, allowing the B (Battery)
and S (Start) contacts to close.
This is a momentary position that
should only make contact when
the key is fully turned. On the
back of the ignition switch (S1,
Illustration 6-12), at the B terminal,
you should see 12 VDC straight
from the battery. Turn the key to
the start position. On the back of
the ignition switch (S1), at the S
terminal, you should see 12 VDC,
if not, remove the wire from the S
terminal. Turn the ignition switch
(S1) to the start position and
recheck for 12 VDC at the S terminal. If the 12 VDC is now present,
the wire, just removed, is shorted.
Isolate and remove the short. If
12 VDC is not present and
(continued)

6-13

Component

Problem

(Continued)
12 VDC was present at the B terminal, replace the ignition switch
(S1).

4. Ignition Switch
(Continued)

5. Wires

1. Wire has lost continuity.

Electrical System Troubleshooting


(Illustrations 6-12 thru 6-14)
Eng Oil light (DS1, Illustration 6-12). The engine
oil light will illuminate when the engine oil pressure
switch (S17, Illustration 1-3) has closed. The
engine oil pressure switch (S17) will close
between 7 - 10 psi on falling engine oil pressure.
Battery light (DS3, Illustration 6-12). When the
battery light illuminates, it lets the operator know
that there is a problem with the alternator. Refer
to the Component Troubleshooting of the Alternator found earlier in this section.
Seat Belt light (DS4, Illustration 6-12). The seat
belt light will only illuminate when the key is in the
ignition (or start) position and the seat belt is
unfastened. With the seat belt fastened, the seat
belt switch (S18) will send a ground through wire
#38, energizing the seat belt relay (K2) and breaking the contact between pins #30 and #87A of
relay (K2), removing the ground from the seat belt
light (DS4).
Trans Temp light (DS5, Illustration 6-12). The
trans temp light will illuminate when the transmission oil temperature exceeds 245_F and the transmission temperature switch (S16), which is normally open, closes. The simplest way to check
this switch is to shut down the engine, and allow
the engine and transmission to cool. Then, with
an ohmmeter, measure the resistance between
the posts on the transmission oil temperature
switch (S16) and the chassis ground. The ohmmeter reading should indicate infinity (open circuit). If the ohmmeter reading indicates a short,
then the switch must be replaced.

6-14

Correction

1. Isolate the wire from the circuit


(Ohm out the wire). Ohms will
vary according to the length of the
wire. Expect to see low Ohms if
wire is good.

Shift Fail light (DS6, if equipped, Illustration


6-12). The shift fail light is controlled by the
APC 70 (refer to Section 9C for a description of
the APC 70) and will illuminate only when the
operator has attempted an improper shifting procedure. The only purpose of this light is to let the
operator know that he or she is outside of the
operating parameters.
Low Air light (DS7, Illustration 6-12). The low air
light will illuminate when the air pressure falls
below 60 psi. The low air pressure switch (S14), a
normally closed switch, will close when the air
pressure drops below 60 psi, sending ground
through wire #31 to complete the circuit to the low
air light (DS7). In addition to the low air light being
illuminated, an audible alarm will be heard from
the low air / shut down buzzer (LS5). When the
air pressure drops to 40 psi, the parking brake
valve will pop out, applying the parking brake,
closing the parking brake switch (S12). As a
result, this will energize the brake saver relays (K8
and K9, Illustration 6-14), taking away the grounds
from the forward and reverse solenoids of the control valve that is located on the transmission. This
inhibits the operator from driving through the
brakes. The air pressure gauge in the instrument
panel will assist in determining if the low air switch
(S14) is defective, if a short exists on wire #31, or
if a low air pressure problem exists. If the air pressure gauge indicates above 60 psi, remove wire
#31 from the low air pressure switch (S14). If the
low air light (DS7) does not go out, wire #31 is
shorted out.

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Brake Fault light (DS8, if equipped, Illustration


6-12). The brake fault circuit is probably the most
difficult circuit to troubleshoot on the entire truck.
There are three signals in parallel capable of illuminating the brake fault light (DS8).
It is imperative that the technician understand how
these switches work to isolate the source of the
failure. The simplest way to troubleshoot is to
remove the signal wire #32 from the switches
(S23, S24, and S27), one switch at a time. Start
the engine and see if the brake fault light (DS8) is
illuminated. By removing the signal wire #32 from
the switch (S23, S24, or S27), the switch will be
eliminated from the circuit. Once the defective
circuit has been removed, the brake fault light
(DS8) will not illuminate. Next, the technician
must determine if the switch is bad or if the circuit
the switch (S23, S24, or S27) is monitoring, is at
fault.
Troubleshoot the switches (S23, S24, and S27) as
follows:
1. The power cluster overstroke indicator switch
(S27) is located on the end cover between the
shell assembly and the tube cylinder of the
pressure converter. The overstroke indicator
switch is a normally open switch. A visual
inspection of the switch will confirm overstroke
condition. The brass colored indicator rod will
be protruding from the end cover approximately 3/4 to 1. The indicator rod must be physically reseated. The most common cause of
the brake fault light (DS8) illuminating is when
an overstroke condition has occurred.
2. The brake coolant temperature switch (S24,
Illustration 6-12) is located in the brake manifold valve. The brake coolant temperature
switch is a normally open switch that will close
at 190_F. The simplest way to check this
switch is to turn the truck off and allow the
truck to cool. With an ohmmeter, measure the
resistance between the posts on the switch
and the chassis ground. The ohmmeter reading should indicate infinity (open circuit). If the
ohmmeter reading indicates a short, then the
brake coolant temperature switch (S24) must
be replaced.
3. The brake coolant pressure switch (S23,
Illustration 6-12) is located in the brake cooling
manifold. The brake coolant pressure switch
is a normally closed switch that will open at
10 psi. The purpose of this switch is to moni-

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

tor for a low pressure problem in the brake


cooling circuit. When the pressure drops
below 10 psi, the switch will then close completing the electrical circuit to the brake fault
light (DS8). It must now be determined if the
switch (S27) is defective or if a low pressure
problem exists in the brake cooling circuit.
There is a pressure test coupling (pressure
check) located on the brake cooling manifold
at port A. Plug a pressure gauge into the test
port and with the engine running, observe the
gauge reading. The maximum pressure
observed should be no more than 325 psi (the
pressure will be between 0 and 325 psi).
Remember it takes 10 psi to open the switch.
If the pressure indicated is above 10 psi, the
brake coolant pressure switch (S23) is defective and must be replaced.
If all three of the switches, described above, have
been proven to be good, there is a short on the
signal wire #32. Isolate and remove the short.
Front Wiper Circuit (Illustration 6-12). The front
wiper circuit is comprised of a circuit breaker
(CB3), wiper switch (S8) and wiper motor (B1).
12 VDC power is supplied from circuit breaker
(CB3) to the B (Battery) posts of the wiper switch
(S8). There are 6 posts on the back of the wiper
switch (S8). The P (Park) post of the wiper switch
is used for parking the wiper motor (B1). When
the wiper switch is turned off, 12 VDC will be present at the P post. When the wiper switch is turned
on, 12 VDC will be present at the L (Low) and
H (High) post of the wiper switch. 12 VDC will be
present at the W (Washer) post of the wiper switch
(S8) when the wiper switch is depressed. All
wires are used on the wiper motor (B1). The
black wire of the wiper motor is used for ground.
The yellow wire of the wiper motor (B1) has a
constant 12 VDC supply to it at all times while the
key is at the accessory position. The red wire of
the wiper motor (B1) is used for low speed while
the blue wire is used for high speed. The green
wire of the wiper motor is used for parking the
wiper.
Top and Rear Wiper Circuits (Illustration 6-12).
The top and rear wiper circuits are comprised of a
circuit breaker (CB2), wiper switches (S9 and
S10), and wiper motors (B8 and B9). 12 VDC
power is supplied from circuit breaker (CB2) to the
B (Battery) post of the wiper switches (S9 and
S10). There are 5 posts on the back of the wiper
switches (S9 and S10). The P (Park) post of the

6-15

wiper switches is used for parking the wiper motor


(B8 and B9). When the wiper switches are turned
off, 12 VDC will be present at the P post. When
the wiper switches are turned on, 12 VDC will be
present at the L (Low) post or H (High) post of the
wiper switches, contingent on the speed selected.
12 VDC will be present at the W (Washer) post of
the wiper switches (S9 or S10) when the wiper
switch is depressed. With the wiper switch (S9 or
S10) turned off, 12 VDC is applied at the P terminal of the wiper motor (B8 or B9) to drive the wiper
motor to the Park position. With the wiper switch
(S9 or S10) in the Low position, 12 VDC is applied
to the L terminal of the wiper motor (B8 or B9) for
low speed. With the wiper switch (S9 or S10) in
the high speed position, 12 VDC is applied to the
H terminal of the wiper motor (B8 or B9) for high
speed. The wiper motors (B8 and B9) utilize
chassis ground.
Washer Motors (B10 - B12, Illustration 6-12).
When the wiper switches (S8, S9, and S10) are
depressed, 12 VDC is sent to the corresponding
washer motor (B10, B11, or B12), energizing the
washer motor.
Defroster Fan Motor (B2, Illustration 6-12). The
front heater / defroster is controlled by a defroster
switch. The defroster switch (S6) is powered by
circuit breaker (CB8). With the defroster switch in
the Low position, 12 VDC will be present on wire
#40A for the defroster / heater motor. With the
defroster switch in the High position, 12 VDC will
be present on wire #41A for the defroster / heater
motor. The defroster / heater motor will circulate
air through a heater coil (which is heated by the
engine coolant) and into the cab.
Heater Fan Motor (B5, Illustration 6-12). The
heater fan motor (B5) is controlled by heater
switch (S5). Heater switch (S5) is powered by circuit breaker (CB7). With the heater switch (S5) in
the Low position, 12 VDC will be present on wire
#43 to the heater fan motor (B5) for low speed
operation. With the heater switch (S5) in the High
position, 12 VDC will be present on wire #44 to
the heater fan motor (B5) for high speed operation. The heater fan motor (B5) is connected to
the chassis ground by wire #G2. The heater fan
motor (B5) will circulate air through a heater coil
(which is heated by the engine coolant) and into
the cab.
Air Conditioner (B7, Illustration 6-12). The air
conditioner (B7) is powered by circuit breaker
(CB15). Two power wires (#203) are sent from

6-16

the circuit breaker (CB15) to the air conditioner


(B7). This is required to deliver the sufficient
amperage to the air conditioner. All controls to the
air conditioner (B7) are internal to the air conditioner unit (refer to Section 20A for additional
information on the air conditioner unit).
Forward Alarm (LS4, Illustrations 6-12 thru 6-14).
The forward alarm circuit is controlled by two
switches, the forward alarm key switch (S15) and
the forward alarm toggle switch (S11). The forward alarm key switch (S15) is an on and off type
switch. When the forward alarm key switch is in
the Automatic position, the contacts of the switch
are closed. When the forward alarm key switch is
off (Operator Controlled position), the contacts of
the switch are open. With the forward alarm key
switch turned to the Automatic position, the forward alarm (LS4) will always be energized, sounding an audible alarm any time the shifter is placed
in the forward position. With the forward alarm
over-ride switch (S15) turned to the Operator Controlled position, the forward alarm toggle switch
(S11) can activate the forward alarm circuit when
the shifter is in the forward position. This allows
the operator to determine when or when not to
use the forward alarm circuit. With the shifter in
the forward position, relay (K4) is energized. Circuit breaker (CB13) will supply 12 VDC to pin #3
of relay (K4). When relay (K4) energizes, the
12 VDC present at pin #3 will pass out pin #5
through wire #213, energizing the forward alarm
(LS4). Any time ground is present on wire #329 at
pin #2 of relay (K4), the forward alarm (LS4)
should be energized.

 See the information in the
Operators Guide and Safety Check concerning
selecting the appropriate mode of operation.
Reverse Alarm (LS3, Illustrations 6-13, 6-14 and
9C-2). The reverse alarm circuit is designed to
emit an audible alarm when the shifter is in the
reverse position. The reverse alarm circuit is controlled by the shifter. With the shifter in the
reverse position, relay (K5) is energized. Circuit
breaker (CB13) will supply 12 VDC to pin #3 of
relay (K5). When relay (K5) energizes, the 1
2 VDC present at pin #3 will pass out pin #5
through wire #214, energizing the reverse alarm
(LS3). Any time 12 VDC is present on wire #319
at pin #1 of relay (K5), the reverse alarm (LS3)
should be energized.

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)


 See the information in the
Operators Guide and Safety Check concerning
selecting the appropriate mode of operation.
Problem
1. Eng Oil light (DS1)
is illuminated.

Cause

Correction

1. Engine oil pressure is below


7 - 10 psi.

1. Refer to Problem 8. in the Engine


Troubleshooting chart in Section
1.

2. Defective engine oil pressure


switch (S17, Illustration 1-3).

2. Replace engine oil pressure


switch (S17).

3. There is a short on wire #36.

3. Isolate and repair short.

2. Battery light (DS3) is 1. Defective alternator.


illuminated.
2. There is a short on wire #34.

1. Replace alternator.

3. Seat Belt light (DS4) 1. Seat belt is unfastened.


is illuminated.

1. Fasten seat belt.

2. Isolate and repair wire.

1. Refer to the Component Trouble4. Seat Belt light (DS4) 1. Seat belt relay (K2, Illustration
6-12) is defective.
shooting earlier in this section.
is illuminated with
the seat belt fas2. Wire #35 from Seat Belt light
2. Isolate and repair short.
tened.
(DS4) to seat belt relay (K2) has a
short on it.
3. Wire #38 is open.

1. Transmission oil temperature


5. Trans Temp light
exceeds 245_F.
(DS5) is illuminated.

6. Shift Fail light (DS6)


is illuminated.
(if equipped)

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

3. Isolate and repair.

1. Refer to Problem 4. in the Transmission Troubleshooting chart in


Section 9.

2. Defective transmission temperature switch (S16, Illustration 1-3).

2. Replace transmission temperature


switch (S16).

3. There is a short on wire #33.

3. Isolate and repair short.

1. Shift request is outside of shifting


parameters.

1. Operate truck correctly (refer to


the Operators Guide for proper
shifting operations).

6-17

Problem
7. Low Air light (DS7)
is illuminated and
buzzer (LS5) is
energized.

Cause

Correction

1. Air pressure is below 60 psi.

1. Locate and repair leak (check all


fittings, hoses, seals, air tank, service brake valve, inching brake
valve, and brake actuators).

2. Wire #31 is shorted between the


low air pressure switch (S14) and
Low Air light (DS7).

2. Isolate and repair short. A good


indication of this problem will be
the air pressure gauge on the
instrument panel shows good air
pressure.

3. Defective low air pressure switch


(S14).

3. Allow truck to build air pressure,


shut down engine, and with an
ohmmeter read across each terminal of the low air pressure switch
(S14) to chassis ground. Ohmmeter readings on one terminal
should be 0 - 40 Ohms while the
other terminals ohmmeter reading
should be infinity. If the air pressure gauge, located on the
instrument panel, indicates good
air pressure and the ohmmeter
readings are not as described
above, replace low air pressure
switch (S14).

1. Overstroke indicator switch (S27)


8. Brake Fault light
is overstroked.
(DS8) is illuminated.
(if equipped)

2. Brake coolant pressure switch


(S23) is defective.

1. Visually inspect the overstroke


indicator switch (S27). If an overstroked condition has occurred, a
brass colored indicator rod will be
protruding from the end cover of
the power cluster approximately
3/4 to 1.
2. Refer to the Electrical System
Troubleshooting of the Brake
Fault light found earlier in this
section.

continued

6-18

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

Problem

Cause

3. Brake coolant pressure is below


9. Brake Fault light
10 psi.
(DS8) is illuminated.
(if equipped)
a. Leak in brake cooling circuit.
(Continued)
b. Defective pressure relief valve
in the pilot pump (PP, Illustration 22-11).

10. Park Brake light


(DS10) is illuminated.
(if equipped)

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

Correction
3.
a. Find leak and repair.
b. Replace the pressure relief
valve of the pilot pump.

4. Brake coolant temperature switch


(S24) is defective.

4. Refer to the Electrical System


Troubleshooting of the Brake
Fault light found earlier in this
section.

5. Brake coolant temperature


exceeds 190_F.

5. Refer to Problem 1. in the Wet


Disc Brakes Cooling System
Troubleshooting chart in Section
15C.

1. Parking brake is applied.

1. Release parking brake.

2. Parking brake switch (S12) is


defective.

2. Replace park braking switch


(S12).

3. Air pressure is below 40 psi.

3. Refer to Problem 3. in the Brake


Control System Troubleshooting charts in Section 15.

6-19

6-20

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Hoist Circuit

PLACE THE FOLLOWING ILLUSTRATIONS IN


FOLDER ENVELOPES:
Illustration 6-12 - 06 2364 SHT. 2
Illustration 6-13 - 06 2364 SHT. 3
Illustration 6-14 - 06 2364 SHT. 4

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

6-21

6-22

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

6A-Closed Circuit Cameras and Monitors

Section 6A

Closed Circuit TV Cameras and Monitors


Introduction. The camera system gives the operator a vantage view from a remote mounted camera, strategically placed, dependant on operational requirements.

ing the picture at night or in a tunnel, etc.,


depress the switch to reduce the picture
brightness (Night).
5. Contrast Control Knob. Use this knob to
adjust the screens contrast. Turn the knob
clockwise to increase picture contrast and
counterclockwise to decrease.
6. Brightness Control Knob. Use this knob to
adjust the screens brightness. Turn the knob
clockwise to increase picture brightness and
counterclockwise to decrease.
7. Volume Control Knob. Use this knob to
adjust the sound level of the monitor if
equipped with audio function (not used on
Taylor trucks).

Major Components. The camera circuit consists


of two cameras, a monitor, and connecting video
cables.

Front View of Camera

Camera (Illustration 6A-1). The camera sends


imagery to the monitor. The camera must be kept
clean (lens) and in proper operating order.
NOTE: The cameras left to right orientation is
controlled by the two screws (A and B), located on
the back of the camera. Do Not switch the placement of these two screws.
Position A - Silver Screw (short)
Position B - Black Screw (long)
Monitor (Illustration 6A-2). The monitor displays
imagery from the camera for the operators viewing.
Monitor Operation. The following describes the
monitors controls.

Back View of Camera

Illustration 6A-1. Camera

1. Power Switch. Press this switch to turn the


monitor on (green LED will illuminate). Press
this switch again to turn the monitor off.
1

2. Camera Audio / Video Selector Switch.


Depress this switch (out position) to select the
camera mode with the camera selector switch.
Press this switch to select the AV input signal
(not used on Taylor trucks).

2
3
4
5

3. Camera Selector Switch. Depress this


switch (out position) to select the forward camera view (CA1). Press this switch to select the
reverse view camera (CA2).
4. Day / Night Switch. This switch should normally be in the out position (Day). When view-

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

6
7

Illustration 6A-2. Monitor

6A-1

Illustration 6A-3. Camera Circuit

06C-0032 SHT. 01

6A-2

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
08/04)

Section 9

Transmission

FLUID
DIPSTICK

PILOT
PUMP

CHARGING
PUMP
MAIN / STEERING
PUMP

INCHING
CYLINDER

FILLER
CAP
CONTROL
VALVE

OIL SUMP
SCREEN

DRAIN PLUG

Illustration 9-1. TC-32 Transmission


Introduction. The TC-32 transmission is a powershift transmission which provides three speeds
forward and three speeds reverse. Both direction
and speed range are controlled by a roll shift
mechanism attached to the steering column.
Operation. With the engine running, the transmissions converter charging pump draws transmission fluid from the transmission sump through
the oil sump screen and directs it through the
pressure regulating valve and oil filter. The pressure regulating valve maintains pressure to the

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transmission control valve for actuating the direction and speed clutches. This requires only a
small amount of transmission fluid. The remaining
fluid is directed through the torque converter circuit to the transmission fluid cooler and returns to
the transmission for positive lubrication. After entering the converter housing, the fluid is directed
through the stator support to the converter blade
cavity and exits in the passage between the turbine shaft and converter support. The fluid then
flows out of the converter to the fluid cooler. After

9-1

leaving the cooler, the fluid is directed back to the


transmission.
The torque converter turbine receives fluid at its
center. The reaction member of the torque converter takes the fluid which is exhausting from the
inner portion of the turbine and changes its direction to allow correct entry for recirculation into the
impeller element.

Transmission Fluid Level Check (Illustration


9-1). The hydraulic fluid level of the transmission
should be checked daily, with the fluid at normal
operating temperature (180_F to 200_F+) and the
engine operating at low idle. The fluid level
should be up to the FULL mark on the dipstick.
The dipstick is located inside the right engine
hood door, beside the filler cap.

Illustration 9-3. Transmission Fluid Filter Element

Illustration 9-2. Transmission Control Valve


Transmission Control Valve (Illustration 9-2).
The transmission control valve directs fluid, under
pressure, to the desired directional and speed
clutch. The directional and speed clutch assemblies are mounted inside the transmission case
and are connected to the output shaft of the converter either by direct gearing or drive shaft. The
purpose of the directional or speed clutches is to
direct the power flow through the gear train to provide the desired speed range. Refer to Section
9C for electrical operation of the transmission control valve.

9-2

Changing The Filter Element (Illustration 9-3).


The oil filter element, located below the drive line
spring brake, should be changed every 500 hours.
The prevalence of dirt and dust will determine the
frequency at which the filter element requires
changing. Perform the following procedures to
change the filter element:
 Dispose of hydraulic fluid and
filter in accordance with federal and local regulations.
1. Make certain filter is cool to the touch, then
provide a suitable container to catch any
draining hydraulic fluid and unscrew filter.
2. Apply an even film of clean hydraulic fluid to
the gasket surface of the replacement filter
element, then thread filter onto filter head
assembly.

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3. Hand tighten filter element 3/4 turn past point


where gasket first contacts filter head surface.
4. Refer to Filling The Transmission for adding
hydraulic fluid to the transmission.
Changing The Transmission Fluid (Illustration
9-1). The transmission fluid should be changed
every 1000 hours.
 Dispose of hydraulic fluid and
filter in accordance with federal and local regulations.
Perform the following procedures to change the
transmissions hydraulic fluid:

Cleaning The Transmission Breather. The


breather should be checked every 1500 hours of
operation for restriction. The prevalence of dirt
and dust will determine the frequency at which the
breather requires cleaning.
1. Clean the area around the breather before
removing it.
NOTE: Care must be exercised when removing
the breather to avoid damaging the breather.
2. Remove the breather.
3. Wash the breather thoroughly in solvent and
dry it with compressed air.
4. Re-install the breather.

1. Provide a suitable container and remove the


drain plug to drain the hydraulic fluid.

General Information

2. Remove the oil screen and gasket.

Oil Pressure (low idle)

240 psi

3. Clean the oil screen thoroughly.

Oil Pressure (high idle)

300 psi

Oil Temperature

180 - 200_F
(82.2 - 93.3_C)

Oil Capacity

26 Quarts

NOTE: An accumulation of sludge or soft dirt in


the sump should be removed with flushing oil.
4. Use a new gasket and re-install the oil screen.
Tighten the oil screen to 10-15 ft-lbs.
5. Refer to Changing The Filter Element for
procedures to change the filter element.
6. Re-install the drain plug.
7. Refer to Filling The Transmission, located
below, for adding hydraulic fluid to the transmission.
8. Operate the engine and check for leaks.
When the transmissions fluid temperature
reaches 180_F to 200_F+, make a final oil
check and add oil to bring the fluid level to the
FULL mark on the dipstick.
Filling The Transmission (Illustration 9-1). Perform the following procedures to fill the transmission with hydraulic fluid:
1. With the engine shut down, fill the transmission to the LOW mark on the dipstick.
2. Operate the engine and check for leaks.
When the transmissions fluid temperature
reaches +180_F to +200_F and the engine
operating at low idle, make a final fluid check
and add fluid to bring the fluid level to the
FULL mark on the dipstick.

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9-3

COOLER
TEMPERATURE SWITCH
(245_ N.O.)

CLUTCH PRESSURE CHECK POINT


240 PSI (LOW IDLE) - 300 PSI (HIGH IDLE)

CONVERTER OUT
TO COOLER
(25 PSI MIN. - 70 PSI MAX.
AT RATED RPM)

TRANSMISSION

INSTALL PRESSURE
GAUGE IN THIS LINE
FOR CONVERTER OUT
PRESSURE CHECK

IN FROM COOLER

Illustration 9-4. Transmission Check Points

9-4

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TRANSMISSION
FLUID FILTER
TRANSMISSION
FLUID COOLER

INDICATES FLUID FLOW

Illustration 9-5. Transmission Oil Flow

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9-5

Transmission Troubleshooting
Electrical / Mechanical Checks. Prior to checking any part of the system from a hydraulic standpoint, the following electrical / mechanical checks
should be made.
1. Ensure that the proper solenoids on control
valve are energized. When the solenoids are
energized they become magnetized. A magnetic field can be checked at the nut that holds
the solenoid to the cartridge. Some solenoids
employ a metal nut, encased in plastic, which
will require removal to detect a magnetic field.
An effective way to accomplish this is with a
metal wrench.
2. Ensure that the inching valve is not engaged
nor sticking.
Hydraulic Checks. Before checking the torque
converter, transmission, and associated hydraulic
system for pressures and rate of flow, it is essential that the following preliminary checks be made.
NOTE: Do not attempt these checks with cold fluid.
1. Check the fluid level in the transmission. This
should be done with the fluid temperature
between +180 F and +200 F, and the engine
operating at idle.
Problem
1. Low clutch
pressure

2. Work the machine to bring the fluid temperature up to the operating range (refer to step 1.
above).
NOTE: If the machine cannot be worked, the converter can be stalled to bring the temperature up
to the operating range. Perform the following procedures to stall the converter.
3. With the right service brake pedal applied,
move the shifter to the forward position and
third gear selected.
4. Continue to apply the brakes and accelerate
the engine approximately one-half to threequarter throttle for 30 seconds, let off accelerator for 10 seconds.
5. Repeat step 4. until the desired converter outlet temperature is reached.
 Full throttle stall speeds for an
excessive length of time will overheat the
converter.
6. When checking the pressures, always check
the charge pump and converter out pressures
first.

Cause

Correction

1. Low transmission fluid level.

1. Fill to proper level.

2. Clutch pressure regulating valve


spool stuck open.

2. Clean valve spool and housing.

3. Defective charging pump (240 300 psi normal operating


pressure).

3. Replace pump.

4. Broken or worn clutch shaft or pis- 4. Replace sealing rings or clutch


ton sealing rings.
shaft.

2. Low converter
charging pump
output

continued

9-6

5. Clutch piston bleed valve stuck


open.

5. Clean bleed valves thoroughly.

1. Low transmission fluid level.

1. Fill to proper level.

2. Suction screen plugged.

2. Clean suction screen.

3. Air leaks at pump intake hose and


connections or collapsed hose.

3. Tighten all connections or replace


hose if necessary.

4. Defective oil pump.

4. Replace oil pump.

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Problem

Cause

Correction

2. Low converter
charging pump
output (Continued)

5. Clogged transmission filter.

5. Replace transmission filter.

6. Defective pressure regulator.

6. Replace or rebuild pressure


regulator.

3. Noisy converter

1. Worn coupling gears.

1. Replace coupling gears.

2. Worn oil pump.

2. Replace oil pump.

3. Worn or damaged bearings.

3. A complete disassembly will be


necessary to determine which
bearing is faulty.

4. Low charge pump pressure.

4. Refer to Problem 2. of this troubleshooting chart.

5. Excessive internal leakage in


converter.

5. Rebuild or replace transmission.

1. Low transmission fluid level.

1. Fill to proper level.

4. Overheating

2. Transmission fluid cooler vents are 2. Clean transmission fluid cooler.


restricted.

5. Lack of power

6. No Forward

continued

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3. Worn oil sealing rings.

3. Remove, disassemble, and rebuild


converter assembly.

4. Worn oil pump.

4. Replace oil pump.

5. Pump suction line taking in air.

5. Check connections and tighten


securely.

1. Low engine RPM at converter


stall.

1. Tune engine and check governor.

2. Worn oil sealing rings.

2. Remove, disassemble, and rebuild


converter assembly.

3. Worn oil pump.

3. Replace oil pump.

4. Low transmission fluid level.

4. Fill to proper level.

5. Restriction in hydraulic circuit.

5. Remove restriction.

1. Defective shifter circuit.

1. Perform electrical check to ensure


electrical signal has energized
solenoid. Refer to the Testing of
Electrical Components procedures in Section 9C.

2. Defective brake saver relay (K8,


Illustration 9C-2) or circuit.

2. Refer to the Testing of Electrical


Components procedures in
Section 9C to troubleshoot circuit.

9-7

Problem
6. No Forward
(Continued)

7. No Reverse

8. No Forward or
Reverse

Cause

Correction

3. Defective solenoid or cartridge in


control valve.

3. Swap the Forward and Reverse


cartridges and solenoids; if the
fault changes from Forward to
Reverse, the solenoid or cartridge
is bad. To determine which is bad,
switch the solenoids only. If the
fault did change, replace the
defective solenoid. If fault did not
change, replace cartridge.

4. Reverse clutch pack plates are


fused together.

4. Place the transmission in the


neutral position and rev up the
engine. If the truck tries to move
in reverse, clutch plates are fused
together. Replace or rebuild
transmission.

1. Defective shifter circuit.

1. Perform electrical check to ensure


electrical signal has energized
solenoid. Refer to the Testing of
Electrical Components procedures in Section 9C.

2. Defective brake saver relay (K9,


Illustration 9C-2) or circuit.

2. Refer to the Testing of Electrical


Components procedures in
Section 9C to troubleshoot circuit.

3. Defective solenoid or cartridge in


control valve.

3. Swap the Forward and Reverse


cartridges and solenoids; if the
fault changes from Reverse to
Forward, the solenoid or cartridge
is bad. To determine which is bad,
switch the solenoids only. If the
fault did change, replace the
defective solenoid. If fault did not
change, replace cartridge.

4. Forward clutch pack plates are


fused together.

4. Place the transmission in the neutral position and rev up the engine.
If the truck tries to move in forward,
clutch plates are fused together.
Replace or rebuild transmission.

1. Shifter is bad or input to shifter is


bad.

1. Refer to the Testing of Electrical


Components procedures in
Section 9C.

continued

9-8

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Problem
8. No Forward or
Reverse
(Continued)

9. Vibration

Cause

Correction

2. Parking brake switch (S12,


Illustration 9C-2) in parking brake
valve is bad.

2. Replace parking brake switch.

3. 12 VDC power on Wire #29


(Illustration 9C-2).

3. Refer to Testing of Electrical


Components in Section 9C.

4. Inching valve is stuck or engaged.

4. Disconnect the linkage from the


inching valve to ensure that inching valve is not engaged. Push
spool in and out to ensure that the
spool is not stuck.

5. Low charge pump pressure.

5. Refer to Problem 2. of this troubleshooting chart.

6. Low converter out pressure.

6. Refer to Problem 2. of this troubleshooting chart.

1. Defective differential.

1. Repair differential.

2. Output shaft in transmission is


loose.

2. Repair or tighten output shaft.

3. Transmission mount is loose.

3. Repair or tighten transmission


mount.

4. Engine mount is loose.

4. Repair or tighten engine mount.

5. Excessive backlash in differential.

5. Repair differential.

6. Plates inside transmission are


sticking or slipping.

6. Repair or replace engine clutch


wear or plates.

7. Defective inching valve.

7. Replace inching valve.

8. Defective torque converter.

8. Repair or replace converter.

9. Defective charge pump.

9. Repair or replace charge pump.

10. Drive shaft is out-of-phase.

10. Correct drive shaft to be in phase.

11. Loose or missing universal joints.

11. Tighten or replace.

12. Defective universal joints.

12. Replace universal joints.

13. Accessory pumps, located on the 13. Replace or tighten.


back of the transmission, are cavitating or are loose.

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14. Low hydraulic fluid in transmission.

14. Add hydraulic fluid to the recommended level.

15. Transmission is overheating.

15. Troubleshoot and repair transmission.

16. Drive axle is loose.

16. Tighten and re-torque drive axle.

17. Tread pattern on tires.

17. Change tread pattern.

9-9

9-10

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9A-Transmission Cooler

Section 9A

Transmission Cooler

FROM TRANSMISSION
TO COOLER

TRANSMISSION

TO TRANSMISSION
FROM COOLER

TRANSMISSION
FLUID COOLER

INDICATES HYDRAULIC FLUID FLOW

Illustration 9A-1. Transmission Fluid Cooler Hose Flow Diagram


Introduction. The transmission fluid cooler
employs a forced air cooled method of cooling the
transmission fluid.
Transmission Fluid Cooler Maintenance. The
transmission fluid cooler should be cleaned externally as conditions warrant.
 In the event of transmission

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failure requiring a new or rebuilt transmission,


in order for warranty to be valid, the transmission fluid cooler, transmission filter, and hoses
from the transmission to the transmission fluid
cooler must be replaced. It is impossible to
back flush the transmission fluid cooler to
remove all contaminants from the core.
Whenever the cooler hoses have been disconnected and then reconnected, operate the engine

9A-1

up to normal operating temperature and check the


transmission fluid cooler hose connections for
leaks.
 Make certain used filter and
drained hydraulic fluid are disposed of in
accordance with federal and local regulations.

9A-2

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9C-Transmission Controls

Section 9C

Transmission Controls (Electric Shift)


d. A loose or broken wire between any of the
above components.
5. Troubleshoot the circuit breakers by referring
to the Components Troubleshooting of the
Circuit Breakers in Section 6.
6. If 12 VDC power is present, proceed with the
following procedures (see Illustrations 9C-2,
9C-3, and 9-2).

Illustration 9C-1. Electric Shifter


Introduction. This truck utilizes an electrically
operated transmission shifting system; therefore,
no mechanical linkage is needed. The following
procedures are to be used to test the transmission
controls. If service becomes necessary, refer to
the following electrical components testing procedures.

 Before servicing truck, park
the truck on level ground and block the
wheels.
Testing of Electrical Components
1. Turn ignition switch to the Accessory position.
2. Ensure that the parking brake is not applied.
3. Check for 12 VDC power input to shifter
at the plug located underneath the instrument
panel, near steer column, input pin 1.
NOTE: If unable to locate input power to the shifter, the truck will not start.
4. Troubleshoot, as follows, to find the source of
shifter input power failure:
a. Circuit breaker (CB19, Illustration 1-3,
located in the engine compartment) or circuit breaker (CB9, Illustration 9C-2, located
in the instrument panel) is tripped or bad.
b. Truck power solenoid (L1, see Illustration
1-3) failed to energize or is bad.
c. Ignition switch (S1, see Illustration 6-11) is
bad or is not fully in the accessory position.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

a. With shifter in Forward First Gear, find the


control valve located on transmission.
Three solenoids will be energized if shifter
is functioning properly. Touch the nut
located at the top of the solenoid with a
metal object. The metal object will be
pulled toward the solenoid due to a magnetic field that will be present if the solenoid is energized. Some solenoids employ
a metal nut, encased in plastic, which will
require removal to detect a magnetic field.
Exercise care not to reverse the polarity of
the solenoid because the solenoid contains internal diodes which will be
destroyed if the polarity of the solenoid is
reversed. Two signals are required to
energize the Forward solenoid: 12 VDC
from the electric shifter, through the forward brake saver relay and ground. If the
Forward solenoid did not energize, it must
be determined if one of the signals is missing or if the coil is bad.
NOTE: Earlier model trucks broke the ground
through the brake saver relays to the solenoids of
the transmission control valve. It is important that
the technician consider this possibility when troubleshooting the electric shift forward and reverse
circuits.
b. Unplug the weatherpack connector of the
Forward solenoid. With a trouble light
grounded to the chassis, make contact
with the hot wire of the weatherpack on the
shifter side. Light will illuminate if there is
a good ground through the trouble light
and 12 VDC is present. If trouble light fails
to illuminate, troubleshoot the circuit back
towards the shifter. If 12 VDC is present,
continue to troubleshoot as follows.
c. Reconnect the weatherpack connector and
make contact with the ground side of the
Forward solenoid with the trouble light.

9C-1

Light should not illuminate. If it does illuminate, ground to the coil is missing.
d. If 12 VDC plus ground is present at the
solenoid and it does not energize, the solenoid is bad and needs replacing.
7. The energized solenoids for Forward First
Gear are Forward, First, and Second.
8. If all three of the solenoids are energized,
place the shifter in Forward Second and
repeat procedure 6. again for Forward
Second.
NOTE: Electrical operation of all the solenoids is
easily confirmed when the magnetic field is
detected by touching the nut that secures the coil
to the cartridge of the desired solenoid.

b. Reconnect the weatherpack connector and


make contact with the ground side of the
Reverse solenoid with the trouble light.
Light should not illuminate. If it does illuminate, ground to the coil is missing.
c. If 12 VDC plus ground is present at the
solenoid and it does not energize, the solenoid is bad and needs replacing.
13. With the shifter in Neutral and Third Gear
selected, ensure that there are no energized
solenoids at this point.
14. If shifting failure is still experienced, the problem is not electrical.

9. The energized solenoids are Forward and


Second.
10. If all solenoids are energized, place the shifter
in Forward Third and repeat procedure 6.
again for Forward Third.
11. The energized solenoid for Forward Third is
Forward. Only the Forward solenoid is energized because the highest gear selected will
always be spring applied and does not require
a solenoid operated spool to apply it.
12. If the solenoid energized, place the shifter in
Reverse. Check and ensure that the Reverse
solenoid is energized, and that the Forward
solenoid is NOT energized. There is no need
to check any of the gear select solenoids at
this point, they have been proven to be operating properly. Two signals are required to
energize the Reverse solenoid: 12 VDC from
the electric shifter through the reverse brake
saver relay and ground. If the Reverse solenoid did not energize, you must determine if
one of the signals is missing or if the coil is
bad.
a. Unplug the weatherpack connector of the
Reverse solenoid. With a trouble light
grounded to the chassis, make contact
with the hot wire of the weatherpack on the
shifter side. Light will illuminate if there is
a good ground through the trouble light
and 12 VDC is present. If trouble light fails
to illuminate, troubleshoot the circuit back
towards the shifter. If 12 VDC is present,
continue to troubleshoot as follows.

9C-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Electric Shift Troubleshooting (Illustration 9C-2)


Problem
1. No Forward

2. No Reverse

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Cause

Correction

1. Parking brake is applied.

1. Disengage parking brake.

2. Loose connector or pins at electrical connectors (J3, J1, J5, or J13).

2. Ensure that connector is securely


connected and all pins are seated.

3. Faulty solenoid on the forward cartridge located on the transmission


control valve.

3. Replace solenoid.

4. Shorted or open wire in the shifter


circuit.

4. Isolate and repair.

5. Defective shifter.

5. Disconnect the electrical connector (J3). Jumper pin 1 of plugs


together. This jumper allows input
power (12 VDC) to the shifter. Turn
the ignition switch to the accessory
position. Shift the shifter to the
Forward position. On the shifter
side of the plug, check for 12 VDC
coming out of the shifter at pin 3. If
12 VDC is present, the shifter is
good.

6. Defective forward brake saver


relay (K8).

6. Replace forward brake saver


relay (K8).

1. Parking brake is applied.

1. Disengage parking brake.

2. Loose connector or pins at electrical connectors (J3, J1, J5, or J14).

2. Ensure that connector is securely


connected and all pins are seated.

3. Faulty solenoid on the reverse cartridge located on the transmission


control valve.

3. Replace solenoid.

4. Shorted or open wire in the shifter


circuit.

4. Isolate and repair.

5. Defective shifter.

5. Disconnect the electrical connector (J3). Jumper pin 1 of plugs


together. This jumper allows input
power (12 VDC) to the shifter. Turn
the ignition switch to the accessory
position. Shift the shifter to the
Reverse position. On the shifter
side of the plug, check for 12 VDC
coming out of the shifter at pin 4. If
12 VDC is present, the shifter is
good.

6. Defective reverse brake saver


relay (K9).

6. Replace reverse brake saver


relay (K9).

9C-3

Problem
3. No Forward or
Reverse

Cause
1. Parking brake is applied.

1. Disengage parking brake.

2. Tripped or defective circuit breaker


(CB9).

2. Reset or replace circuit breaker


(CB9).

3. Loose connector or pins at electrical connectors (J3, J1, J5, or J13


and 14).

3. Ensure that connector is securely


connected and all pins are seated.

4. Shorted or open wire in shifter


electrical circuit.

4. Isolate and repair.

5. Wires loose or broken at terminal


strips in electrical junction box.

5. Isolate and repair wiring.

6. Defective park brake pressure


switch (S12).

6. Replace parking brake pressure


switch (S12) in parking brake.
Pressure switch (S12), if closed,
will send 12 VDC to the forward
and reverse brake saver relays (K8
and K9), energizing both relays,
breaking the current path from the
shifter to the Forward and Reverse
solenoids. This is a valuable troubleshooting aid because it affects
both Forward and Reverse.

7. Forward and reverse brake saver


relays (K8 and K9) are energized.

7. 12 VDC is present on wire #18


from parking brake pressure switch
(S12).

8. Defective shifter.

8. Replace shifter.

4. Truck Stays in First 1. Defective shifter.


Gear Only

continued

9C-4

Correction

2. Shifter to electrical junction box


harness wire #314 (first gear) has
12 VDC on it all the time.

1. Disconnect the shifter to electrical


junction box harness plug (J3).
Jumper pin 1 of plugs together.
This jumper allows input power (12
VDC) to the shifter. Turn the ignition to the accessory position. Roll
the shifter to the First gear position.
On the shifter side of the plug,
check for 12 VDC coming out of
the shifter at pins 5 and 6. If 12
VDC is present, roll the shifter to
2nd gear position. 12 VDC will no
longer be present on pin 6, 12 VDC
will be present on pin 5. If these
checks are good, the shifter is
good.
2. Isolate and remove the 12 VDC.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Problem

Cause

Correction

4. Truck Stays in First 3. Transmission to electrical junction


Gear Only
box harness wire #304 (first gear)
has 12 VDC on it at all times.

3. Isolate and remove the 12 VDC.

5. Truck Stays in
Third Gear Only

1. Shifter to electrical junction box


harness connector (J3) is loose or
pins 5 and 6 of connector are
backed out.

1. Ensure that shifter to rear panel


harness connector (J3) has good
connection and all pins are seated.

2. The ground wires #346 and #347


for the first and second gear solenoids are not properly grounded.

2. Reseat the wires.

3. Electrical junction box to transmission harness wires #346 or #304


(first gear) and wires #347 or #305
(second gear) have been cut or
broken.

3. Isolate and repair wires.

4. Defective second gear solenoid or


cartridge.

4. Refer to the Problem 7. in this troubleshooting section.

6. No First Gear

1. Electrical connector (J11) from the 1. Ensure electrical connector has


transmission harness to the control
good connection and all pins are
valve for the first gear solenoid is
seated.
loose or disconnected.
2. Shifter to electrical junction box
connector (J3) is loose or pin 5 of
connector is backed out.

2. Ensure shifter to electrical junction


box connector (J3) has good connection and all pins are seated.

3. Defective solenoid on the first gear


cartridge located on the control
valve.

3. Replace first gear solenoid.

4. Defective shifter.

4. Disconnect the shifter to electrical


junction box plug (J3). Jumper pin
1 of plugs together. This jumper
allows input power (12 VDC) to the
shifter. Turn the ignition switch to
the accessory position. Roll the
shifter to the First gear position.
On the shifter side of the plug,
check for 12 VDC coming out of
the shifter at pins 5 and 6. If
12 VDC is present, the shifter is
good.

continued

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

9C-5

Problem
6. No First Gear
(Continued)

7. No Second Gear

9C-6

Cause

Correction

5. Shifter to electrical junction box


harness wire #314 (first gear solenoid) or #315 (second gear solenoid) are open.

5. Isolate and repair wire.

6. Electrical junction box to transmission harness wire #304 (first gear


solenoid) or #305 (second gear
solenoid) are open.

6. Isolate and repair wire.

7. Wire #346 or #347 is not grounded


properly.

7. Reseat the wire and ensure that


wires are tight.

1. Weatherpack connector from the


1. Ensure weatherpack connector has
transmission harness to the control
good connection and all pins are
valve for the second gear solenoid
seated.
is loose or disconnected.
2. Shifter to electrical junction box
connector (J3) is loose or pin 6 of
connector is backed out.

2. Ensure shifter to electrical junction


box connector (J3) has good connection and all pins are seated.

3. Defective solenoid on the second


gear cartridge located on the control valve.

3. Replace second gear solenoid.

4. Defective shifter.

4. Disconnect the shifter to electrical


junction box plug (J3). Jumper pin
1 of plugs together. This jumper
allows input power (12 VDC) to the
shifter. Turn the ignition switch to
the accessory position. Roll the
shifter to the First gear position.
On the shifter side of the plug,
check for 12 VDC coming out of
the shifter at pins 5 and 6. If 12
VDC is present, roll the shifter to
2nd gear position. 12 VDC will no
longer be present on pin 5, 12 VDC
will be present on pin 6. If these
checks are good, the shifter is
good.

5. Shifter to electrical junction harness wire #315 (second gear) has


been cut or broken.

5. Isolate and repair wire.

6. Transmission to electrical junction


box wire #305 (second gear) or
#347 have been cut or broken.

6. Isolate and repair wire.

7. Wire #347 is not grounded


properly.

7. Reseat the wire.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Problem
8. No Third Gear

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
08/04)

Cause

Correction

1. Defective shifter.

1. Disconnect the shifter to electrical


junction box plug (J3). Jumper pin
1 of plugs together. This jumper
allows input power (12 VDC) to the
shifter. Turn the ignition switch to
the accessory position. Roll the
shifter to the Third gear position.
On the shifter side of the plug,
check for 12 VDC coming out of
the shifter at pins 5 and 6. If
12 VDC is present, the shifter is
defective or 3rd gear is blocked out
(refer to Cause 4. of Problem 8. of
this troubleshooting chart).

2. 12 VDC is present on wire #315 of


the electrical junction box harness.

2. Isolate and remove 12 VDC from


wire.

3. 12 VDC is present on wire #305 of


the transmission harness.

3. Isolate and remove 12 VDC from


wire.

4. Third gear has been blocked out.

4. To block out third gear, all that is


required is to keep the Second
gear cartridge solenoid, located on
the control valve, energized all the
times.

9C-7

Hoist Circuit

9C-8

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Illustration 9C-2. Electric Shift Wiring Circuit

09C-2272

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

9C-9

Automatic Powershift Control (APC 70)


Introduction. The APC 70 module (an optional
device) is a state-of-the-art microprocessor which
has been programmed to automatically shift the
transmission.

PIN WIRE#
A1
B1
C1
D1

1
2
3
4

E1

F1

The APC 70 allows shifts in direction change only


in 1st gear and at a vehicle speed of less than
2 mph (3.2 km/h), and only allows transmission
engagement in forward or reverse if engine speed
is under 1000 rpm. It prevents torque converter
and transmission overspeeding by only allowing a
downshift if the resulting turbine speed does not
exceed a pre-set value in 2nd or 3rd gear.

G1

H1
J1
K1

8
9
10

A2
B2

11
12

The APC 70 works in conjunction with the roll


shifter (located on the steering column). It will
automatically shift only to the highest gear that is
selected. If second gear is selected at the roll
shifter, the APC 70 will shift between 1st and 2nd
gears. To allow manual shifting, the auto / manual
switch must be placed in the manual position. In
the event of an emergency, the APC 70 automatic
shifting can be bypassed by unplugging the metripack connector, located at the back of the APC 70
module, and plugging in a jumper plug, located in
the V.I.P. pouch sent with the truck, into the cable
end of the metri-pack connector.

C2

13

D2

14

E2

15

F2
G2
H2
J2
K2
A3

16
17
18
19
20
21

B3
C3

22
23

D3
E3

24
25

F3
G3
H3
J3
K3

26
27
28
29
30

APC 70 Module (Illustration 9C-3, if equipped).


The APC 70 module continuously monitors the
output speed, gear shifter position, and engine
speed, which it uses to shift the transmission automatically. The APC 70 module is mounted on the
dash.

 Should any truck, equipped with


an APC 70 module, require welding on its structural members, the metri-pack connector must
be unplugged from the APC 70 module prior to
any welding. Failure to comply with this caution
may lead to damage to the APC 70 module.
Display Selector Switch. The screen mode button M is located on the front panel (see Illustration 9C-3). When the switch is depressed, the display will show new information. When the APC 70
has been powered, the normal display (gear position) is shown. If the switch is depressed, the
vehicle speed is displayed in kilometers per hour,
depressing it once again displays the vehicle
speed in miles per hour, and depressing it once
more displays the shift lever position. Control of
the transmission remains no matter what screen is
displayed.

9C-10

FUNCTION
BATTERY PLUS (wire #301)
BATTERY GROUND (wires #11)
Shift Fail Light (wire #308)
Transmission Valve Solenoid #1 (wire
#304)
Transmission Valve Solenoid #2 (wire
#305)
Transmission Valve Forward Solenoid
(wire #306)
Transmission Valve Reverse Solenoid
(wire #307)
Not Used In This Truck
Not Used In This Truck
12 VDC supply to Shift Fail Light (cab
wire #310)
BATTERY PLUS (cab wire #301)
Signal Ground for sensors (cab wire
#348)
Shift lever Forward Input (cab wire
#312)
Shift lever Reverse Input (cab wire
#319)
Shift lever selection wire (active in 1st
and 2nd gear, wire #315)
Not Used In This Truck
Not Used In This Truck
Not Used In This Truck
Not Used In This Truck
Not Used In This Truck
Engine speed hot (inductive pickup,
wire #321)
Not Used In This Truck
Transmission speed (inductive pickup,
wire #323)
Not Used In This Truck
Shift lever selection wire (active in 1st
gear, wire #314)
Not Used In This Truck
Not Used In This Truck
Not Used In This Truck
Manual / automatic switch (wire #309)
Not Used In This Truck

Metri-pack Connector Pin and Wire Assignments


If the switch is depressed and held during power
up of the APC 70, the output self test mode is
selected. The APC 70 must be powered down
and then powered up again to reset and resume
normal operation. The output test is valid only
with the engine not running. All other tests in the
self test mode can be made with the engine running and truck in operation.

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)


 Death or serious injury could
result from a runaway truck. Park the truck on
a hard, level surface, apply the parking brake,

block the wheels in both directions to prevent


movement of the truck and Lock Out & Tag Out
the truck.

Display Selector Switch Operation

Normal Display
showing gear position
and error messages

Speed Display
expressed in
turbine RPM

Speed Display
expressed in km/h

RED (F) LED

Lit when the APC 70 is in the reset condition

YELLOW (T)
LED

Lit to indicate test modes and faults

Input monitoring
reflects the inputs

Illustration 9C-3. APC 70 Module

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
01/03)

9C-11

Diagnostic Codes
APC 70 Normal Display (Transmission Status)
The normal display shows information for the driver about the status of the transmission.
If the vehicle is in a certain gear, the gear position is displayed on the right digit. The gear
direction is shown on the left digit.
FWD 1st
transmission
is in fwd 1st
gear

NEUT 1st
transmission
is in net. 1st
gear

REV 1st
transmission
is in rev 1st
gear

FWD 2nd
transmission
is in fwd 2nd
gear

NEUT 2nd
transmission
is in net. 2nd
gear

REV 2nd
transmission
is in rev 2nd
gear

FWD 3rd
transmission
is in fwd 3rd
gear

NEUT 3rd
transmission
is in net. 3rd
gear

REV 3rd
transmission
is in rev 3rd
gear

Vehicle Speed Display (Ground Speed Expressed In km/h)


In order to get the vehicle speed display, the screen mode button must be depressed. The
display screen will show the vehicle speed expressed in kilometers per hour (km/h). In order
to make a difference between the previous screen, the T-LED is switched off in this mode if
vehicle speed is detected. If the vehicle is standing still, the T-LED is switched on.
Possible codes:

indicated vehicle speed


is 6.65 - 6.75 km/h

indicated vehicle speed


is 11.5 - 12.5 km/h

Vehicle Speed Display (Ground Speed Expressed In mph)


In order to get the vehicle speed display (expressed in mph), the screen mode button must be
depressed once again. The display screen will show the vehicle speed expressed in mile per
hour (mph). In order to make a difference between the previous screen, the T-LED is switched
off in this mode if vehicle speed is detected. If the vehicle is standing still, the T-LED is
switched on.
Possible codes:

indicated vehicle speed


is 6.65 - 6.75 mph

9C-12

indicated vehicle speed


is 11.5 - 12.5 mph

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Diagnostic Codes (continued)


Shift Lever Position Display
In order to get the shift lever position display, the screen mode button must be depressed once
more. Only positions actually available on the transmission are shown. If different from the
transmission, the corresponding dot blinks.
Possible codes:

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

FWD 1st
shift lever is
in fwd 1st
position

NEUT 1st
shift lever is
in net. 1st
position

REV 1st
shift lever is
in rev 1st
position

FWD 2nd
shift lever is
in fwd 2nd
position

NEUT 2nd
shift lever is
in net. 2nd
position

REV 2nd
shift lever is
in rev 2nd
position

FWD 3rd
shift lever is
in fwd 3rd
position

NEUT 3rd
shift lever is
in net. 3rd
position

REV 3rd
shift lever is
in rev 3rd
position

9C-13

Self Test Mode


Principally, there are no specific devices required for first level troubleshooting as the APC 70
incorporates several self-test features assisting in this process. However, use of digital multimeters and simple tools such as an indicator lamp will be required to pinpoint exact causes of
problems. More in-depth troubleshooting and system tuning involves use of an IBM Compatible PC with appropriate software and EPROM programming equipment.
To obtain the self test mode, the mode button must be depressed and held down 3 - 5 seconds
during start up of the truck, and then released.
CAUTION: If the mode button is depressed and held more than 10 seconds, the
APC 70 module will default to a programming mode and the APC 70 will then have
to be sent to Taylor Machine Works, Inc. for re-programming.
NOTE: Shutting down the truck leaves the self test mode of the APC 70.
The test modes of the self test mode are the turbine speed monitor, engine speed monitor,
speed ratio monitor, battery voltage monitor, input test, and output test. These test modes are
described below.

Turbine Speed
In order to get the turbine speed display, the mode button must be depressed once. After
releasing the mode button, the display will show the turbine speed RPM (input RPM of the
transmission). If no dot is visible on the display, the value must be multiplied by 10 in order to
get the correct value. If a dot is visible, the value must be multiplied by 100 in order to get the
correct value.
Possible codes:

this segment is illuminated when the turbine speed has been selected

indicated turbine
speed is 630 RPM

indicated turbine
speed is 1400 RPM

Engine Speed
In order to get the engine speed display, the mode button must be depressed once after the
turbine speed was displayed. After releasing the mode button, the display will show the engine
speed RPM. If no dot is visible on the display, the value must be multiplied by 10 in order to
get the correct value. If a dot is visible, the value must be multiplied by 100 in order to get the
correct value.
Displayed Mode:

this segment is illuminated when the engine speed has been selected
The possible codes for the engine speed are identical to the possible codes for turbine speed.

9C-14

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Self Test Mode (continued)


Upshift Speed Ratio
In order to get the upshift speed ratio display, the mode button must be depressed once after
the engine speed was displayed. After releasing the mode button, the upshift speed ratio
mode display will be shown and then the upshift speed ratio in the converter will be displayed.
speed ratio =

turbine speed
1
engine speed

Displayed Modes:
this segment is illuminated
when the speed ratio has
been selected

this segment is illuminated


after the speed ratio display
has been displayed

Downshift Speed Ratio


In order to get the downshift speed ratio display, the mode button must be depressed once
after the upshift speed ratio was displayed. After releasing the mode button, the downshift
speed ratio in the converter will be displayed.
speed ratio =

turbine speed
1
engine speed

Displayed Modes:
this segment is illuminated
when the speed ratio has
been selected

this segment is illuminated


after the speed ratio display
has been displayed

Battery Voltage
In order to get the battery voltage display, the mode button must be depressed once after the
downshift speed ratio was displayed. After releasing the mode button, the display will show
the battery voltage displayed in Volts. If no dot is visible on the display, the value displayed will
have a fractional amount from below .5 V. If a dot is visible, the value displayed will have a
fractional amount above .5 V.
Possible codes:

this segment is illuminated when the battery voltage has been selected

indicated battery voltage


is 13.0 - 13.5 V

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

indicated battery voltage


is 13.0 - 13.5 V

9C-15

Self Test Mode (continued)


Input Test
In order to get the input checking display, the screen mode must be pressed once again.
Instead of showing gear positions and gear direction, the display screen will show the active
inputs. Driving with the vehicle is possible, the driver (or technician) can follow the sequence
of inputs and thus verify the wiring of the vehicle. Each segment of the display indicates a specific input. Different segments can be switched on simultaneously if different inputs are activated simultaneously.
Displayed Mode:

this segment is illuminated when the input test has been selected
Possible codes:
FWD Input
this segment is illuminated when the roll shifter is in the fwd position,
12 VDC will be present on wire 312 and on pin C2 of the metri-pack
connector to the APC 70
REV Input
this segment is illuminated when the roll shifter is in the rev position,
12 VDC will be present on wire 319 and on pin D2 of the metri-pack
connector to the APC 70
TV1 Input
this segment is illuminated when the shifter is in 1st gear, 12 VDC will be
present on wire 314 and on pin E3 of the metri-pack connector to the
APC 70
TV2 Input
this segment is illuminated when the shifter is in 2nd gear, 12 VDC will
be present on wire 315 and on pin E2 of the metri-pack connector to the
APC 70
Manual / Automatic Switch
this segment is illuminated when the operator has requested manual
shifting, 12 VDC will be present on wire 326 and on pin J3 of the
metri-pack connector to the APC 70

9C-16

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Self Test Mode (continued)


Output Test
The output test is only valid with the engine not running. If the mode button is depressed while
driving or if a speed sensor fault is flagged, the output test will be skipped. The APC 70 gives
information about the status of the outputs. The possible states are: G (good), S (short-circuit
with ground), and O (open load, output is not connected or has a short-circuit to the battery
plus). The APC 70 tests each output sequentially, the left side of the display gives information
about which output is tested while the right side gives the status of the output. It is not possible to drive while this test mode is switched on and one can only leave it by switching off the
power.
Displayed Mode:
this segment is illuminated when the output test has been selected
Possible codes:
Output 1
wire 306 for
TVF is good

Output 2
wire 307 for
TVR is good

Output 3
wire 304 for
TV1 is good

Output 1
wire 306 for
TVF is
shorted

Output 2
wire 307 for
TVR is
shorted

Output 3
wire 304 for
TV1 is
shorted

Output 1
wire 306 for
TVF is open

Output 2
wire 307 for
TVR is open

Output 3
wire 304 for
TV1 is open

NOT USED

Output 8
wire 308 for
shift fail light
is good

NOT USED

Output 8
wire 308 for
shift fail light
is shorted

NOT USED

Output 8
wire 308 for
shift fail light
is open

Output 4
wire 305 for
TV2 is good
Output 4
wire 305 for
TV2 is
shorted
Output 4
wire 305 for
TV2 is open

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
01/04)

9C-17

Fault Codes
In order to find out which fault was last detected, hold down the mode button M button for more than
2 seconds. The display will then show, alternately the fault area and the fault type. If several faults
coexist, only the severest one is shown. When this fault display is active, the T-LED will be blinking to
focus the drivers attention of the current problems.
Listed below are the faults listed in the order of severity (severest fault on top) along with displayed
codes:
Fault

Fault Area

Fault Type

Direction outputs - shut down (latched)

Direction outputs - forced to plus

Direction outputs - open connection

MRS speed sensor failure - open connection

MRS speed sensor failure - short circuit

Inductive speed sensor failure

Analog (Modulator) output - open connection

Analog (Modulator) output - short circuit

9C-18

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Fault

Fault Area

Fault Type

Digital output - short circuit

Digital output - other fault

Incorrect input pattern

Battery voltage - too low

12 VDC input voltage - too high

12 VDC / 24 VDC input voltage missing

Redundant Shutdown Path Error


(Internal problem - repair)

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

9C-19

Hoist Circuit

9C-20

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Hoist Circuit

PLACE THE FOLLOWING ILLUSTRATION IN


FOLDER ENVELOPES:
Illustration 9C-4 - 09F0057

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

9C-21

9C-22

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Section 11

Drive Shaft

TRANSMISSION
TO AXLE
DRIVE SHAFT

CROSS
ASSEMBLY

CROSS
ASSEMBLY

CENTERLINES MUST
BE PARALLEL

Illustration 11-1. Transmission to Axle Drive Shaft


Introduction. The drive shaft connects the transmission to the drive axle. It is important to always
have the transmission in phase with the drive axle
(See the note below).
Lubrication (Illustration 11-1). The drive shaft,
universal joints and slip joints should be greased
monthly or every 250 hours, whichever comes
first.

Drive Shaft Bolts Inspection (Illustration 11-1).


The bolts, which connect the drive shaft to the
brake disc and drive axle, should be checked for
tightness every 6 months or 1500 hours, whichever comes first. If tightening is required, apply a
torque value of 110 ft-lbs to the bolts.

NOTE: When the transmission to axle drive shaft


is installed, the cross assemblies, on the drive
shaft, must be aligned as shown in Illustration
11-1. If the flanges are not aligned, reposition the
splines to bring the flanges into alignment.
If this is not followed, the drive shaft will be out of
phase, and vibration and noise may occur.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

11-1

Section 13

Steer Axle
Introduction. The steer axle is mounted to the
frame with two pivot pins. The pivot pins are an
integral part of the axle. Pivot pin bushings are
installed on the front and rear pivot pins. All routine maintenance can be accomplished with the
steer axle connected to the frame.

Mounting Bolts Check (Illustration 13-1). The


mounting bolts of the steer axle should be
checked for tightness every 6 months or 1500
hours of operation, whichever comes first. If the
mounting bolts require torquing, torque bolts to
170 ft-lbs.

Lubrication. Refer to the Lubrication section in


the Appendices for information on lubricating the
steer axle.

Steer Cylinder Mounting Bolts (Illustration 13-1).


The cylinder mounting bolts should be checked for
tightness every 6 months or 1500 hours of operation, whichever comes first. If there is any
evidence of threading or movement of the steer
cylinder, then remove the mounting bolts, clean
bolts, apply LoctiteR to the threads of the bolts
and torque bolts to 680 ft-lbs.


 Before checking or servicing
the steer axle, park on level ground, apply the
parking brake, block the wheels in both
directions, shut down the engine, and Lock
Out & Tag Out the truck.

STEER AXLE
MOUNTING BOLT

STEER CYLINDER
MOUNTING BOLTS
LOCK NUT

Illustration 13-1. Steer Axle

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

13-1

Section 14

Drive Axles
AXLE HOUSING FLUID
LEVEL CHECK / FILL PLUG

AXLE HOUSING
DRAIN PLUG
HUB CHECK /
DRAIN PLUG

POSITION PLUG HERE TO


FILL OR CHECK LEVEL

POSITION PLUG HERE TO DRAIN

Illustration 14-1. Drive Axle with Pneumatic Brakes


Introduction. These drive axles are equipped
with double reduction gearing. The first gear
reduction is a hypoid type ring gear and pinion.
The second reduction is in the form of planetary
gears inside the hubs. This arrangement permits
the axle shafts and hypoid gearing to carry only a
nominal torsional load while providing the highest
practical gear reduction at the wheels.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Maintenance procedures are included for the


standard pneumatic brakes drive axle as well as
the optional wet disc brakes drive axle.
Inspection. The brake linings of the drive axles
with pneumatic brakes should be inspected every
6 months or 1500 hours, whichever comes first.

14-1

Checking Lube Oil Level (Illustrations 14-1 and


14-2). The oil in the differential and the planetary
hubs should be checked monthly or every 250
hours, whichever comes first. Perform the following procedures to check the oil level and service
the differential and planetary hubs.

 Death or serious injury could
result from a runaway truck. Park the truck on
a hard, level surface, apply the parking brake,
block the wheels in both directions to prevent
movement of the truck and Lock Out & Tag Out
the truck before servicing the drive axle.
1. Differential
a. Park the truck on a hard, level surface,
block the wheels in both directions, apply
the parking brake and Lock Out & Tag Out
the truck.
b. Check the oil level in the differential by
removing the axle housing fluid level
check / fill plug.
c. The oil level should be even with the bottom of the fluid level check plug hole. Fill
the differential to this level if the oil level is
low.
d. Re-install the axle housing fluid level
check / fill plug.
2. Planetary Hubs
a. Maneuver the truck until the hub check /
drain plug on one of the planetary hubs is
in the 9 oclock position of hub rotation.
b. Park the truck on a hard, level surface,
block the wheels in both directions, apply
the parking brake and Lock Out & Tag Out
the truck.
c. Remove the hub check / drain plug. The
oil level should be even with the bottom of
the fluid check / drain plug hole. Fill the
planetary hub to this level if the oil level is
low.
d. Re-install the hub check / drain plug.
e. Reposition the truck as necessary and
service the hub on the opposite end of the
axle by repeating the above procedures.
NOTE: When the drive axle is completely serviced, the oil is at a common level in the differential
and both hubs.

14-2

Changing The Oil (Illustrations 14-1 and 14-2).


The oil in the differential and planetary hubs
should be changed yearly or every 3000 hours,
whichever comes first. Refer to the Fuel and
Lubricant Specifications in the Appendices for
the type of oil to be used in the drive axle. Perform the following procedures to change the oil in
the drive axle.

 Death or serious injury could
result from a runaway truck. Park the truck on
a hard, level surface, apply the parking brake,
block the wheels in both directions to prevent
movement of the truck and Lock Out & Tag Out
the truck before servicing the drive axle.
 Dispose of used oil in accordance with federal and local regulations.
1. Differential
a. Park the truck on a hard, level surface,
block the wheels in both directions, apply
the parking brake and Lock Out & Tag Out
the truck.
b. Provide a suitable container to catch draining oil. Then, remove the axle housing
drain plug and axle housing fluid level
check / fill plug.
c. Once the oil has completely drained, install
the axle housing drain plug and service the
differential with recommended lubricant
(refer to the Fuel and Lubricant
Specifications in the Appendices) up to
the bottom of the axle housing fluid level
check / fill plug hole.
d. Re-install the axle housing fluid level
check / fill plug.
2. Planetary Hubs
a. Position the truck so that the hub check /
drain plug for one of the planetary hubs is
at the bottom of its hub.
b. Park the truck on a hard, level surface,
block the wheels in both directions, apply
the parking brake and Lock Out & Tag Out
the truck.
c. Provide a suitable container to catch
draining oil and then remove the hub
check / drain plug.

T 180S -T360L
180S(Rev.
- 360L
02/24/04)
(10/02)

BLEEDER
VALVE

BRAKE
COOLING
INPUT PORT

BRAKE
COOLING
OUTPUT PORT

AXLE HOUSING
FLUID LEVEL
CHECK / FILL PLUG

HIGH
PRESSURE
BRAKE APPLY
PORT
BRAKE
COOLING
DRAIN PLUG

HUB CHECK /
DRAIN PLUG

AXLE HOUSING
DRAIN PLUG

POSITION PLUG
HERE TO FILL
OR CHECK LEVEL

POSITION PLUG HERE TO DRAIN

Illustration 14-2. Drive Axle with Wet Disc Brakes


d. Once the oil has completely drained,
re-install the hub check / drain plug. Position the truck so that the hub check / drain

180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
TT180S
02/24/04)

plug is in the 9 oclock position of hub rotation. Fill the hub with recommended lubricant (refer to the Fuel and Lubricant

14-3

Specifications in the Appendices) until


the oil level is at the bottom of the hub
check / drain plug hole. Re-install the hub
check / drain plug.
e. Follow the above procedures for servicing
the hub on the other side of the drive axle.
Draining The Wet Disc Brakes Hydraulic Fluid
From The Brake Housings (Illustration 14-2).
The hydraulic fluid is part of the hydraulic system
and will be changed when the hydraulic tanks
fluid is changed. Change the hydraulic fluid yearly
or 3000 hours, whichever comes first. Refer to
Changing The Hydraulic Fluid in Section 22 to
change the hydraulic tank fluid and perform the
following procedures to change the hydraulic fluid
from the drive axle brake housing.

 Death or serious injury could
result from a runaway truck. Park the truck on
a hard, level surface, apply the parking brake,
block the wheels in both directions to prevent
movement of the truck and Lock Out & Tag Out
the truck before servicing the drive axle.
 Dispose of used hydraulic
fluid in accordance with federal and local regulations.
1. Park the truck on a hard, level surface, block
the wheels in both directions, apply the
parking brake and Lock Out & Tag Out the
truck.
2. Remove the brake cooling input hose
assembly or brake cooling output hose
assembly from the brake housing.
3. Provide a suitable container to catch drained
hydraulic fluid and remove the brake cooling
drain plug from the hub to drain the cooling
fluid.

amount of fluid (refer to Changing The


Hydraulic Fluid in Section 22), place the
transmission in the neutral position and start
the engine to restore the movement of hydraulic fluid.
Cleaning The Breather. The differential breather
should be cleaned whenever the drive axle oil is
changed. Perform the following procedures to
clean the breather.
1. Wipe away any dirt or grime on the breather
and surrounding area before removing the
breather.
2. Remove the breather.
3. Wash the breather by agitating it in solvent
and dry with compressed air.
4. Inspect the breather. If it is damaged or
clogged, install a new breather.
Oil Capacities
PRC-425Q:
Differential
Planetary Hub (each)

16 Quarts
5 Quarts

PRC-775P:
Differential
Planetary Hub (each)

22 Quarts
2.5 Quarts

Mounting Bolts. The drive axle mounting bolts


should be inspected every 6 months or 1500
hours, whichever comes first. If there is any evidence of threading or movement of the drive axle,
then loosen the locknuts, clean threads, apply
LoctiteR to threads and torque the locknuts on the
mounting bolts to 700 ft-lbs.
Additional Drive Axle Servicing. Should more
detailed service of the drive axle components be
required, refer to the manufacturers drive axle
manual.

4. After cleaning the brake cooling drain plug,


re-install and apply a torque value of 35 ft-lbs.
to tighten the drain plug.
5. Connect the hydraulic hose assembly
removed in procedure 1. to the brake housing.
6. Now perform procedures 1. thru 4. to remove
the hydraulic fluid from the brake housing on
the opposite end of the drive axle.
7. After filling the hydraulic tank with the specified

14-4

T 180S -T360L
180S(Rev.
- 360L
02/24/04)
(10/02)

Drive Axle Troubleshooting (with Pneumatic Brakes)


Problem

Cause

Correction

1. Low oil level.

1. Fill to correct level with recommended oil (refer to the Fuel and
Lubricant Specifications in the
Appendices).

2. Incorrect type or grade of oil.

2. Drain, flush, and refill with oil of


recommended specifications.

3. Incorrect bearing adjustment.

3. Adjust bearings. Replace any that


are damaged or excessively worn.

4. Breather in differential housing is


plugged.

4. Clean breather; replace if damaged.

5. Oil level is too high.

5. Drain oil down to the check plug


level in the differential.

2. Gear oil level in


hub is continuously too high

1. Seals between brake housing and


wheel hub may be leaking.

1. Replace seals.

3. Loss of oil out of


the differential

1. Damaged or badly worn pinion


shaft oil seal.

1. Replace oil seal and check for


loose pinion bearings or pinion nut.

2. Loose carrier mounting bolts.

2. Check and tighten mounting bolts.


Replace gasket if damaged or broken.

3. Breather, located in the differential


housing plugged, is forcing oil by
the seals.

3. Clean breather; replace if damaged.

4.

4.

1. Differential
overheats

4. Noisy differential
a. Noise on drive
b. Noise on coast
c. Constant noise
d. Noise on turns

180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
TT180S
02/24/04)

a. Ring gear and pinion adjust


ment is too loose (excessive backlash).
b. Ring gear and pinion adjustment is too tight (insufficient backlash).
c.
1) Worn bearings.
2) Chipped gear teeth.
d. Worn or damaged differential
pinion gears, side gears, or pinion
journals.

a. Adjust.
b. Adjust.
c.
1) Replace bearings.
2) Replace gears.
d. Replace differential parts.

14-5

Problem
5. Final drives overheat (Planetary
Axles)

6. Loss of oil out of


the final drives
(Planetary Axles)

7. Noisy final drives


(Planetary Axles)

14-6

Cause

Correction

1. Low oil level.

1. Fill to correct level with recommended oil (refer to the Fuel and
Lubricant Specifications in the
Appendices).

2. Incorrect type and grade of oil.

2. Drain, flush, inspect, and fill with


the specified oil (refer to the
Lubricant Specifications in the
Appendices).

3. Wheel bearings improperly


adjusted.

3. Adjust wheel bearings to recommended preload.

4. Scored planet pins.

4. Inspect and replace defective


parts.

1. Damaged or broken wheel driver


gasket.

1. Replace gasket.

2. Damaged or broken hub cap


gasket.

2. Replace gasket.

3. Damaged or excessively worn


wheel oil seals.

3. Replace oil seals and adjust wheel


bearings properly.

4. Loose wheel bearings.

4. Adjust wheel bearings properly and


replace oil seal.

1. Low oil level.

1. Fill to correct level with recommended oil (refer to the Fuel and
Lubricant Specifications in the
Appendices).

2. Worn bearings in wheels or planet


gears.

2. Replace bearings.

3. Chipped gear teeth.

3. Replace gears.

T 180S -T360L
180S(Rev.
- 360L
02/24/04)
(10/02)

Drive Axle Troubleshooting (with Wet Disc Brakes)


Problem
1. Differential
overheats

2. Loss of oil out of


the differential

Cause

Correction

1. Low oil level.

1. Fill to correct level with recommended oil (refer to the Fuel and
Lubricant Specifications in the
Appendices).

2. Incorrect type and grade of oil.

2. Drain, flush, and refill with oil of


recommended specifications.

3. Incorrect bearing adjustment.

3. Adjust bearings. Replace any that


are damaged or excessively worn.

4. Breather in differential housing is


plugged.

4. Clean breather; replace if damaged.

5. Oil level is too high.

5. Drain oil down to the check plug


level in the differential.

1. Damaged or badly worn pinion


shaft oil seal.

1. Replace oil seal and check for


loose pinion bearings or pinion nut.

2. Loose carrier mounting bolts.

2. Check and tighten mounting bolts.


Replace gasket if damaged or broken.

3. Breather in differential housing is


plugged; forcing oil by the seals.

3. Clean breather; replace if damaged.

3. Noisy differential
a. Noise on drive

b. Noise on coast
c. Constant noise
d. Noise on turns

180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
TT180S
02/24/04)

a. Ring gear and pinion adjustment is too loose (excessive backlash).


1) Drive shaft is out-of-phase

b. Ring gear and pinion adjustment is too tight (insufficient backlash).


c.
1) Worn bearings.
2) Chipped gear teeth.
d. Worn or damaged differential
pinion gears, side gears, or pinion
journals.

a. Adjust.
1) When the transmission to axle
drive shaft is installed, the flanges
on the drive shaft, must be aligned
as shown in Illustration 11-1. If the
flanges are not aligned, reposition
the splines to bring the flanges into
alignment. If this is not followed,
the drive shaft will be out of phase,
and vibration and noise may occur.
b. Adjust.
c.
1) Replace bearings.
2) Replace gear.
d. Replace differential parts.

14-7

Problem
4. Noisy final drives
(Planetary Axles)

Cause

Correction

1. Low oil level.

1. Fill to correct level with recommended oil (refer to the Fuel and
Lubricant Specifications in the
Appendices).

2. Worn bearings in wheels or planet


gears.

2. Replace bearings.

3. Chipped gear teeth.

3. Replace gears.

1. Low oil level.

1. Fill to correct level with recommended oil.

2. Incorrect type and grade of


oil.

2. Drain, flush, and refill with oil of


recommended specifications.

3. Incorrect lubricant for operating


temperature.

3. Install the correct lubricant specified for temperature range.

4. Wheel bearings improperly


adjusted.

4. Adjust wheel bearings to recommended preload.

5. Scored planet pins.

5. Inspect and replace defective


parts.

1. Damaged or broken wheel driver


gasket.

1. Replace gasket.

2. Damaged or broken hub cap gasket.

2. Replace gasket.

3. Damaged or excessively worn


wheel oil seals.

3. Replace oil seals and adjust wheel


bearings properly.

4. Loose wheel bearings.

4. Adjust wheel bearings properly and


replace oil seal.

7. Brake oil level is


continuously low
with no signs of
external leakage

1. Brake piston seals are possibly


leaking.

1. Replace seals.

8. Gear oil level in


hub is continuously too high

1. Seal between brake housing and


wheel hub may be leaking.

1. Replace seal.

2. Cooling fluid pressure is too high.

2. Have brake coolant pressure relief


valve cartridge replaced.

9. Signs of external
leakage exist

1. Clean surface and then determine


location of leakage.

1. Replace seals.

5. Final drives overheat (Planetary


Axles)

6. Loss of oil out of


final drives
(Planetary Axles)

14-8

T 180S -T360L
180S(Rev.
- 360L
02/24/04)
(10/02)

Section 15

Brake Control System


Introduction. The brake control system controls
the slowing down and stopping of the truck. Air
pressure from the air tank is controlled by the foot
operated brake valves (pedals) which directly
actuate the axle mounted air brake chambers or
pressure converter (if equipped), and apply the
brakes. If the left brake valve is depressed, in
addition to applying the brakes, the air pressure is
routed to the transmission control valve, which
modulates the clutch pressure providing true inching control.
Major Components (Illustration 15-2). The brake
control system consists of an engine driven air
compressor, air governor, air tank with two manual
drain valves, safety valve, inching / service brake
valve pedal (LH), service brake valve pedal (RH),
parking brake valve, brake relay valve, double
check valve, and a quick release valve. If truck is
equipped with wet disc brakes, a pressure converter, breather, and brake reservoir will be used
as well. Refer to the illustrations as indicated for
identification of parts.
Air Governor (Illustration 15-1). The air governor
controls the air compressor. When system air
pressure reaches the setting of the air governor,
the air governor signals the compressor to shut
off. The air governor has a 20 psi differential between cut-in (on) and cut-out (off). The air governor has been set for 105 psi maximum air pressure. Normal air gauge indications will be
between 85 - 105 psi. Perform the following procedures to adjust the air governor:


 Death or serious injury could
result from a runaway truck. Park the truck on
a hard, level surface, block the wheels in both
directions to prevent movement of the truck
and Lock Out & Tag Out the truck.
1. Park the truck on a hard, level surface, block
the wheels of the truck in both directions,
place the parking brake in the released position and Lock Out &Tag Out the truck.
2. Exhaust the system air pressure to some value below 85 psi, by pulling the drain lanyards
and observing the air pressure gauge.

 Contact with rotating components of the engine could result in serious
bodily injury. When adjusting the air pressure
on the air governor, the engine must be shut
down.
3. Remove the cover from the air governor.
4. Loosen the nut and turn the set screw counterclockwise to increase air pressure or clockwise
to decrease air pressure.
5. Start the engine and observe the air pressure
gauge. If the air pressure is above or below
105 psi, repeat procedures 1. through 5. to
obtain the correct system air pressure.
6. Tighten the nut and re-install the cover.
AIR
GOVERNOR

SET
SCREW
COVER

INSTRUMENT PANEL
AIR PRESSURE GAUGE

NUT

Illustration 15-1. Air Governor

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
01/03)

15-1

AIR PRESSURE
GAUGE
(Illustration 15-1)

PARKING BRAKE
VALVE
(Illustration 15-5)

SERVICE
BRAKE VALVE
(Illustration 15-4)
AIR GOVERNOR
(Illustration 15-1)
INCHING BRAKE
VALVE
(Illustration 15-4)

AIR INCHING
CYLINDER
(Illustration 15-9)
DOUBLE CHECK
AND QUICK
RELEASE VALVES
(Illustration 15-6)

BRAKE
ACTUATORS
(Illustrations 15-10
and 15-12)

BRAKE RELAY
VALVE
(Illustration 15-7)
AIR DRAIN
CABLES
(Illustrations 15-15
and 15-16)
PARKING BRAKE
CHAMBER
(Illustration 15-8)

AIR TANK
(Illustration 15-3)

Illustration 15-2. Brake Control System Components Identification

15-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

INDICATES AIR FLOW

CHECK
VALVE

SAFETY
VALVE

BAFFLE

Illustration 15-3. Air Tank Components


Air Tank (Illustration 15-3). The air tank is a splittank design. The compartments of the air tank
are isolated by a baffle and a check valve. All
compressors pass a certain amount of oil in order
to lubricate the cylinder walls and piston rings.
Also, depending on the humidity, air entering the
compressor contains a certain amount of water.
This oil and water normally enters the air tank in
the form of vapor as the result of heat generated
during compression. After reaching the air tank,
they condense to form water emulsion that must
be drained off before entering the brake system.
The air tank is used to store air in order to build
pressure for brake actuation.

 The safety valve (Illustration
15-3) has been preset at factory to release air
pressure at 135 psi. Do not attempt to change
the adjustment.

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

Manual Drain Valves (Illustration 15-2). The air


tank is equipped with two manually operated drain
valves to drain any collection of oil and water
emulsion from each compartment of the air tank.
The air tank should be drained daily by pulling
both drain valve pull cables (located on the left
side beneath the steps) out and holding them
open until all moisture has evacuated.
Air Hoses. All air hoses should be checked
monthly or every 250 hours of operation, whichever comes first, for cracks and tight connections to
the fittings on the components.
Service Brake Valves (Illustration 15-4). There
are two service brake valves used to stop the
truck. The service brake valve (RH - right-hand)
actuates the service brakes when the brake pedal
is applied. The inching / service brake valve (LH left-hand) disengages the transmission and actuates the service brakes when the brake pedal is

15-3

RH

LH
LOW AIR
SWITCH (S14)

SYSTEM AIR
D - DELIVERY
S - SOURCE
INDICATES AIR FLOW

Illustration 15-4. Service Brake Valves


applied. Inching occurs between 0 - 20 psi of air
pressure. At 20 psi, the transmission is disengaged.
Parking Brake Valve (Illustration 15-5)
Trucks Equipped With Wet Disc Brakes (including
the TH 300 - 350L models equipped with shoetype service brakes). The parking brake valve is
located on the instrument panel and when the
parking brake knob is pushed in, supplies air pressure to release the spring applied parking brake,
disengaging the parking brake. When the parking
brake knob is pulled out, the air pressure is
released and an internal spring in the parking
brake chamber will apply the parking brake.
Trucks Equipped With Shoe-Type Service Brakes
(excluding the TH 300 - 350L models). The ser-

15-4

vice brakes are used as parking brakes when the


parking brake knob is pulled out. When the parking brake knob is pulled out, the air pressure is
released and an internal spring in the brake
actuators will apply the parking / service brakes.
The parking brake valve has been equipped with
a normally closed, 30 psi air pressure switch
(S12). When the parking brake(s) are applied, the
switch closes and sends 12 VDC to the brakesaver relays K8 (forward) and K9 (reverse). This will
energize both the relays and open the contacts of
pins 3 and 4 respectively. This interrupts (opens)
the path of current flow from the shifter to the forward and reverse solenoids (located on the control valve of the transmission). The solenoids cannot be electrically energized as long as K8 and K9
are energized.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

PARKING BRAKE
VALVE (PP1)

PARKING BRAKE
SWITCH (S12)
(30 PSI)

INDICATES AIR FLOW

Illustration 15-5. Parking Brake Valve


Low Air Warning System (Illustration 15-5). In
the event the air pressure in the system drops
below 60 psi, the LOW AIR warning light will illuminate and a buzzer will sound to warn of low air
pressure. If the air pressure in the system continues to drop below 40 psi, the parking brake valve
will automatically pop out and apply the parking
brake(s).
Air pressure must be above 40 psi and the parking brake knob must be pushed in to release the
parking brake(s). If the parking brake knob is
pushed in when the air pressure is below 40 psi, it
will immediately return to the out position and the
parking brake(s) will not release.
Brake Relay Valve (Illustration 15-7). The purpose of the brake relay valve is to acheive parking
brake release air pressure quicker. The brake

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

relay valve is supplied with system air pressure.


When the parking brake valves knob is pushed in,
an air signal is sent to the brake relay valve,
diverting system air pressure to the drive axles
brake actuators to release the parking brake.
Additionally, the brake relay valve supplies system
air pressure to the parking brake chamber
(located on the back of the tranmission for the
TH 300 - 350L model trucks) to release the parking brake.
Double Check Valve (Illustration 15-6). The
double check valve is used to isolate the two
brake valves (pedals).
Quick Release Valve (Illustration 15-6). The
quick release valve releases the air pressure used
to apply the service brake, improving braking
response.

15-5

QUICK RELEASE
VALVE

DOUBLE CHECK
VALVE

INDICATES AIR FLOW

Illustration 15-6. Double Check and Quick Release Valves


Air Inching Cylinder (Illustration 15-9). The air
inching cylinder (10) is controlled by the left
service brake pedal. The purpose of the air
inching cylinder is to neutralize the transmission
while allowing the engine to operate at high rpms
for increased hydraulic pump flow. Inching occurs
between 0 - 20 psi of air pressure. At 20 psi, the
transmission is completely disengaged. When the
brake pedal is released, a spring in the inching
spool will extend and re-engage the transmission.
Bellcrank Lubrication (Illustration 15-9). Lubricate the bellcrank grease fitting (15) every
6 months or 1500 hours, whichever comes first.
Parking Brake Chamber Adjustment (Illustration
15-9). The parking brake chamber is located on
the back of the transmission. It should be
checked, every 6 months or 1500 hours, whichever comes first, to see if adjustment is required.
The parking brake must be capable of holding the
loaded truck on a 15 percent grade. If adjustment
is required, perform the following procedures:

INDICATES AIR FLOW

Illustration 15-7. Brake Relay Valve

15-6



S Death or serious injury could result from a
runaway truck. Park the truck on a hard,
level surface, block the wheels in both

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

directions to prevent movement of the truck


and Lock Out & Tag Out the truck.
S Highly loaded spring inside this housing can
cause serious physical injury or death. Do
Not remove screws from the parking brake
chamber.
1. Park the truck on a hard, level surface, block
the wheels of the truck in both directions,
place the parking brake in the released position and Lock Out &Tag Out the truck.
2. Remove the clevis pin from the outside and
inside links. Rotate both links down to allow
free rotation of the clevis.

3. Loosen the nut and turn clevis clockwise a


couple of turns. Tighten nut.
4. Reconnect the outside and inside links to the
clevis.
5. The parking brake must be capable of holding
the truck on a 15 percent grade with a rated
load. Position the truck with a rated load on a
15 percent grade (15 rise over 100 distance).
Apply the parking brake. If the parking brake
will not hold the truck with rated load on a
15 percent grade, repeat procedures 1.
through 5.

HIGHLY LOADED SPRING INSIDE THIS


HOUSING CAN CAUSE SERIOUS PHYSICAL
INJURY OR DEATH
DO NOT REMOVE SCREWS

PARKING
BRAKE CHAMBER

NUT
CLEVIS
CLEVIS PIN AND
COTTER PIN

BRAKE
CALIPER

INSIDE LINK
BOLT
OUTSIDE LINK
BRAKE
ACTUATION LEVER

Illustration 15-8. Parking Brake Actuation Adjustment and Friction Pad Replacement

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

15-7

Parking Brake Pads (Illustration 15-8). The parking brake pads should be checked for wear every
6 months or 1500 hours, whichever comes first. If
the parking brake actuator adjustment cannot be
made, because the parking brake pads are worn,
then the brake pads must be replaced. The parking brake pads should be replaced when the thickness of the brake pad friction material is 1/16 or
less. The parking brake pads must be replaced in
pairs.
Perform the following procedures to replace the
parking brake pads:

 Death or serious injury could
result from a runaway truck. Park the truck on
a hard, level surface, apply the parking brake,
block the wheels in both directions to prevent
movement, and Lock Out & Tag-Out the truck.
1. Park the truck on a hard, level surface, block
the wheels of the truck in both directions,
place the parking brake in the released position and Lock Out &Tag Out the truck.
2. Disconnect the outside and inside links from
the brake actuation lever.
3. Remove both mounting bolts and spacers from
the brake caliper.
4. Remove the brake caliper from the brake disc
on the transmission.
5. Using a flat-bladed screwdriver, pry out the
brake pads from the brake caliper. Care
should be used in removing the lever side
brake pad. Do not to break off the plastic center snap tabs off the plastic brake actuator
cover.
6. Before replacing the brake pads, clean out the
existing pad glue from the pad compartment.
7. Install the new lever side brake pad.
NOTE: If the plastic center snap tabs are gone,
dab some silicone gasket adhesive around the
back edge of the lever side brake pad.
8. Place a layer of silicone gasket adhesive all
along the back edge of the new carrier brake
pad and install pad.
9. Install the brake caliper on the brake disc of
the transmission. Place spacers between the
transmission and the brake caliper. Then,

15-8

install the mounting bolts and torque to


159-175 ft-lbs.
10. Reconnect the outside and inside links to the
brake actuation lever.
11. Perform the Parking Brake Chamber Adjustment procedures to verify that the parking
brake is operating properly.
Air Inching Adjustments (Illustrations 15-9).
Perform the following procedures to adjust the air
inching cylinder (10) to inching spool linkage:

 Death or serious injury could
result from a runaway truck. Park the truck on
a hard, level surface, apply the parking brake,
block the wheels in both directions to prevent
movement, and Lock Out & Tag-Out the truck.
1. Park the truck on a hard, level surface, apply
the parking brake, block the wheels in both
directions to prevent movement, and Lock Out
& Tag Out the truck.
2. Loosen the bolts (1) securing the bellcrank
stop bracket (2).
3. Disconnect clevis (3) from the bellcrank (4) by
removing clevis pin (5).
4. Disconnect the rod clevis assembly (6) from
the inching valve spool (7) by removing clevis
pin (8).
5. Adjust the clevis assembly (6) to obtain a
length of approximately 3 3/16 from the center pin to center pin. Tighten jam nut.
6. Grease the bellcrank grease fitting (15) and
manually rotate the bellcrank (4) back and
forth to ensure free rotation of the bellcrank.
7. Reconnect the clevis assembly (6) to the inching valve spool (7) and manually rotate the
bellcrank (4) back and forth to ensure free
rotation of the bellcrank and travel of the inching spool. The inching spool should travel
approximately 1/2.
8. Manually extend the rod of the air inching
cylinder (10).
9. Adjust the clevis (3) to obtain a length of
8 15/16 from the center to center of clevis
pins (11 and 5).
10. Reconnect the air inching cylinder (10) to the
bellcrank (4).

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

11. Manually actuate the inching spool by rotating


the bellcrank (4). Ensure free rotation of the
bellcrank and that the inching spool travels
approximately 1/2.

inder (10)] on the bellcrank mounting bracket


(12) when the air inching cylinder is fully
retracted.
13. Release the bellcrank (4), allowing it to return
to the engaged position.

12. Note and mark the position of the inboard side


of the bellcrank (4) [the side facing the air cyl-

TRANSMISSION
DISENGAGED
5
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

BOLT
BELLCRANK STOP BRACKET
CLEVIS
BELLCRANK
CLEVIS PIN
CLEVIS ASSEMBLY
INCHING VALVE SPOOL
CLEVIS PIN
ROD END
AIR INCHING CYLINDER
CLEVIS PIN
BELLCRANK MOUNTING
BRACKET
13. JAM NUT
14. JAM NUT
15. GREASE FITTING

15
3-3/16
Procedures 4. & 5.

6
8
1/2

13

10

11

5
12

9
14
6
7

TRANSMISSION
DISENGAGED

TRANSMISSION
ENGAGED

Illustration 15-9. Air Inching Cylinder Components Identification

180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
TT180S
08/03)

15-9

14. Position the bellcrank stop bracket (2) 1/32


nearer to the bellcrank (4) than the mark made
in procedure 12. and tighten the bellcrank stop
bracket. With the bellcrank stop bracket properly positioned and secured, manually rotate
the bellcrank against the stop bracket. The
measured distance from the center to center
of clevis pins (11 and 5) will be approximately
7 5/8.
Brake Actuator Linkage Adjustments. The
brake actuator linkage must be adjusted as frequently as required for correct operation and safety. The adjustments must give correct clearance
between the linings and drum, correct push rod
travel and correct balance between the brakes..
The service brakes must be cleaned, inspected,
adjusted, and camshaft bracket assembly / slack
adjuster lubricated (refer to the Lubrication section in the Appendices for lubrication of these
items) every time the wheel hubs are removed.
The planetary drive axle of this truck is equipped
with two brake chambers.
The slack adjuster has a manual adjustment to
compensate for service brake lining wear. Perform the following procedures to adjust the
brakes:

 Highly loaded spring inside
the brake actuators can cause serious
physical injury or death. Do Not attempt to
disassemble the brake actuators. Only replace
as a complete unit.
1. Start the engine and allow system air pressure
to reach 105 psi.

 Death or serious injury could
result from a runaway truck. Park the truck on
a hard, level surface, block the wheels in both
directions to prevent movement of the truck
and Lock Out & Tag Out the truck.
2. Park the truck on a hard, level surface, block
the wheels of the truck in both directions and
Lock Out & Tag Out the truck.
3. With the service brakes not applied, measure
the distance from the bottom of the brake
actuator to the center of the clevis pin on both
service brakes (see Illustration 15-10). Record
each dimension.

15-10

4. The correct measurement obtained in procedure 3. must be 2.62 inches$0.125.


5. Have another person apply and hold the service brake pedal. Measure the distance from
the bottom of the brake actuator to the center
of the clevis pin on both service brakes. The
maximum measurement must not exceed
5.12 inches$0.125 (PRC-425Q drive axle) or
4.87 inches$0.125 (PRC-775P drive axle).
6. Brake adjustment is required when the brakes
are applied and the brake actuator stroke is
equal to or exceeds 5.12 inches$0.125
(PRC-425Q drive axle) or 4.87 inches$0.125
(PRC-775P drive axle).
7. With a socket wrench on the adjusting screw
of the slack adjuster, apply pressure on the
socket to depress the spring-loaded lock
sleeve (see Illustration 15-11).
8. With the service brakes not applied, turn the
adjusting screw until the linings touch the
brake drum.
9. Turn the adjusting screw in the opposite direction one or two clicks so that the linings just
clear the brake drum. Rotate the drum to
check for clearance.
NOTE: The brake drum must rotate freely when
the brakes are not applied.
10. When adjustment is completed, ensure that
the spring-loaded lock sleeve has moved into
position to lock the adjusting screw. If not,
rotate the adjusting screw slightly to allow the
sleeve to move into the locked position.

 After any brake adjustment or
maintenance, a safety check of brake operation with the machine in motion must be performed prior to returning the machine to service.
11. Replace brake shoes when the thickness of
the lining is 1/4 inch (.63 mm) at its thinnest
point. Replace brake shoes in pairs.
 Do not let brake lining wear
to the point that the rivets touch the brake
drum. Damage to the drum will occur.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

PUSH
ROD

MANUAL
SLACK
ADJUSTER

CLEVIS
PIN

RELEASED
2.62 + 0.125
BRAKE
ACTUATOR

APPLIED
5.12 + 0.125 (PRC425Q)
4.87 + 0.125 (PRC775P)
(MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STROKE)

Illustration 15-10. Brake Actuating Mechanism

ADJUSTING LOCK
SLEEVE
SCREW

PUSH ROD
CLEVIS

SPRING

SLACK
ADJUSTER

Illustration 15-11. Brake Adjustment

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Caging The Brake Actuator (Illustration 15-12).


Perform the following procedures to cage the
brake actuator:


S Death or serious injury could result from a
runaway truck. Park the truck on a hard,
level surface, block the wheels in both
directions to prevent movement of the truck
and Lock Out & Tag Out the truck.
S If the brake actuator shows structural damage, Do Not attempt to cage the brake actuator. Replace brake actuator immediately. Do
Not attempt to repair brake actuator, only
replacement is authorized.
S If the brake actuator is structurally damaged
before discarding, disarm the brake actuator.

15-11

To disarm, use a suitable Safety Chamber.


Failure to disarm assembly prior to disposal
may, in time, result in spontaneous release
of the brake actuator and its contents, which
could cause death, servere personal injury
and / or property damage.
1. Park the truck on a hard, level surface, block
the wheels of the truck in both directions to
prevent movement and Lock Out & Tag Out
the truck.
NOTE: Caging of the brake actuator is made
easier if the parking brakes are released.

2.915 (PRC425Q) or 3.602 (PRC775P)


beyond the release stud nut.


S Overtorquing of the release stud nut can
cause pressure plate damage.
S If this minimum measurement [2.915
(PRC425Q) or 3.602 (PRC775P)] cannot be
attained by use of the hand wrench only, the
brake actuator is structurally damaged.
Discard and replace the brake actuator.
RELEASE
STUD

2. Remove the release tool (located in the side


pocket of the brake actuator).
3. Remove the dust plug from the key hole
(located on the back of the brake actuator).

PUSH ROD
DUST PLUG

4. Insert the release tools stud through the key


hole of the brake actuator into the pressure
plate. Note that the release tools stud is illustrated (Illustration 15-12), inserted into the key
hole of the brake actuator.
5. Turn the release tool 1/4 turn clockwise.
6. Pull on the release tool to ensure that stud
crosspin is properly seated in the pressure
plate.
7. Assemble the release stud washer and
nut on the release tools stud, finger tight.
8. To retract the compression spring of the brake
actuator, tighten the release stud nut with a
hand wrench. Ensure that the push rod is
retracting.


S The brake actuator contains a very powerful
compression spring. Do Not attempt to
disassemble the brake actuator. The spring
in the brake actuator can release with
enough force to cause death or severe
personal injury.
S Do not stand directly in front of the air chamber when tightening the release stud nut.
Stand to the side of the air chamber.
S Do Not use an impact wrench to tighten the
release stud nut.
9. Continue to tighten the release stud nut until
the release tools threads are a minimum of

15-12

RELEASE
STUD
WASHER
RELEASE
STUD NUT

Illustration 15-12. Brake Actuator


Optional Wet Disc Brakes Components (Illustration 15-13). The optional wet disc brake control
system components, described below, include a
power cluster, breather, brake reservoir, and an
air-released drive line parking brake.
Power Cluster (Illustration 15-14). The power
cluster, located on the right side of the chassis,
converts system air pressure to hydraulic brake
apply pressure. The power cluster operates on a
11.8 to 1 ratio (example, 100 psi of air pressure
will yield approximately 1180 psi of hydraulic brake
apply pressure). Should the power cluster overstroke, the overstroke switch (S27, Illustration
6-13) will close, sending ground to the Brake Fault
light (DS8), illuminating the Brake Fault light.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Power Cluster Breather (Illustration 15-14). The


power cluster breather, located on the right side
above the drive axle, vents the air chamber of the
power cluster. When the service brakes are released, a spring will force the air piston back to its
neutral postion. The vent allows air to be drawn
into the back side of the air piston, preventing an
air void (vacuum) from being created on the back
side of the piston that could retard or prevent the
air piston from going to its neutral position.
Replace the breather when it becomes clogged.
Brake Reservoir (Illustration 15-14). The brake
reservoir, located on the left side above the drive
axle, contains the hydraulic fluid utilized by the
power cluster to apply the service brakes. Refer
to Checking The Brake Reservoir Hydraulic
Fluid when adding hydraulic fluid to the brake reservoir.
 Do not use DOT 3 brake fluid
in the brake reservoir. Use only the specified
fluid found in the Fuel and Lubricant
Specifications in the Appendices.
Checking The Brake Reservoir Hydraulic Fluid
(Illustration 15-14). The hydraulic fluid used for
brake application is stored in the brake reservoir
and should be checked monthly or every 250
hours, whichever comes first, to maintain the
proper fluid level. The capacity of the brake reservoir is approximately 1 pint. The brake reservoir
should be filled to 1/2 from the top of the reservoir. The hydraulic fluid used in the brake reservoir is the same type hydraulic fluid used in the
hydraulic tank. When adding hydraulic fluid to the
brake reservoir, care must be taken to remove the
rubber boot from the reservoir. Use only specified
brake actuator hydraulic fluid (refer to Fuel and
Lubricant Specifications in the Appendices).

S The rubber boot of the brake reservoir can
be sucked down as the fluid is drawn into
the power cluster. Do not add fluid before
removing the rubber boot from the brake
reservoir housing.
S Do not use DOT 3 brake fluid in the brake
reservoir. Use only the specified fluid found
in the Fuel and Lubricant Specifications in
the Appendices.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Changing The Brake Reservoir Hydraulic Fluid


(Illustration 15-14). The fluid should be changed
only when the brake reservoir is removed or
replaced.
Brake Bleeding. Bleeding the brake system
requires two servicemen. One to operate the service brake pedal and another to open and close
the bleeder valves.
Power Cluster (Illustration 15-14). The power
cluster Must be bled before bleeding the wheel
brake housings. Perform the following procedures
to bleed the power cluster:


S Death or serious injury could result from a
runaway truck. Park the truck on a hard,
level surface, apply the parking brake, and
block the wheels in both directions to
prevent movement of the truck.
S Do not reuse hydraulic fluid that is removed
from the service brake during brake
bleeding.
S Properly dispose of hydraulic fluid that is
removed from the service brake.
1. Park the truck on a hard, level surface, apply
the parking brake, and block the wheels of the
truck in both directions to prevent movement.
2. Ensure that the brake reservoir is full (see
Checking The Brake Reservoir Hydraulic
Fluid).
3. Start the engine, allow the air pressure to build
to normal operating pressure and shut down
the engine.
4. Have someone apply one of the service brake
pedals and hold it down.
5. Open the bleeder valve on the power cluster
about 1/2 turn, allowing air and hydraulic fluid
to vent.
6. Close the bleeder valve.
7. Release the service brake pedal.
8. Repeat procedures 3., 4., 5., 6., and 7. until a
bubble-free flow of fluid is observed while continuing to check the level of fluid in the brake
reservoir. Do Not let the brake reservoir fluid
level get low.
9. Bleed the right and left service brakes by following the procedures listed below.

15-13

AIR PRESSURE
GAUGE
(Illustration 15-1)

PARKING BRAKE
VALVE
(Illustration 15-5)

SERVICE
BRAKE VALVE
(Illustration 15-4)
AIR GOVERNOR
(Illustration 15-1)
INCHING BRAKE
VALVE
(Illustration 15-4)
AIR INCHING
CYLINDER
(Illustration 15-9)
POWER
CLUSTER
(Illustration 15-14)
BREATHER
(Illustration 15-14)
DOUBLE CHECK
AND QUICK
RELEASE VALVES
(Illustration 15-6)
BRAKE COOLING
VALVE
(Illustration 15C-2)

BRAKE RELAY
VALVE
(Illustration 15-7)

BRAKE
RESERVOIR
(Illustration 15-14)

AIR TANK
(Illustration 15-3)

BRAKE
MANIFOLD VALVE
(Illustration 15C-1)

AIR DRAIN
CABLES
(Illustrations 15-15
and 15-16)
PARKING BRAKE
CHAMBER
(Illustration 15-8)

Illustration 15-13. Optional Wet Disc Brakes Control System Components Identification

15-14

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

23
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

HOSE ASSEMBLY
ELBOW
HOSE ASSEMBLY
STRAIGHT FITTING
BREATHER
STRAIGHT FITTING
BUSHING
COUPLING
HOSE ASSEMBLY
HOSE ASSEMBLY
ELBOW
QUICK PRESSURE CHECK
TEE
TEE
BUSHING
AIR HOSE ASSEMBLY
ELBOW
BOLT
LOCKWASHER
PRESSURE CONVERTER
MOUNTING PLATE
45 FITTING
BRAKE RESERVOIR
NUT
LOCKWASHER
BOLT
9
CROSS-MEMBER PLATE
BLEEDER VALVE

26
16
22
25
24

17

20

1
27

21
28
19

11

18

5
15

14
3

7
6
3

13
12
11
10

Illustration 15-14. Power Cluster and Brake Reservoir Components


Right and Left Service Brakes (Illustration 14-2).
The right and left service brakes must be bled
after performing the Power Cluster bleeding procedures listed above. Perform the following procedures to bleed the service brakes:

 Before checking or servicing
the drive axle, park truck on level ground,
apply the parking brake, and block the wheels
in both directions to prevent movement.

4. Close the bleeder valve.


5. Release the service brake pedal.
6. Repeat procedures 1., 2., 3., 4., and 5. until a
bubble-free flow of fluid is observed while continuing to check the level of fluid in the brake
reservoir. Do Not let the brake reservoir fluid
level get low.
7. Repeat procedures 1. through 6. to bleed the
right service brake.

1. Start the engine, allow the air pressure to build


to normal operating pressure and shut down
the engine.
2. Have someone apply one of the service brake
pedals and hold it down.
3. Open the bleeder valve about 1/2 turn on the
left front wheel brake housing, allowing air and
hydraulic fluid to vent.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

15-15

Pneumatic Brakes Troubleshooting (Illustration 15-15)


Problem

Cause

1. No brakes or weak 1. Brake actuator linkage needs


adjusting.
brakes

2. Low air pressure


(no air operated
components activated)

Correction
1. Adjust linkage (refer to Brake
Actuator Linkage Adjustments in
this section for adjustment procedures).

2. Worn, broken or damaged brake


shoe linings.

2. Replace brake shoes.

3. Low system air supply.

3. Refer to Problems 2. and 3. in this


troubleshooting chart.

4. Brakes are overheating.

4. Refer to Problem 5. in this troubleshooting chart.

5. Defective quick release valve.

5. Replace quick release valve.

6. Damaged or restricted air hose.

6. Replace air hose.

7. Defective brake actuator(s).

7. Replace brake actuator(s).

8. Brake camshaft does not rotate


freely in the camshaft bracket
assembly.

8. Lubricate camshaft bracket assembly.

1. Mis-adjusted air governor.

1. Re-adjust the air governor for the


proper pressure (refer to the Air
Governor in this section for adjustment procedures).

2. Air leak in air system supply.

2. Check all connections and hoses


for leaks. Repair as required.

3. Drain valve(s) of air tank is not fully 3. Ensure that drain valve(s) fully
closed or defective.
closes and is sealing off the air
tank. Replace drain valve(s) if
required.

15-16

4. Defective check valve in air tank.

4. Repair or replace check valve.

5. Defective safety relief valve.

5. Replace safety relief valve as


required.

6. Defective left or right service brake


valve.

6. Replace left or right service brake


valve. Ensure that the low air pressure switch (S14) in the left brake
valve is properly installed and that
there is no air leak at this junction.

7. Defective parking brake valve.

7. Replace parking brake valve.

8. Defective air compressor.

8. Repair or replace air compressor.

9. Defective brake relay valve.

9. Replace brake relay valve.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Problem
3. Excessive loss of
air pressure with
an air operated
component activated

Cause
1. Defective left or right service brake
valve.

1. Replace left or right service brake


valve.

2. Air leak between air supply and


activated component.

2. Check all connections and hoses


for leaks. Repair as required.

3. Defective quick release valve.

3. Replace quick release valve.

4. Defective brake actuator(s).

4. Replace the brake actuator and


adjust the linkage as required
(refer to Brake Actuator Linkage
Adjustments in this section for
adjustment procedures).

5. Defective parking brake valve.

5. Replace parking brake valve.

6. Defective parking brake chamber


(if equipped).

6. Replace parking brake chamber.

7. Defective seals in the air inching


cylinder.

7. Replace air inching cylinder.

8. Defective brake relay valve.

8. Replace brake relay valve.

4. Brakes release too 1. Brakes slack adjuster needs


slowly or drag
adjusting.

5. Brakes overheat

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Correction

1. Adjust the brakes slack adjuster(s)


(refer to Brake Actuator Linkage
Adjustments in this section for
adjustment procedures).

2. Defective left or right service brake


valve.

2. Replace left or right service brake


valve.

3. Restricted or crimped air hose.

3. Locate restriction and correct.

4. Defective quick release valve.

4. Replace quick release valve.

5. Brake camshaft does not rotate


freely in the camshaft bracket
assembly.

5. Lubricate camshaft bracket assembly.

6. Defective brake relay valve.

6. Replace brake relay valve.

7. Defective brake actuator(s).

7. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem


3. in this troubleshooting chart.

1. Excessive duty cycle (excessive


application of brakes).

1. Adjust duty cycle.

2. Overloading of the truck.

2. Stay within the trucks rated


capacity.

3. Brakes slack adjuster needs


adjusting.

3. Refer to Correction 1. of Problem


4. in this troubleshooting chart.

15-17

Problem

Cause

6. Truck pulls to one 1. Brakes slack adjuster needs


side when service
adjusting.
brakes are applied
2. Worn, broken, or damaged brake
shoe linings.

Correction
1. Refer to Correction 1. of Problem
4. in this troubleshooting chart.
2. Replace brake shoes.

3. Defective brake actuator(s).

3. Refer to Correction 4. of Problem


3. in this troubleshooting chart.

4. Damaged or restricted air hose.

4. Replace air hose.

5. Brake camshaft does not rotate


freely in the camshaft bracket
assembly.

5. Lubricate camshaft bracket assembly.

7. Transmission does 1. Inching spool is stuck.


not neutralize
when the left brake 2. Inching spool is defective.
pedal is depressed 3. Air inching cylinder is defective.
4. Air inching cylinder bellcranks
rotation is restricted.

1. Repair or replace inching spool.


2. Replace inching spool.
3. Replace air inching cylinder.
4. Lubricate and / or adjust bellcrank
(refer to Air Inching Adjustments
in this section for adjustment procedures).

Wet Disc Brakes Troubleshooting (Illustration 15-16)


Problem

Cause

1. No brakes or weak 1. Empty brake reservoir.


brakes

Correction
1. Fill brake reservoir to the proper
level with the specified fluid (refer
to the Fuel and Lubricant Specifications in the Appendices).

2. Leak in the line between the


brake reservoir and the pressure
converter.

2. Inspect hydraulic hoses and repair


if needed.

3. Leak in line between the power


cluster and brake housings.

3. Inspect hydraulic hoses and repair


if needed.

4. Defective piston seals.

4. Refer to the manufacturers axle


manual for isolation of defective
piston seals (which side) and
repairs.

5. Low air supply.

5. Refer to Problems 3. and 4. in this


troubleshooting chart.

6. Defective power cluster seals.

6. Replace pressure converter seals.

continued

15-18

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Problem

Cause

1. No brakes or weak 7. Worn or damaged disc(s) inside


brake housing.
brakes
(Continued)
8. Air is in the brake system between
the power cluster and brake housings.

2. Brakes will not


release

3. Low air pressure


(no air operated
components activated)

Correction
7. Refer to the manufacturers axle
manual for repairs.
8. Bleed the brake system (refer to
Wet Disc Brake Bleeding in this
section).

9. Brakes are overheating.

9. Refer to Problem 1. of the Wet


Disc Brakes Cooling System
Troubleshooting chart in
Section 15C.

1. Defective left or right service brake


valve.

1. Replace left or right service brake


valve.

2. Defective quick release valve.

2. Replace quick release valve.

3. Worn or damaged disc(s) in brake


housing.

3. Refer to the manufacturers axle


manual for repairs.

4. High pressure brake-apply port of


the brake housing is blocked (the
same port the power cluster forces
the hydraulic fluid through to
move the piston in the brake housing is the same port used to expel
the fluid from the brake housing).

4. Remove blockage from the high


pressure brake-apply port of the
brake housing.
Loosen the bleeder valve to allow
trapped fluid to escape. Remove
the high pressure brake-apply hose
from the brake housing. Insert a
paper clip in the port to remove the
blockage, reassemble, and perform
the Brake Bleeding procedures
located in this section.

1. Mis-adjusted air governor.

1. Re-adjust the air governor for the


proper pressure (refer to the Air
Governor in this section for adjustment procedures).

2. Air leak in air system supply.

2. Check all connections and hoses


for leaks. Repair as required.

3. Drain valve(s) of air tank is not fully 3. Ensure that drain valve(s) fully
closed or defective.
closes and is sealing off the air
tank. Replace drain valve(s) if
required.
4. Defective check valve in air tank.

4. Repair or replace check valve.

5. Defective safety relief valve.

5. Replace safety relief valve as


required.

continued

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

15-19

Problem
3. Low air pressure
(no air operated
components activated)
(Continued)

4. Excessive loss of
air pressure with
an air operated
component activated

5. Noisy brakes

15-20

Cause

Correction

6. Defective left or right service brake


valve.

6. Replace left or right service brake


valve. Ensure that the low air pressure switch (S14) in the left brake
valve is properly installed and that
there is no air leak at this junction.

7. Defective parking brake valve.

7. Replace parking brake valve.

8. Defective air compressor.

8. Repair or replace air compressor.

9. Defective brake relay valve.

9. Replace brake relay valve.

1. Defective left or right service brake


valve.

1. Replace left or right service brake


valve.

2. Air leak between air supply and


activated component.

2. Check all connections and hoses


for leaks. Repair as required.

3. Defective quick release valve.

3. Replace quick release valve.

4. Defective power cluster seals or


power cluster.

4. Repair or replace power cluster.

5. Defective parking brake valve.

5. Replace parking brake valve.

6. Defective parking brake chamber.

6. Replace parking brake chamber.

7. Defective seals in the air inching


cylinder.

7. Replace air inching cylinder.

8. Defective brake relay valve.

8. Replace brake relay valve.

1. Wrong type of hydraulic fluid is


being used.

1. Use the approved fluid (refer to the


Fuel and Lubricant Specifications in the Appendices).

2. Brakes are overheating.

2. Refer to Problem 1. of the Wet


Disc Brakes Cooling System
Troubleshooting chart in Section
15C.

3. Internal failure inside the wheel


end.

3. Refer to the manufacturers axle


manual for repairs.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Illustration 15-15. Pneumatic Brakes Control Circuit

AIR
INTAKE
FILTER

GOVERNOR
LEFT
BRAKE
ACTUATOR

AIR
COMPRESSOR

QUICK RELEASE
VALVE

PARKING
BRAKE
VALVE

RIGHT
BRAKE
ACTUATOR

DOUBLE
CHECK
VALVE

TO AIR
PRESSURE
GAUGE

BRAKE
RELAY
VALVE
AIR
INCHING
CYLINDER

RIGHT
BRAKE
VALVE

LEFT BRAKE
VALVE
(INCHING)

TRANSMISSION
CONTROL
VALVE

HYDRAULIC
TANK

DRAIN
VALVES
AIR
TANK
SPRING
BRAKE
CHAMBER
SAFETY
(RELIEF)
VALVE
CUMMINS QSB5.9
ENGINE AIR
COMPRESSOR

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

GOVERNOR

AIR
HORN

BREATHER

BRAKE
RELAY
VALVE

15-2431

15-21

15-22

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Illustration 15-16. Optional Wet Disc Brakes Control Circuit

AIR
INTAKE
FILTER

BRAKE
RESERVOIR

GOVERNOR
PRESSURE
CHECK
AIR
COMPRESSOR

TO AIR
PRESSURE
GAUGE

SPRING
BRAKE
CHAMBER

PARKING
BRAKE
VALVE

QUICK
RELEASE
VALVE

POWER
CLUSTER

BREATHER

HYDRAULIC
TANK

BRAKE
RELAY
VALVE
DOUBLE
CHECK
VALVE

AIR
INCHING
CYLINDER

RIGHT
BRAKE
VALVE

LEFT BRAKE
VALVE
(INCHING)

TRANSMISSION
CONTROL
VALVE

DRAIN
VALVES
AIR
TANK
SPRING
BRAKE
CHAMBER
SAFETY
(RELIEF)
VALVE
CUMMINS QSB5.9
ENGINE AIR
COMPRESSOR

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

GOVERNOR

BREATHER
AIR
HORN

BRAKE
RELAY
VALVE

15-2432

15-23

15-24

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

15C-Wet Disc Brakes


Cooling System

Section 15C

Wet Disc Brakes Cooling System


Introduction. The brake cooling system maintains a safe operating temperature by cooling the
hydraulic fluid in the wet disc brake system.
Major Components (Illustration 15C-4). The
brake cooling system consists of a pilot pump,
brake manifold valve, hydraulic fluid cooler, brake
cooling valve, various hoses, and fittings. Components of the brake cooling system can be
replaced individually. Refer to the illustrations as
indicated for location and identification of parts.
Pilot Pump (Illustration 15C-4). The pilot pump,
located on the front side of the transmission, supplies approximately 7 gpm (at 2200 governed rpm)
of hydraulic fluid to the brake manifold valve. This
pump contains a pilot relief that is set at 400 psi.
Brake Manifold Valve (Illustration 15C-4). The
brake manifold valve, located on the left side of
the trucks chassis, protects the hydraulic fluid

cooler. It contains a pressure switch (S23, Illustration 15C-1) and a relief valve set for 325 psi.
Should back pressure in the hydraulic cooler circuit exceed 325 psi, the relief valve will open and
relieve pressure to the hydraulic tank. The brake
manifold valve also contains a 15 psi check; its
function is to ensure that anytime flow is present,
that the 10 psi required to open pressure switch
(S23) can be obtained. Should the hydraulic fluid
pressure drop below 10 psi, pressure switch (S23)
will close, sending ground to the (DS8), illuminating the light.
Hydraulic Fluid Cooler (Illustration 15C-4). The
hydraulic fluid cooler, located on the back of the
radiator, is forced-air cooled. Hydraulic fluid is circulated through the coolers tubes. The fan circulates air across the cooler and through fins to cool
the hydraulic fluid.

PRESSURE
SWITCH (S23)

325 PSI
PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVE

PRESSURE
CHECK (BQ1)

INDICATES BRAKE
COOLING FLUID FLOW

Illustration 15C-1. Brake Manifold Valve

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

15C-1

Brake Cooling Valve (Illustration 15C-4). The


brake cooling valve, located above the differential
of the drive axle, divides the flow equally to each
brake housing and monitors brake coolant temperature. Approximately 7 gpm will enter the brake
cooling valve. There are two modulating orifices,
internal to the valve, that will regulate and divide
the flow of hydraulic fluid equally to each brake
housing (3.5 gpm). In addition, there are two 15

psi check valves, located on the brake cooling


valve, that limit the wheel ends from seeing no
more than 15 psi of pressure, protecting the wheel
end face seals. The temperature switch (S24, Illustration 15C-2), a normally open switch, will
close when the hydraulic fluid temperature
exceeds 190_F. When the temperature switch
(S24) closes, it will provide ground to the Brake
Fail light (DS8), illuminating the light.

15 PSI CHECK
VALVES
PRESSURE
CHECK (PRG2)

PRESSURE
CHECK (BCC)
PRESSURE
CHECK (PRG1)

INDICATES BRAKE
COOLING FLUID FLOW

TEMPERATURE
SWITCH (S24)

Illustration 15C-2. Brake Cooling Valve

15C-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Wet Disc Brakes Cooling System Troubleshooting


Problem
1. Brakes overheat

Cause

Correction

1. Low hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic


tank.

1. Fill hydraulic tank to the proper


fluid level.

2. Improper hydraulic fluid.

2. Use specified fluid (refer to the


Fuel and Lubricant Specifications in the Appendices).

3. Hydraulic fluid cooler fins are


restricted.

3. Clean the hydraulic fluid cooler or


remove restriction.

4. Excessive duty cycle (excessive


application of brakes).

4. Allow hydraulic fluid to cool and


adjust duty cycle.

5. Service brakes are not fully releasing.

5. Refer to Problem 2. in the Wet


Disc Brakes Troubleshooting
chart in Section 15.

6. The suction line of the pilot pump is 6. Check connections and tighten
taking in air.
connections.
7. Mis-adjusted pressure relief valve
in the pilot pump.

7. Refer to Pressure Reducing


Valve and Pilot Pump Relief in
Section 22 for proper adjustment
procedures.

8. Defective pressure relief valve in


pilot pump.

8. Replace pressure relief valve. The


pressure relief valve is normally
closed and must open for any
hydraulic fluid to pass in the brake
cooling circuit.

9. Worn pilot pump.

9. Replace pilot pump.

10. Restriction in the brake manifold


valve.

10. Remove restriction from the brake


manifold valve.

11. Defective pressure relief valve in


11. Replace pressure relief valve.
the brake manifold valve. Pressure
relief valve is stuck open.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

12. Restriction in brake cooling valve.

12. Remove restriction from the brake


cooling valve.

13. Excessive air pressure in air


system.

13. Adjust air governor to the proper


air pressure setting or replace air
governor if required.

15C-3

Illustration 15C-3. Brake Cooling Circuit

POWER
CLUSTER

HYDRAULIC
TANK

SUCTION
STRAINER

HYDRAULIC
TANK

15C-0078 SHT. 01

15C-4

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
04/04)

Illustration 15C-4. Brake Cooling ANSI Circuit

15C-0078 SHT. 02

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
04/04)

15C-5

15C-6

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

15D-Air Dryer

Section 15D

Air Dryer System


Introduction. In the air dryer system (if
equipped), an air dryer collects and removes air
system contaminates in solid, liquid, and vapor
form before they enter the brake system. The air
dryer provides clean, dry air to the components of
the brake system which increases the life of the
system. This air dryer system is to be used on
trucks with the Cummins B5.9-C160 engine.
Major Components (Illustration 15D-2). The air
dryer system consists of an air dryer, wire harness, and hoses.
Changing the Desiccant Cartridge. The desiccant cartridge should be changed every 3 years.
The desiccant change interval may vary. Although
typical desiccant cartridge life is 3 years, many will
perform adequately for a longer period of time. In
order to take maximum advantage of desiccant life
and assure that replacement occurs only when
necessary, it is important that the Air Dryer
Operation and Leakage Tests procedures be performed.
NOTE: A small amount of oil in the system may
be normal and should not, in itself, be considered
a reason to replace the desiccant; oil stained desiccant can function adequately.
Air Dryer Inspection. The following should be
checked every 3 months to maintain proper operation of the air dryer.
1. Check for moisture and the presence of water
in the air brake system by opening the drain
valve, located on the bottom of air tank. If
moisture is present, the desiccant cartridge
may require replacement; however, the following conditions can also cause water accumulation and should be considered before replacing the desiccant.
a. An outside air source was used, bypassing
the air dryer.
b. In areas where more than a 30 degree
range of temperature occurs in one day,
small amounts of water can accumulate in
the air brake system due to condensation.
Under these conditions, the presence of
small amounts of moisture is normal and
should not be considered as an indication
that the dryer is not performing properly.
2. Check mounting bolts for tightness. Re-torque
bolts to 23 - 32 ft-lbs. if necessary.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Air Dryer Operation and Leakage Tests. The


following air dryer operation and leakage test procedures should be performed every 3 months.
1. Test the outlet port check valve assembly by
building the air system to governor cut-out and
observing a test air gauge installed in the air
tank. A rapid loss of pressure could indicate a
failed outlet port check valve. This can be
confirmed by bleeding the system down,
removing the check valve assembly from the
end cover, subject air pressure to the unit and
apply a soap solution to the check valve side.
Leakage should not exceed a 1 inch bubble in
1 second.
2. Check for excessive leakage around the purge
valve. With the compressor in loaded mode
(compressing air), apply a soap solution to the
purge valve housing assembly exhaust port. If
the leakage exceeds a 1 bubble in 1 second,
service the purge valve housing assembly.
3. Close reservoir drain valve. Build up system
pressure to governor cut-out and note that
AD-9 purges with an audible escape of air.
Fan the service brakes to reduce system air
pressure to governor cut-in. Note that the system once again builds to full pressure and is
followed by an AD-9 purge.
4. Check the operation of the safety valve by
pulling the exposed stem while the compressor is loaded (compressing air). There must
be an exhaust of air while the stem is held and
the valve should reseat when the stem is
released.
5. Check all lines and fittings leading to and from
the air dryer for leakage and integrity.
6. Check the operation of the end cover heater
and thermostat assembly during cold weather
operation as follows:
a. Electric Power to the Dryer. With the
ignition or engine kill switch in the On position, check for voltage to the heater and
thermostat assembly using a voltmeter or
test light. Unplug the electrical connector
at the air dryer and place the test leads on
each of the pins of the male connector. If
there is no voltage, look for a blown fuse,
broken wires or corrosion in the vehicle
wiring harness. Check to see if a good
ground path exists.

15D-1

b. Thermostat and Heater Operation. Turn


off the ignition switch and cool the end
cover assembly to below 40_F. Using an
ohmmeter, check the resistance between
the electrical pins in the female connector.
The resistance should be 1.5 to 3.0 ohms
for the 12 volt heater assembly.

assembly is operating properly. If the


resistance values obtained are outside the
stated limits, replace the purge valve housing assembly, which includes the heater
and thermostat assembly.
NOTE: Some early models of the AD-9 will have
resistance readings of 1.0 to 2.5 ohms for the 12
volt heater assembly. If the resistance is higher
than maximum stated, replace the purge valve
housing assembly which includes the heater and
thermostat assembly.

Warm the end cover assembly to over


90_F and again check the resistance. The
resistance should exceed 1000 ohms. If
the resistance values obtained are within
the stated limits, the thermostat and heater
15

10

12

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

14 13

9
8

11
30
31

24

17 16

21 22
20

19
22
23
31
32
4

25

28
18

25

29
26
7
5

2
27

3
27

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

SUPPLY AIR HOSE


CONTROL AIR HOSE
DELIVERY AIR HOSE
AIR HOSE
CLAMP
DISCHARGE HOSE
WIRE HARNESS
NUT
FLATWASHER
BOLT
MOUNTING STRAP
UPPER MOUNTING
BRACKET
NUT
FLATWASHER
BOLT w/WASHER
NUT
FLATWASHER
BOLT w/WASHER
AIR DRYER
MOUNTING PLATE
NUT
FLATWASHER
BOLT
LOWER MOUNTING
BRACKET
ELBOW
ELBOW
ADAPTER
ADAPTER
ECON VALVE
NUT
FLATWASHER
BOLT

Illustration 15D-1. Air Dryer Components Identification (Cummins B5.9-C160)

15D-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Illustration 15D-2. Air Dryer Circuit

AIR DRYER

GOVERNOR
DISCHARGE
HOSE

AIR TANK

ELECTRICAL
JUNCTION BOX

15D-0071

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

15D-3

Air Dryer Troubleshooting


Problem

Cause

Correction

1. Dryer is constantly 1. Excessive leakage in fittings,


1. Using soap solution, test for leakcycling or purging.
hoses, and tubing connected to the
age all fittings, drain valve (if any)
compressor, air dryer, and first resand safety valve in first reservoir.
ervoir.
Repair or replace as necessary.

2. Water in vehicle.

2. Defective check valve assembly in


AD-9 air dryer end cover.

2. Remove check valve assembly


from end cover. Subject air pressure to delivery side of valve.
Apply soap solution at opposite
end and check for leakage. (Permissible leakage - 1 bubble in five
seconds.) If excessive leakage,
replace check valve assembly.

3. Defective governor.

3. Test governor for proper cut-in and


cutout pressures and excessive
leakage in both positions.

4. Leaking purge valve housing


assembly and / or O-rings in AD-9
air dryer end cover.

4. With the supply port open to atmosphere, apply 120 psi at the control
port. Apply a soap solution to the
supply port and exhaust port
(purge valve seat area). Permissible leakage - 1 bubble in five
seconds.

5. Compressor unloader mechanism


leaking excessively.

5. Remove air strainer or fitting from


compressor inlet cavity. With compressor unloaded, check for
unloader piston leakage. Slight
leakage permissible.

6. Rapid cycling of the governor due


to air starvation at the RES port of
the governor.

6. With gauge installed at RES port of


governor, pressure should not drop
below Cut-in pressure at the
onset of the compressor
Unloaded cycle. If pressure
drops, check for kinks or restrictions in line connected to RES port.
Line connected to RES port on
governor must be same diameter,
or preferably larger than, lines connected to UNL port(s) on governor.

1. Desiccant requires replacement excessive contaminants in desiccant cartridge assembly.

1. Replace desiccant cartridge.

continued

15D-4

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Problem
2. Water in vehicle.
(Continued)

Cause

Correction

2. Air system charged from outside air 2. If system must have outside air fill
source (outside air not passing
provision, outside air should pass
through air dryer).
through air dryer. This practice
should be minimized.
3. Air dryer not purging (see Problem
5.).

3. See cause and correction for Problem 5.

4. Purge (air exhaust) time insufficient 4. Check causes and corrections for
due to excessive system leakage
Problem 1.
(see causes for Problem 1.).
5. Air by-passes desiccant cartridge
5. Replace desiccant cartridge / end
assembly.
cover O-ring.
Check to make sure desiccant cartridge assembly is properly
installed.
6. Purge time is significantly less than 6. Replace desiccant cartridge / end
minimum allowable.
cover O-ring.
Check to make sure desiccant cartridge assembly is properly
installed.
Replace desiccant cartridge
assembly.
3. Safety valve on air 1. Desiccant cartridge plugged.
dryer popping off or
exhausting air.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

1. Check compressor for excessive oil


passing and / or correct compressor installation. Repair or replace
as necessary. Rebuild or replace
cartridge.

2. Defective discharge check valve in


end cover of the AD-9.

2. Test to determine if air is passing


through check valve. Repair or
replace.

3. Defective fittings, hose, or tubing


between air dryer and first reservoir.

3. Check to determine if air is reaching first reservoir. Inspect for kinked


tubing or hose. Check for undrilled
or restricted hose or tubing fittings.

4. Safety valve setting lower than the


maximum system pressure.

4. Reduce system pressure or obtain


a higher setting safety valve.

15D-5

Problem
4. Constant exhaust
of air at air dryer
purge valve exhaust
or unable to build
system pressure.
(Charge mode)

Cause

Correction

1. Air dryer purge valve leaking


excessively.

1. With compressor loaded, apply


soap solution on purge valve
exhaust, to test for excessive leakage. Repair purge valve as
necessary.

2. Defective governor.

2. Check governor for proper cut-in,


cutout pressure and excessive
leakage in both positions. Repair
or replace as necessary.

3. Purge control line connected to


reservoir or exhaust port of governor.

3. Purge control line must be connected to unloader port of governor.

4. Purge valve frozen open - faulty


heater and thermostat, wiring,
blown fuse.

4. Test heater and thermostat.

5. Inlet and outlet air connections


reversed.

5. Compressor discharge to inlet port.


Reconnect lines properly.

6. Kinked or blocked (plugged) discharge line.

6. Check to determine if air passes


through discharge line. Check for
kinks, bends, and / or excessive
carbon deposits.

7. Excessive bends in discharge line


(water collects and freezes).

7. Discharge line should be constantly sloping from compressor to air


dryer with as few bends as possible.

8. Excessive system leakage.

8. See Problem 1.s Causes and


Corrections.

9. Purge valve stays open - supply air 9. Replace purge valve housing
leaks to control side.
assembly O-rings.
5. Air dryer does not
purge or exhaust air.

1. Broken, kinked, frozen, plugged, or 1. Test to determine air flows through


disconnected purge control line.
purge control line when compressor unloaded. Check for undrilled
fittings. (see Problem 4., Correction
3.)
2. See Causes 2., 5., and 7. for Prob- 2. Refer to Corrections 2., 5., and 7.
lem No. 4.
for Problem 4.

15D-6

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Problem

Cause

Correction

6. Desiccant material 1. This problem is almost always


being expelled from
accompanied by one or more of
Problems 1., 2., 3., 4., and 5. See
air dryer purge valve
related causes for these problems
exhaust (may look
above.
like a whitish liquid,
paste, or small
2. Air dryer not securely mounted.
beads).
(Excessive vibration)
or
Unsatisfactory
desiccant life.
3. Defective cloth covered perforated
plate in air dryer.

1. See Causes and Corrections for


Problems 1., 2., 3., 4., and 5.

4. Compressor passing excessive oil.

4. Check for proper compressor


installation; if symptoms persist,
replace compressor.

5. Desiccant cartridge not assembled


properly to end cover. (Loose
attachment)

5. Check the torque on the desiccant


cartridge to end cover attachment.
Refer to assembly section of this
data sheet.

7. Constant seepage 1. Defective check valve assembly in


of air at air dryer
AD-9 air dryer and cover.
purge valve exhaust
(non-charging
mode).

1. Refer to Correction 3. of Problem 1.

8. The air dryer


purge piston cycles
rapidly in the compressor unloaded
(non-compressing)
mode.

1. Faulty governor installation; no air


line from governor to compressor
or line is kinked or restricted.
Install or repair air line.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

1. Compressor fails to unload.

2. Vibration should be held to a minimum. Add bracket supports or


change air dryer mounting location
if necessary.
3. Replace desiccant cartridge
assembly.

15D-7

Section 16

Steering System
Introduction. The steering system provides guidance control of the truck. The steering circuits
have priority over hydraulic fluid flow.

steer hoses as well as the steer cylinder and


steering valve from high pressures encountered
from external forces on the steer tires.

Major Components. The steering system consists of a pump, sensing valve, steering valve,
cushion valve (if equipped), hoses, and various
fittings.

If for any reason the operator steers into an object


with the steering tires, a pressure spike can be
generated. Continuous pressure spikes, caused
by severe duty cycles, could lead to damage to
the steering components. The cushion valve limits the pressure spike by diverting the pressure
spike to the opposite side of the steer cylinder,
protecting the steering valve and steer cylinder.

Main / Steering Pump (Illustration 16-3). The


main / steering pump (located on the right side of
the transmission) is a tandem gear pump that provides hydraulic fluid flow to operate the hydraulic
circuits. When the pump is turned, it creates a
vacuum at the pump inlet which allows atmospheric pressure to force hydraulic fluid through a
suction strainer in the hydraulic tank into the inlet
line of the pump. The pump then mechanically
pushes this fluid to its outlet port for use in the
hydraulic circuits.
The main / steering pump has two sections, each
containing a pumping gear set. The 2 gear set
provides approximately 38 gpm of hydraulic fluid
flow at 2200 governed rpm and 13 gpm at 750
rpm (low idle). It supplies hydraulic fluid to the
steering, lift, and tilt circuits. The 1 1/4 gear set
provides approximately 22 gpm of hydraulic fluid
flow at 2200 governed rpm and 8 gpm at 750 rpm
(low idle). It supplies hydraulic fluid to the accessory valve if equipped and then to the lift / tilt
valve.
Steer Sensing Valve (Illustration 16-3). The steer
sensing valve, located on the end of the main /
steering pump, provides the logic for the steering
circuit. It is linked to the steering valve and main /
steering pump. When the steering valve is turned,
pressure in a load sense line, between the steering valve and steer sense valve, shifts the spool of
the steer sensing valve, directing the flow of fluid
from the main hydraulics to the steering valve.
The steer sensing valve also contains a 2500 psi
steer circuit relief. To troubleshoot the steer sensing valve, refer to Steer Sensing Valve of the
Troubleshooting The Major Components in
Section 22.

Steer Cylinder (Illustration 16-3). The steer cylinder is a double-acting cylinder that turns the steer
tires.
Setting Hydraulic Pressures. Refer to Setting
Hydraulic Pressures in Section 22 for procedures to set the pressures for the steer sensing
valve.

STEER RELIEF
VALVE
STEER SENSING
VALVE

MAIN / STEERING
PUMP

Illustration 16-1. Steer Sensing Valve

Steering Valve (Illustration 16-2). The steering


valve, located on the base of the steering column,
directs and meters the flow of hydraulic fluid to the
steer cylinder, depending on which way and how
fast the steering valve is steered.
Cushion Valve (if equipped, Illustration 16-3).
The cushion valve is located in the steer axle
assembly. It has cross-over reliefs that protect the

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

16-1

STEERING
COLUMN

STEERING
VALVE

Illustration 16-2. Steering Valve

16-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Steering System Troubleshooting (Illustrations 16-3)


Problem
1. Slow or hard
steering

Cause
1. Hydraulic fluid is bypassing the
steer cylinder piston packing.

1. Repack the steer cylinder.

2. Limited hydraulic flow.

2. Refer to Problem 6. in this troubleshooting chart.

3. Low steering pressure.

3. Refer to Problem 7. in this troubleshooting section.

4. Spool in the steer sensing valve is


sticking.

4. Remove spool, then visually


inspect spool and spool housing for
debris.

5. Defective steer sensing valve.

5. Repair or replace steer sensing


valve.

6. Steering cylinder rod is bent.

6. Replace cylinder rod or cylinder.

7. Defective steering valve.

7. Replace steering valve.

8. Load sense line from steering


valve to steer sensing valve is
restricted.

8. Remove restriction.

2. No response when 1. Limited hydraulic fluid flow.


steering wheel is
turned
2. Hydraulic fluid is bypassing the
steer cylinder piston packing.

3. Steering tires do
not track with
steering wheel

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Correction

1. Refer to Problem 6. in this troubleshooting chart.


2. Repack steer cylinder.

3. Incorrect steer relief valve setting.

3. Refer to Correction 1. of Problem


7. of this Troubleshooting chart.

4. Defective steer relief valve.

4. Replace steer relief valve.

5. Spool in the steer sensing valve is


sticking.

5. Remove spool, then visually


inspect spool and spool housing for
debris.

6. Defective steer sensing valve.

6. Repair or replace steer sensing


valve.

7. Steer cylinder rod is bent.

7. Replace cylinder rod or cylinder.

8. Defective steering valve.

8. Replace steering valve.

9. Load sense line from steering


valve to steer sensing valve is
restricted.

9. Remove restriction.

1. Binding in steering column linkage. 1. Re-align linkage.


2. Broken centering springs in steering valve.

2. Replace centering springs.

16-3

Problem

Cause

Correction

4. Wrong response to 1. Hoses to ports in steering valve are 1. Re-connect hoses in the correct
steering wheel
crossed.
hose layout.
5. Continuous steering wheel rotation

6. Limited hydraulic
flow

7. Low steer
pressure

1. Defective steering valve.

1. Replace steering valve.

2. Defective steering column.

2. Replace steering column.

3. Hydraulic fluid is bypassing the


steer cylinder piston packing.

3. Repack the steer cylinder.

4. Loose or broken hydraulic hose


between steering valve and steer
cylinder.

4. Tighten or replace hydraulic hose.

1. Clogged suction strainer.

1. Clean suction strainer.

2. Low hydraulic fluid supply.

2. Fill tank to the correct fluid level.

3. Incorrect type of fluid.

3. Drain and flush hydraulic circuits.


Fill with specified hydraulic fluid
(refer to the Fuel and Lubricant
Specifications in the Appendices).

4. Cold hydraulic fluid.

4. Due to extended periods of cold


temperatures, the viscosity of the
hydraulic fluid can increase.
Consider adding a cold weather
package.

5. Breather filter is restricted.

5. Replace the breather filter.

6. Worn / defective main / steering


pump.

6. Replace or rebuild pump.

1. Incorrect steer relief valve pressure 1. Adjust steer relief valve for correct
setting.
pressure (refer to Steer Sensing
Valve in the Setting Hydraulic
Pressures in Section 22 for procedures to adjust the steer relief
valve pressure).
2. Defective steer relief valve.

2. Replace steer relief valve.

3. Limited hydraulic flow.

3. Refer to Problem 6. in this troubleshooting chart.

4. Defective seal in the steer cylinder. 4. Repack the steer cylinder.


5. Defective steer sensing valve.

16-4

5. Repair or replace steer sensing


valve.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Illustration 16-3. Steering Circuit

HYDRAULIC
TANK

STEER
SENSING
VALVE

CUSHION
VALVE
(OPTIONAL)

16-2282

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

16-5

Illustration 16-4. Steering ANSI Circuit

16-2211 SHT. 02 (THD 180S - 360L)

16-6

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Section 17

Tires and Wheels


Introduction. This section contains safety warnings that must be adhered to to prevent serious
personal injury or death when servicing tires and
wheels. Also included are procedures for properly
torquing the wheel nuts.

 Under no circumstances
should anyone mount or demount tires without
proper training as required in OSHA Rules and
Regulations 1910.177 Servicing multi-piece
and single piece rim wheels. Follow all procedures and safety instructions.
Tires. Tires may represent one of the major direct
expenses of equipment operation. Refer to the
Goodyear Tire Maintenance Manual for proper
maintenance and repair of tires for optimal tire life.
The Goodyear Tire Maintenance Manual is a
generic tire maintenance manual covering tire
maintenance that apply to all brands of tires.
Check the tires and valve caps daily for any
damage.


S All tire related safety warnings in the Safety
Check booklet and this section must be
understood before performing any tire maintenance.
S Never sit on or stand in front of a tire and rim
assembly that is being inflated. Use a clipon chuck, an in-line pressure gauge, and
make sure the inflation hose is long enough
to permit the person inflating the tire to
stand to the side of the tire, not in front or in
back of the tire assembly.
S Keep tires free of grease and oil. Grease
and oil are highly damaging to tires. If
grease or oil are allowed to remain on tires
for extended periods of time, rubber deterioration may occur.
S Tire assemblies operated as a dual pair must
have the same outside diameter, be from the
same manufacturer, be of the same type
(industry code) and be of the same construction (both bias or both radials).
S Bias and radial constructions must never be
mixed on dual pair.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Tire Inflation. The tire pressure should be


checked on a daily basis (refer to the serial data
plate, located on the left side of the truck in front
of the steer tire, for proper tire pressure).

 Maintain the proper tire
inflation pressures listed on the truck serial
data plate.
Tire Overinflation. Overinflation results in high
cord stress even when the tire isnt overloaded.
Stress reduces resistance to blowouts from
impacts. It also increases the danger of the tire
being cut. The problem can be compounded by
poorly maintained working terrain.
Tire Underinflation. An underinflated tire will
deflect too much. It also leads to excessive sidewall flexing. It is very important, in wheel ends
employing dual tire pairs, that each tire have the
correct air pressure. This prevents one tire from
carrying more of the load than the other tire. Flexing of an underinflated tire in a dual pair could
lead to the underinflated tire rubbing the other tire
which could lead to premature tire failure. Tires
with radial cracks indicate continuous underinflation operation. Other underinflated indications
include the following:
1. Spotty or uneven tread wear
2. Ply separation
3. Loose or broken cords inside the tire
4. Fabric carcass fatigue
Rims. The rims hold the tires on the hub. The
wheels and mounts require a run-in period. The
torque of the wheel nuts must be checked every
10 hours of operation until rim is fully seated. Perform the Torquing Procedure to tighten the
wheel nuts of each hub each time tires are
removed from the drive or steer axle. Inspect the
wheel studs daily.

 If one wheel stud has broken
off, one tenth of the rims clamping force will
be lost. Remove machine from service and
repair immediately.

17-1

Torquing Procedure (Illustration 17-1). Perform


the following procedures to torque the wheel nuts:

 Every time the wheels are
removed, a run-in period is required. The
wheel nuts must be re-torqued every 10 hours
of operation until rims are fully seated.
1. Start at position #1 and tighten the wheel nut
to the specified torque value listed in Illustration 17-1. Proceed in the illustrated numerical
order to torque the other wheel nuts.
2. Repeat procedure 1. until no wheel nut moves
when the proper torque value is applied. Procedure 1. may have to be repeated several
times to tighten the wheel nuts to the proper
torque value.
Inspection

WHEEL NUT TORQUE VALUES[


Drive Axle:..................................490 - 510 ft-lbs
Steer Axle..................................340 - 360 ft-lbs
[ These values are on the truck serial plate
for reference.

Illustration 17-1. Torquing Sequence



S Mixing parts of one manufacturers rims with
those of another is potentially dangerous.
Always check manufacturer for approval.
S Do not be careless or take chances. If you
are not sure about the proper mating of rim
and wheel parts, consult a wheel and rim
expert. This may be the tire man who is
servicing your fleet or the rim and wheel
distributor in your area.
1. Check rim components periodically for fatigue
cracks. Replace all cracked, badly worn, damaged, and severely rusted components. Use a
wire brush to remove dirt and rust if necessary.
2. Clean and repaint rims to stop detrimental
effects of corrosion. Be very careful to clean
all dirt and rust from the lock ring gutter. This
is important to secure the lock ring in its proper
position. Using air inflation equipment,
equipped with a filter, helps remove moisture
from the air line, preventing some corrosion.
3. Ensure that the correct parts, that match your
type of wheels, are being used in assembly.
Check with manufacturer if you have any
doubts.
Tire / Wheel Jacking


S Never rely solely upon jacks or hoists to

17-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

S
S

S
S

support the lift truck while removing tire /


wheel.
Before placing jack in position, block tire
and wheel on the other side of the truck.
Always place oak or other hardwood block
cribbing under the load after the jack or
hoist has lifted the load. Make sure the cribbing is large enough to have sufficient contact with the supported load to be stable.
Never get under, near or between heavy
objects that are supported only by a jack or
hoist.
Always use hardwood blocks under jack.

Demounting


S Do not let anyone mount or demount tires
without proper training as stated in OSHA
Rules and Regulations 1910.177 Servicing
multi-piece and single piece rim wheels.
S Do not stand in front of the tire during
deflation.
S Demounting tools apply pressure to rim
flanges to unseat tire beads. Keep your
fingers clear. Slant the demounting bead
tool about 10 to keep it firmly in place. If it
slips off, it can fly with enough force to kill.
Always stand to one side when you apply
hydraulic pressure.
S Never force or hammer rim components,
especially rim components under pressure.
S Never attempt to weld on an inflated tire / rim
assembly.
S Do not under any circumstances, attempt to
rework, weld, heat or braze any rim components that are cracked, broken, or damaged.
Replace with new parts, or parts that are not
cracked, broken, or damaged, and which are
of the same size, type and make.
S Do not hammer on rims or components with
steel hammers. Use rubber, lead, plastic, or
brass faced mallets, if it is necessary, to tap
components together.
S Always exhaust all air from a single tire and
from both tires of a dual assembly prior to
removing any rim components such as nuts
and rim clamps.
S Make sure to remove the valve core to

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

exhaust all air from the tire. Remove both


cores from a dual assembly.
S Check the valve stem by running a piece of
wire through the stem to make sure it is not
plugged.
Mounting And Inflation


S Inflate tire in a safety cage. Use safety
chains or equivalent restraining devices during inflation. Misassembled parts may fly
apart with explosive force during inflation.
S Do not seat rings by hammering while the
tire is being inflated. If a part is tapped, it or
the tool can fly out with explosive force.
S Never sit on or stand in front of a tire and rim
assembly that is being inflated. Use a clipon chuck, an in-line pressure gauge, and
make sure the inflation hose is long enough
to permit the person inflating the tire to
stand to the side of the tire, not in front or in
back of the tire assembly.
S Mixing parts of one manufacturers rims with
those of another is potentially dangerous.
Always check manufacturer for approval.
S Do not be careless or take chances. If you
are not sure about the proper mating of rim
and wheel parts, consult a wheel and rim
expert. This may be the tire man who is
servicing your fleet or the rim and wheel distributor in your area.
S Do not inflate the tire before all side and lock
rings are in place. Double check to make
sure all components are properly seated.
1. Refer to Illustration 17-2 for hardware and its
orientation for wheel mounting.
2. Check components for proper assembly again
after inflating to approximately 5 psi (34.47 kPa).
Operation


S Do not overload rims or over-inflate tire / rim
assembly. Check your rim manufacturer if
special operating conditions are required.
S Do not use undersized rims. Use recommended rim for the tire.

17-3

S Never run a vehicle on one tire of a dual


assembly. The carrying capacity of the
single tire and rim is dangerously exceeded
and operating a vehicle in this manner can
result in damage to the rim and tire.
S Do not reinflate a tire that has been run flat
without first inspecting the tire, rim and
wheel assembly. Double check the lock ring
for damage; make sure that it is secure in
the gutter before inflation.
S Excessive turning of the steering axle tires,
when the truck is stopped, should be
avoided. It can cause excessive wear (flat
spots) to develop.
Servicing Tire And Rim On Vehicle


S Block the other tires of the vehicle before
you place the jack in position.
S Regardless of how hard or firm the ground
appears, put hardwood blocks under the
jack. Always crib up vehicle with blocks just
in case the jack should slip.
S Remove the bead seat band slowly to prevent it from dropping off and crushing your
toes. Support the band on your thigh and
roll it slowly to the ground. This will protect
your back and toes.
S When using a cable sling, stand clear; it
might snap and lash out.



S Do not locate the compressor in a utility
room used for storing flammable solvents,
paints, thinners, etc. The flammable vapors
will be sucked into the compressor intake
while the compressor is charging.
S Do not clean the compressor air filter with a
flammable solvent. Use a non-flammable
solvent, such as carbon tetrachloride.
S Do not use alcohol, methanol, or other
flammable agents in the compressor to prevent freezing of the condensation inside the
compressor. Drain the compressor tank
frequently or locate the compressor inside to
eliminate the freezing problem.
S Do not locate the compressor near a battery
charger. Batteries emit hydrogen gas, which
is highly flammable, during the charging process, and could be sucked into the compressor intake.

Compressor Precautions
There have been instances of tires exploding violently while on vehicles. The forces involved in
this type explosion are sufficient enough to cause
serious personal injury to anyone in the immediate
vicinity. Some of these explosions are believed to
have been caused by flammable vapors entering
the tire during inflation. When the machine is
operating, the temperature of the air and vapor
mixture inside the tire will increase. The temperature inside the tire will also increase with an
increase in ambient temperature and when subjected to direct sunlight. If the vapor and air mixture inside the tire are within the ratio limits that
will support combustion, and any or all of the
above heat increasing factors cause the temperature to rise, an explosion may occur. The following are some warnings that can prevent flammable vapors from entering the compressor and
subsequently being entrapped in tires.

17-4

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

1
1.
2.

2
3

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

DRIVE AXLE
INNER RIM
SPACER
RIM
FLANGE
LOCK RING
NUT
WHEEL NUT
OUTER BASE

5
4

NOTE: TO OPERATOR
Wheel and mounts require run in period on
a new machine and after each tire change.
Refer to serial plate on the side of machine
for torque specifications before machine is
put in service and re-torque nuts each
10 hours until clamps are seated.

6
7

Care should be taken to keep grease and


other foreign material from rim seating surfaces.
Illustration 17-2. Wheel Mounting Hardware and Tightening Procedures

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

17-5

Section 18

Chassis
Introduction (Illustrations 18-1 and 18-2). The
chassis is carefully engineered and ruggedly
constructed, although welded steel structures always contain undetectable cracks, especially
welded joints. When these joints are subject to
fluctuating stresses of significant magnitude,
these cracks will grow. This is known as fatigue
crack growth. No matter how low the stress levels
are kept, some fatigue crack growth will occur in
all welded structures.
Structural Inspection and Reporting Procedure
(Refer to SIRR in the Appendices). Follow the
OSHA rules, 29 CFR, 1910.178 (Q)(1), (5), & (7)
which require inspecting industrial trucks daily
before being placed in service, removing trucks
from service if cracks are found, and making
repairs only if authorized by the manufacturer. If
trucks are used on a round-the-clock basis, they
shall be examined after each shift. OSHA 29 CFR
1910.178 (p)(1) requires that trucks in need of
repair be taken out of service. Areas to be
inspected on the truck chassis include mast

hangers, drive axle mounts, tilt cylinder anchors


and steer axle mounts.


S Periodic inspection is required to detect
fatigue cracks that have grown to a significant size in order to avoid serious failure of
the structural weldment. When a crack is
found, the truck must be immediately taken
out of service and repaired.
S Under no circumstances, without prior written approval from Taylor Machine Works,
Inc. Engineering Department, should the
chassis be modified, i.e. adding of additional
counterweights. As per OSHA 29
CFR1910.178 (a) (4).
S If the fatigue crack is allowed to grow, catastrophic failure could occur in the chassis or
other welded components, causing serious
injury to personnel and / or property.

Chassis Troubleshooting
Problem

Cause

1. Metal fatigue.
1. Cracks in welds
(Refer to SIRR in the
Appendices)
2. Overloading.
Notify Taylor
Machine Works,
3. Rough terrain.
Inc. for proper
repair procedures.

Correction
1. Have cracks in welds repaired
immediately.
2. Refer to Correction 1. above and
avoid overloading the truck.
3. Refer to Correction 1. above and, if
possible, avoid operating truck on
rough terrain.

4. Travelling with load in an unrecom- 4. Refer to Correction 1. above and


mended travel position (excessive
the Operators Guide for proper
travelling positions.
height and / or fully side-shifted,
one side or the other).

2. Engine support
mounts broken

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

5. Severe duty cycles.

5. Have cracks in welds repaired


immediately.

1. Engine vibration.

1. Refer to Problem 19. in the


Engine Troubleshooting chart in
Section 1.

2. Transmission vibration.

2. Refer to Problem 9. in the Transmission Troubleshooting chart in


Section 9.

18-1

Problem
3. Transmission
support mounts are
broken

Cause
1. Transmission vibration.
2. Engine vibration.

Correction
1. Refer to Problem 9. in the Transmission Troubleshooting chart in
Section 9.
2. Refer to Problem 19. in the
Engine Troubleshooting chart in
Section 1.

18-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Note: Photocopy this sketch to identify fatigue cracks or


structural damage to the chassis. Be very descriptive of
damage to the chassis, i.e. location, depth, length.
Illustration 18-1. Chassis (T 180S - 220S)

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

18-3

Note: Photocopy this sketch to identify fatigue cracks or


structural damage to the chassis. Be very descriptive of
damage to the chassis, i.e. location, depth, length.
Illustration 18-2. Chassis (T 250S - 360L)

18-4

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Section 20

Cab

Illustration 20-1. Cab


Introduction (Illustration 20-1). The cab has
been carefully designed with the operators safety
and comfort in mind. The components in the cab
have been layed out for easy access.

7. The tilt steering must lock firmly into position.

3. Under no circumstance should objects be


allowed in the cab which would restrict the
operators vision or exit.



S Failure to adhere to any of the above could
lead to personal injury, death, or property
damage.
S Avoid stepping on the top Lexan cover while
servicing the truck.
S Always use approved ladders, stands, or
manlifts to reach high places on the truck.
S The top Lexan cover is a part of the OSHA
mandated FOPS (Falling Object Protective
Structure). Do not remove or replace cover
with glass.

4. The seat must lock firmly into position.

Troubleshooting

5. The seat belt must always be intact and


operable.

1. Should abnormal vibration or shifting of cab


structure occur, check mounting bolts for tightness and ensure that rubber mounts are not
damaged.

Cab Maintenance Checks. The following checks


must be performed before operating the truck.
1. Steps and operators compartment must be
free of oil, grease, and trash.
2. All glass and mirrors of the cab should be
cleaned daily to keep vision from being
impaired.

6. The door latch must always function properly.

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

20-1

2. Should leak occur from the seals of the


glasses, repair seal.
Lubrication. The grease fittings, on the door
hinges, should be greased monthly or every 250
hours, whichever comes first.

20-2

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

20A-Air Conditioning
System

Section 20A

Air Conditioning System

20A-2308

Illustration 20A-1. Air Conditioning Circuit


Introduction. The air conditioning system provides the operator with a comfortable operating
environment.
Major Components (Illustration 20A-1). The air
conditioning system consists of an air conditioning
unit, and compressor.
Air Conditioner Unit. The air conditioner is capable of delivering 23,500 BTUs of cooling capacity,
powered by 12 VDC, and will draw 27 amps at
13.6 VDC. The unit has three speeds. The air
conditioning system is charged with approximately
2.5 lbs. of R134a Freon.
NOTE: The Clean Air Act, passed in 1992, specifies that anyone who works on vehicle air conditioning systems must be certified by an EPA
approved agency.
Compressor. The compressor is belt driven and
circulates the refrigerant through the air conditioning system when its clutch is engaged. It receives
a cool, low pressure gas and pumps a hot, high

TT180S
180S -- 360L
360L (Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

pressure gas to the condenser. When the thermostat signals for cooling, an electrical signal is sent
to the compressor clutch, engaging the clutch and
driving the compressor.
NOTE: Any time repairs are made to the air conditioning system which require the recovery of the
refrigerant, it is recommended that the drier be
changed and 3 ounces of AC ester lubricating oil
be added to the dryer.
Condenser. The condenser changes the refrigerant from a hot, high pressure gas (from the compressor) to a warm, high pressure liquid (to the
drier) by cooling the refrigerant.
Drier. The drier stores a volume of refrigerant.
Additionally, it filters and removes moisture from
the refrigerant. The drier receives a warm, high
pressure liquid (from the condenser) and sends a
warm, high pressure liquid (to the expansion
valve). The drier is equipped with a binary switch
which protects the compressor.

20A-1

The binary switch is normally closed when the


system pressure is within operating specifications.
The binary switch will open when the system pressure exceeds 312 psi. The binary switch will not
close again until the pressure has dropped below
225 psi. When the pressure drops below 2 psi,
the binary switch will open. The binary switch will
not close again until the pressure is above 28 psi.
The binary switch can be replaced without recovering the refrigerant. The binary switch is located
in the air conditioner unit on the high pressure
side. The fitting that holds the binary switch is
equipped with a check valve, that prevents the
high pressure coolant from exhausting if the
switch is removed.

3. Re-install the filter and control panel cover.


CONTROL
PANEL

SCREW

Evaporator Coil. The evaporator coil is located


inside the air conditioner unit. The evaporator
changes the warm, metered pressure liquid refrigerant (from the expansion valve) into a cold, low
pressure gas. The cold, low pressure gas is sent
back into the expansion valve. This cold, low
pressure gas is what controls the expansion valve.
The colder the gas is, the closer the ball will seat
and restrict the refrigerant into the evaporator coil.
Maintenance. The condenser should be cleaned
every 3 months to remove debris. The condenser
can be cleaned with a fin comb, air hose and
nozzle, or soap and water. A fin comb can also
be used to straighten bent coil fins. The air conditioner should be operated periodically during the
winter months to keep O-rings lubricated.
Refrigerant Hoses. Periodically check the hoses
and fittings for chafing or cracking. Replace as
conditions require.
NOTE: Replacement of the refrigerant hoses may
require recovery of the R134a refrigerant from the
system. Contact a certified EPA approved
agency.
Cleaning and / or Changing The Filter (Illustration 20A-2). If the filter is not cleaned regularly, it
may become partially clogged with lint, dirt,
grease or other debris. A clogged filter will produce a loss of air volume and therefore the filter
should be cleaned or changed as conditions
warrant. To remove the filter, the following removal procedures should be followed.
1. Remove the control panel cover.
2. Take the filter out and clean with water.
Replace it with a new filter if necessary.

20A-2

FILTER

Illustration 20A-2. Cleaning / Changing the Filter


Inspection. In the event of a cooling problem,
perform the following inspection procedures.


S Death or serious injury could result from a
runaway truck. Park the truck on a hard,
level surface, apply the parking brake and
block the wheels in both directions to
prevent movement of the truck.
S Rotating fan and belts can cause severe
injury. Stay clear of fan and belts when
engine is running.
1. Check the compressor drive belt tension and
pulley alignment. Tension on the drive belt
should be such that a firm push with the thumb
at a point midway between the two pulleys will
deflect the belt approximately 3/8. If the
deflection of the belt is more than 3/8, adjust
the belt tension.
2. Check the condenser for debris and clean if
required.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

3. Check all electrical connections and ensure


that the 38 amp circuit breaker (CB15) is set.
4. Checking the compressor clutch will require
starting the engine. When 12 VDC is sent
from the thermostat through the binary switch
to the compressor, the compressors clutch will
pop towards the compressor pulley (this will be
heard). The clutch will then begin to rotate
with the pulley (this will be seen).
5. Ensure that the evaporator coil, located inside
the air conditioner, is not iced up. The thermostats capillary should be positioned in the center of the coil fins. If the thermostat is functioning properly when the fins ice up, the
thermostat will remove the 12 VDC to the compressor. This will allow the compressor pulley
to free-spin and no refrigerant will be circulated to the evaporator coil. The ambient tem-

perature will then defrost the evaporator coil


fins.
6. The 12 VDC signal from the thermostat must
pass through a binary switch, which monitors
low pressure and high pressure in order to
engage the clutch of the compressor (refer to
Drier in this section).
7. Check the air conditioning hoses and fittings
for leaks. If a leak is detected, the refrigerant
must be recovered prior to making repairs.
NOTE: The Clean Air Act, passed in 1992, specifies that anyone who works on vehicle air conditioning systems must be certified by an EPA
approved agency.
8. For any further repairs, contact a certified air
conditioning repair technician.

Basic Troubleshooting (Illustration 20A-1)


Problem
1. Air conditioning unit
does not
power up

2. Fan blows limited or


no cold air

continued

TT180S
180S -- 360L
360L (Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

Cause

Correction

1. 38 amp circuit breaker (CB15) is


tripped or defective.

1. Reset or replace circuit breaker.


Refer to Circuit Breakers of the
Component Troubleshooting in
Section 6.

2. Harness connector is disconnected or loose.

2. Connect or tighten harness connector.

3. Broken or shorted wires.

3. Isolate and repair wires.

4. Defective air conditioner controls.

4. Replace air conditioner controls.

1. Loose, broken, or shorted wires.

1. Isolate and repair.

2. Harness connector is disconnected or loose.

2. Connect or tighten harness


connector.

3. Air conditioner compressor is


defective.

3. Contact certified technician to


repair or replace.

4. Air conditioner compressor clutch


is slipping.

4. Tighten air conditioner compressor


drive belt.

5. Air conditioner compressor clutch


is defective.

5. Replace clutch.

6. Low Freon charge.

6. Have certified technician recharge


air conditioning system.

7. The thermostat capillary is not


7. Properly position the capillary
properly positioned in the center of
probe in the center of the coil fins.
the cooler coil fins.

20A-3

Problem
2. Fan blows limited or
no cold air
(Continued)

3. Air conditioning unit


is leaking
water in the cab

Cause
8. Evaporator coil is iced up.

8. Thermostat is defective. Replace


thermostat.

9. The condenser fan is seized or


defective.

9. Unseize fan, replace or check wiring to fan motor.

10. The evaporator coil is dirty or


stopped up.

10. Clean with compressed air or


remove restriction.

11. Filter is dirty or stopped up.

11. Clean or replace filter.

12. Drier is stopped up.

12. Replace drier.

1. Drain hoses are restricted.

1. Remove restriction from hoses.

2. Drain vent in drain pan is


restricted.

2. Remove restriction from drain


vent.

4. Air conditioner fan is 1. Fan blade rotation is obstructed.


not turning
2. 38 amp circuit breaker (CB15) is
tripped or defective.

5. Air conditioner
operates in one
speed only

20A-4

Correction

1. Remove obstruction.
2. Reset or replace circuit breaker
(CB15). Refer to Circuit Breakers of the Component Troubleshooting in Section 6.

3. Defective fan motor.

3. Replace fan motor.

4. Broken or shorted wire.

4. Troubleshoot, isolate and repair.

1. Defective speed switch.

1. Replace speed switch.

2. Broken or shorted wire.

2. Troubleshoot, isolate and repair.

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)

20H-Heating System

Section 20H

Heating System

HEATER / DEFROSTER
SHUT-OFF VALVE

SHUT-OFF
VALVE

SHUT-OFF VALVE
CUMMINS QSB5.9

GM 8.1L-V8

20H-0074

Illustration 20H-1. Heating System Circuit


Introduction. The heating system provides a
comfortable working environment in a cold climate
and is essential in removing condensation from
the windshield in which otherwise would impair
vision. Provided the shut-off valve is open when
the engine coolant temperature opens the thermostat, heated coolant flows from the engine through
the heater coils, through the heater / defroster
coils (if equipped), and returns back to the suction
side of the water pump.
Major Components (Illustration 20H-1). The
heater system consists of a heater, heater /
defroster (if equipped), 20 amp circuit breaker

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

(CB8), 15 amp circuit breaker (CB7), heater /


defroster shut-off valve, shut-off valve, and hoses
that connect the heater / defroster to the the
engine.
Heater (Illustration 20H-1). The heater operates
on 12 VDC power, employs a two speed switch
(S5), and is rated at 40,000 BTUs.
Heater / Defroster (if equipped, Illustration
20H-1). The heater / defroster (located in the
right, front side of the cab) operates on 12 VDC
power, employs a two speed switch, and is rated
at 17,600 BTUs.

20H-1

Circuit Breakers (Illustration 20H-1). The circuit


breakers (CB7 and CB8) limit amperage to the
circuit.
Heater / Defroster Shut-off Valve (if equipped,
Illustration 20H-1). The heater / defroster shut-off
valve controls the flow of heated coolant to the
heater / defroster. It must be fully open for maximum operation. If the heater / defroster shut-off
valve is closed, there will be no flow of heated
coolant to circulate through the heater / defroster
circuits.
Shut-off Valve (Illustration 20H-1). The shut-off
valve controls the flow of heated coolant to the
heater / defroster circuits. It must be fully open for
maximum operation. If the shutoff valve is closed,
there will be no flow of heated coolant to circulate
in the circuits. The flow will then be directed to the
radiator and back to the water pump.
Hoses. Periodically check the hoses and elbows
for chafing or cracking. Replace as conditions
require.

 Allow the engine to cool
completely before removing heater hoses from
the engine. Severe burn potential exists.

20H-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Heating System Troubleshooting (Illustration 20H-1)


Problem
1. Heater fan is not
turning

2. Heater fan is turning, but no warm


air

Cause
1. Defective heater switch (S5).

1. Replace heater switch (S5).

2. Circuit breaker (CB7) is tripped or


defective.

2. Reset or replace circuit breaker


(CB7). Refer to Circuit Breakers
of the Component Troubleshooting in Section 6.

3. Circuit breaker (CB7) keeps tripping.

3. Circuit is shorted. Troubleshoot,


isolate, and repair short.

4. Defective fan motor.

4. Replace fan motor.

5. Open or shorted wire.

5. Troubleshoot, isolate and replace


wire.

6. Electrical connector or male /


female wire connectors are loose
or unplugged.

6. Ensure electrical connector or


male / female wire connectors are
connected.

1. The shut-off valve is closed.

1. Open shut-off valve.

2. Heater / defroster shut-off valve (if


equipped) is closed.

2. Open heater / defroster shut-off


valve.

3. Heater hoses kinked or restricted.

3. Unkink or remove restriction from


hoses.

4. Low coolant.

4. Check and fill radiator.

5. Engine has not reached operating


temperature.

5. Allow engine to reach operating


temperature.

3. Heater operates in 1. Defective heater switch (S5).


one speed only
2. Defective wire between heater
switch (S5) and motor.
4. Heater / defroster
units (if equipped)
fan is not turning

continued

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Correction

1. Replace heater switch (S5).


2. Troubleshoot, isolate and repair.

1. Defective defroster switch (S6).

1. Replace defroster switch (S6).

2. Circuit breaker (CB8) is tripped or


defective.

2. Reset or replace circuit breaker


(CB8). Refer to Circuit Breakers
of the Component Troubleshooting in Section 6.

3. Circuit breaker (CB8) keeps tripping.

3. Circuit is shorted. Troubleshoot,


isolate, and repair short.

4. Defective fan motor.

4. Replace fan motor.

5. Defective wire.

5. Troubleshoot, isolate, and replace


wire.

20H-3

Problem
4. Heater / defroster
units (if equipped)
fan is not turning
(Continued)

5. Heater / defroster
units (if equipped)
fan is turning, but
no warm air

6. Heater / defroster
unit (if equipped)
operates in one
speed only

20H-4

Cause

Correction

1. Defective defroster switch (S6).

1. Replace defroster switch (S6).

2. Circuit breaker (CB8) is tripped or


defective.

2. Reset or replace circuit breaker


(CB8). Refer to Circuit Breakers
of the Component Troubleshooting in Section 6.

3. Circuit breaker (CB8) keeps tripping.

3. Circuit is shorted. Troubleshoot,


isolate, and repair short.

4. Defective fan motor.

4. Replace fan motor.

5. Defective wire.

5. Troubleshoot, isolate, and replace


wire.

6. Male / female wire connectors are


loose or unplugged.

6. Ensure male / female wire connectors are connected.

1. The shut-off valve is closed.

1. Open shut-off valve.

2. Heater / defroster shut-off valve is


closed.

2. Open heater / defroster shut-off


valve.

3. Heater hoses kinked or restricted.

3. Unkink or remove restriction from


hoses.

4. Low coolant.

4. Check and fill radiator.

5. Engine has not reached operating


temperature.

5. Allow engine enough time to reach


operating temperature.

1. Defective defroster switch (S6).

1. Replace defroster switch (S6).

2. Defective wire between defroster


switch (S6) and motor.

2. Troubleshoot, isolate, and repair.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Section 22

Hydraulic System
Introduction. The hydraulic system controls the
lift, tilt, steering, and accessory functions of the
truck.
Major Components (Illustration 22-1). Major
components of the hydraulic system include a
hydraulic tank, main / steering pump, steer sensing valve, lift / tilt valve, pilot pump, pressure
reducing valve, manual lowering valve, hydraulic
control valves, and various actuating cylinders. If
optional equipment, such as side shift or fork positioning is installed, additional valves, controls, and
cylinders will be interconnected with the standard
hydraulic system.
Hydraulic Tank (Illustration 22-3). The hydraulic
tank has a 28 gallon capacity. The tank is
equipped with suction strainers and a full-flow
return line filter. All air entering the tank is filtered
through a 10 micron disposable element.
Main / Steering Pump (Illustration 22-11). The
main / steering pump (located on the right side of
the transmission) is a tandem gear pump that provides hydraulic fluid flow to operate the hydraulic
circuits. When the pump is turned, it creates a
vacuum at the pump inlet which allows atmospheric pressure to force hydraulic fluid through a
suction strainer in the hydraulic tank into the inlet
line of the pump. The pump then mechanically
pushes this fluid to its outlet port for use in the
hydraulic circuits.
The main / steering pump has two sections, each
containing a pumping gear set. The 2 gear set
provides approximately 38 gpm of hydraulic fluid
flow at 2200 governed rpm and 13 gpm at 750
rpm (low idle). It supplies hydraulic fluid to the
steering, lift, and tilt circuits. The 1 1/4 gear set
provides approximately 22 gpm of hydraulic fluid
flow at 2200 governed rpm and 8 gpm at 750 rpm
(low idle). It supplies hydraulic fluid to the accessory valve first (if equipped) and then to the lift / tilt
valve.
Steer Sensing Valve (Illustration 22-11). The
steer sensing valve, located on the end of the
main / steering pump, provides the logic for the
steering circuit. It is linked to the steering valve
and main / steering pump. When the steering
valve is turned, pressure in a load sense line,
between the steering valve and steer sensing
valve, shifts the spool of the steer sensing valve,
directing the flow of fluid from the main hydraulics
to the steering valve. The steer sensing valve
also contains a 2500 psi steer circuit relief.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Lift / Tilt Valve (Illustration 22-11). The lift / tilt


valve, located on the left front side under the cab,
directs the flow of fluid to the lift and tilt circuits. It
consists of an inlet, tilt, lift and outlet sections
(Illustration 22-8).
The inlet section of the lift / tilt valve receives a
maximum of 60 gpm at 2200 rpm (when not steering and not using any accessory functions) from
the two gear sets of the main / steering pump.
The main relief, located in the inlet, is set at 2750
psi (T-360L) and 2650 psi (T-180S-330M).
The tilt section, containing ports A (tilt out) and B
(tilt back), is connected to the tilt cylinders by
hydraulic hoses. It contains a port relief in port A
to limit tilt out pressure to 1250 psi. When the tilt
control is operated, it directs flow to and from the
tilt cylinders to tilt the mast. This can be checked
by installing an appropriate gauge onto pressure
check (SQ1), and fully extending and dead-heading the tilt cylinders. Restrictors in the B ports of
this section limit outward tilt speed to prevent the
load from falling out. Fluid is restricted in one
direction and free flows in the other.
The lift section is connected through hydraulic
hoses to the lift cylinders in the mast. When the
lift control is operated, pump flow is diverted
through this section into the piston end of the lift
cylinders, causing the lift cylinders to extend.
Maximum pressure is limited by the setting of the
main relief valve. When lowering, the operation is
reversed and fluid is directed out of the lift cylinders and back into the tank passage of the valve.
It combines with pump flow and is directed
through the return hose on the outlet of the valve
and back to the tank.
The outlet section provides the connection from
the return hose back to the hydraulic tank. When
no hydraulic functions are operated, the pump
output flows from the inlet down the center of the
valve to the outlet and returns through the return
filter that is mounted in the tank.
Pilot Pump (Illustration 22-11). The pilot pump,
located on the back side of the transmission, supplies pilot fluid to the hydraulic control valves and
to the accessory valve (if equipped). It contains a
pilot relief set at 400 psi.
Pressure Reducing Valve (Illustration 22-11).
The pressure reducing valve, located on the left
side of the transmission, controls the maximum
pressure to the hydraulic control valves. The
pressure reducing valve is set at 500 psi. Should

22-1

HYDRAULIC
CONTROL VALVES
(Illustration 22-11)

HYDRAULIC
TANK
(Illustration 22-3)
MAIN / STEERING
PUMP
(Illustration 22-10)

STEERING
VALVE
(Illustration 16-2)

TILT
CYLINDERS
(Illustration 22-11)

MANUAL LOWERING
VALVE
(Illustration 22-4)
STEER SENSING
VALVE
(Illustration 22-10)
LIFT / TILT
VALVE
(Illustration 22-8)

PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
(Illustration 22-9)
PILOT PUMP
(Illustration 22-10)
ACCESSORY
VALVE
(Illustration 22A-3)

Illustration 22-1. Hydraulic System Components Identification

22-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

the pilot pressure increase, this valve ensures that


the hydraulic control valves will only see 500 psi
maximum.
Manual Lowering Valve (Illustration 22-4). The
manual lowering valve (teed into the hydraulic line
from the lift work section to the lift cylinders) when
opened, provides a hydraulic flow path from the lift
cylinders to the hydraulic tank. This allows the
load to be lowered when normal lowering methods
cannot be performed. The valve must be manually opened and closed (refer to the Opening The
Manual Lowering Valve and Closing The
Manual Lowering Valve procedures in this
section).
Hydraulic Control Valves (Illustration 22-11).
The hydraulic control valves (located in the control
stand), when activated, will direct the pilot fluid to
the corresponding side of the selected work section, shifting the spool of the section (tilt or lift).
These valves control the amount of pilot pressure
delivered to the tilt / lift section end caps. By
metering the fluid, greater control over the load is
obtained. The spools of the tilt / lift work sections
will begin to shift when 70 psi of pilot pressure
reaches the end caps. They will be fully shifted at
365 psi of pilot pressure. Each hydraulic control
valve contains two pressure reducers that enable
this metering process to be achieved.
Lift Cylinders (Illustration 22-11). The lift cylinders operate on the principle of power up and
gravity down. There are flow control regulators
(located on the piston end of these cylinders) that
restrict the flow of fluid exiting the cylinders, allowing greater control of the load when lowering.
Fluid is restricted in one direction and free flows in
the other. The rod end of the lift cylinders are
vented back to an air space in the top of the
hydraulic tank.
Tilt Cylinders (Illustration 22-11). The tilt cylinders are double-acting. They alternately receive
pressurized fluid on one side of the piston while
fluid on the other side returns to tank. To change
cylinder direction, the pressurized and vented
sides of the piston are exchanged through the tilt
section of the lift / tilt valve.
Servicing The Hydraulic System
Hydraulic Operation. All hydraulic functions
should be checked daily for free operation (refer
to the Daily Checks section in the Operators
Guide).

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Checking The Fluid Level (Illustration 22-3). The


hydraulic fluid level must be maintained between
the FULL and ADD marks on the dipstick. This
check must be performed daily. Before adding
fluid to the reservoir, refer to the Fuel and Lubricant Specifications in the Appendices for the
type of fluid to be used. With the lift cylinders fully
retracted, remove the filler cap with dipstick and
check the condition of the strainer before adding
hydraulic fluid. Ensure that the strainer is in the
filler neck and add hydraulic fluid until the fluid
level is even with the FULL mark on the dipstick.
When the dipstick and filler cap are re-installed,
be sure the cap is tightened securely. The filler
cap is a pressure type cap that requires 4 PSI
internal pressure to unseat the cap.
 Not adhering to the above procedure can lead to overfilling of the hydraulic
tank. As a result, hydraulic fluid will be forced
out the breather.
NOTE: The filler neck has a link that can be
raised into position above the filler cap and padlocked, preventing unauthorized access to the
hydraulic tank.
Breather Filter (Illustration 22-3). Replace the
breather filter yearly or every 3000 hours, whichever comes first. More frequent replacement may
be necessary if the truck is being operated under
extremely dusty conditions.
Return Hydraulic Filter (Illustration 22-3). The
return hydraulic filter is non-reusable. This filter
should be changed after the first 50 hours of
operation and every 6 months or 1500 hours,
whichever comes first, thereafter. Perform the following procedures to service the return hydraulic
filter:
 Dispose of used filter in
accordance with federal and local regulations.
1. Remove the filter head of the return filter
assembly to gain access to the return filter.
2. Remove the used return filter and dispose of
properly.
3. Inspect the O-ring in the filter head for serviceable condition and replace if necessary.

22-3

4. Install a new return filter by reversing the


removal procedures. Torque the nuts securing
the filter head to 10 - 12 ft-lbs.
Suction Strainer (Illustration 22-3). The suction
strainers should be cleaned yearly or every 3000
hours, whichever comes first.
Changing The Hydraulic Fluid (Illustration 22-3).
The hydraulic fluid should be changed yearly or
every 3000 hours, whichever comes first. The
hydraulic fluid must also be changed in the event
of a catastrophic failure of a hydraulic component.
Refer to the Fuel and Lubricant Specifications
chart in the Appendices for the proper type of
fluid to be used and perform the following procedures to change the hydraulic fluid.

 Death or serious injury could
result from a runaway truck. Park the truck on
a hard, level surface, apply the parking brake,
block the wheels in both directions to prevent
movement of the truck and Lock Out & Tag Out
the truck.

7. Steam clean the interior of the hydraulic tank.



 Do Not clean the interior of
the hydraulic reservoir with a flammable solvent; this can create a serious fire hazard.
8. Install new return filter.
9. Re-install the suction strainers.
10. Re-install the drain plug.
11. Install new breather filter.
12. Clean and re-install strainer.
13. Fill tank with approximately 5 gallons of
hydraulic fluid. Inspect the lower hydraulic fittings and hoses for leaks. If there are no
leaks detected, fill the hydraulic tank to the
FULL mark on the dipstick. If a leak is
detected, repair before adding hydraulic fluid.
14. Inspect hydraulic tank fittings and hoses for
leaks. Tighten connections / bolts as required.


S Dispose of drained hydraulic fluid and used
return filters in accordance with federal and
local regulations.
S The lift cylinders should be fully retracted to
keep dilution of the new hydraulic fluid to a
minimum.
S Plug all hoses when they are disconnected
to prevent foreign matter from entering the
hydraulic system.
1. Park the truck on a hard, level surface, block
the wheels in both directions to prevent movement, apply the parking brake and Lock Out &
Tag Out the truck.
2. Provide a suitable container, remove the drain
plug and drain the hydraulic fluid.
3. Remove the filler cap with dipstick and
strainer.
4. Remove the breather filter.
5. Remove the return filter and dispose of
properly.
6. Remove the suction strainers from the hydraulic tank and clean in solvent. Dry with compressed air.

22-4

Illustration 22-2. Detecting Hydraulic Leaks


Hydraulic Hose Assemblies and Fittings. All
hydraulic hose assemblies should be checked
daily for chafed or cracked hoses. Check daily to
ensure that there are no loose fittings on the
hydraulic connections.

 Do Not use hands to check

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

for hydraulic leaks. Because the hydraulic


system is under high pressure, leaks could
develop that can not be seen, but will penetrate the skin and possibly cause other serious

injuries. When checking for hydraulic leaks,


wear heavy gloves and safety goggles, and
use a piece of cardboard or wood to find leaks.
(See Illustration 22-2).

FILLER CAP
w/DIPSTICK

RETURN FILTER
ASSEMBLY
STRAINER

BREATHER
FILTER

DRAIN PLUG

SUCTION STRAINER
(PILOT PUMP)

SUCTION STRAINER
(MAIN / STEERING PUMP)

Illustration 22-3. Hydraulic Tank Components Identification

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

22-5

Manual Lowering Valve Operation


The manual lowering valve should only be opened
when normal lowering methods cannot be performed.

2. Install the lock plate over the valve stem.


Ensure that the notch of the lock plate is secured by the stud on the valve block (see Illustration 22-7).
3. Install collar over valve stem.



S Death or serious injury could result from
being crushed. Do not allow anyone near
the lift truck - certainly not walking, standing
under, or beside the load or lifting
mechanism.
S Death or serious injury could result from a
runaway truck. Apply the parking brake,
block the wheels in both directions to
prevent movement of the truck and Lock Out
& Tag Out the truck.
S Death or serious injury could result from
being crushed. Do not operate the truck
with the manual lowering valve open. Close
valve before attempting to raise the carriage.
Opening The Manual Lowering Valve (Illustration
22-4). Perform the following procedures to open
the manual lowering valve:

4. Install stem screw and tighten.

STEM
SCREW

COLLAR

LOCK
PLATE
VALVE
STEM

1. Remove the stem screw and collar.


2. Remove the lock plate.
3. Make sure no one is under / near the mast,
carriage, or load lifting mechanism.
4. Turn the valve stem counterclockwise 1/4 turn
until the notches on top of the valve stem align
with the hydraulic fittings of the valve block
(note position of valve stem in Illustration
22-5).
NOTE: The only way to stop the lowering of the
load is by closing the manual lowering valve.

Illustration 22-4. Manual Lowering Valve

5. After the load has been fully lowered, close


the manual lowering valve (refer to Closing
The Manual Lowering Valve).
FULLY
OPEN

Closing The Manual Lowering Valve (Illustration


22-4). The manual lowering valve must be closed
and locked before operating the lift truck. Perform
the following procedures to close the manual lowering valve:
1. Turn the valve stem clockwise 1/4 turn until the
notches, located on top of the valve stem,
point toward the sides of the valve block (note
position of valve stem in Illustration 22-6).

22-6

1/4 turn

Illustration 22-5. Opening The Lowering Valve

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

ized fluid will be forced from the open port.


This could cause severe bodily injury.
Steer Sensing Valve (Illustration 22-10). The
steer pressure relief is located to the load sense
line on the end of the main / steering pump.
1. Install an appropriate pressure gauge onto
pressure check (SQ1, Illustration 22-10).
2. Steer truck all the way to either side and deadhead the steer cylinder.
1/4 turn

FULLY CLOSED

Illustration 22-6. Closing The Lowering Valve

3. At high idle, observe gauge and set pressure


for 2500 psi if required. Refer to procedures
4. through 6. to set the pressure.
4. Shut down the truck.
5. Loosen the locknut on the steer relief valve
(see Illustration 22-10).
6. Turn the setscrew clockwise to increase the
pressure or counterclockwise to decrease the
pressure.
7. Tighten the locknut after the pressure has
been set.
8. Start the truck and repeat procedures 2.
through 8. until the proper pressure has been
obtained.
Lift / Tilt Valve (Illustration 22-8). The lift / tilt
valve contains the main inlet relief valve and a
port relief valve in the tilt section (for tilt out only).
Main Relief Valve (located in the inlet section)

STUD

Illustration 22-7. Lock Plate Position


Setting Hydraulic Pressures
When performing any of the hydraulic pressure
setting procedures described, the truck Must Not
be loaded.


S Under no circumstances, when setting pressures, allow any portion of your body to be
positioned in front of the relief. It is possible
that the relief could be blown loose with
great force which could cause severe bodily
injury or death.
S Fluid passing over a relief generates heat;
should a relief be blown loose, hot, pressur-

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

1. Install an appropriate pressure gauge onto


pressure check (SQ2, Illustration 22-10).
2. Remove the cover cap and loosen the locknut
on the main relief of the accessory valve (see
Illustration 22A-3).
3. Turn the setscrew clockwise 2 turns to
increase the pressure setting.
4. Tilt the mast all the way back and dead-head
the tilt cylinders making certain the cylinders
are fully retracted, otherwise the gauge will
never read the correct pressure.
5. At high idle, observe gauge and set the main
relief of the lift / tilt valve for 2650 psi
(T-180S-330M) or 2750 psi (T-360L). Refer to
procedures 6. through 10. to set the pressure.
6. Loosen the locknut on the main relief of the
lift / tilt valve (see Illustration 22-8).

22-7

7. Turn the setscrew clockwise to increase the


pressure or counterclockwise to decrease the
pressure.
8. Tighten the locknut after the pressure has
been set.
9. Turn the accessory valves main relief setscrew counterclockwise approximately 2 turns
until the needle of the pressure gauge deviates slightly. Then, turn the setscrew clock-

wise approximately 1/4 of a turn.


10. Tighten the locknut after the pressure has
been set.
Tilt Port Relief Valve (located in the A port of the
tilt section)
1. Install an appropriate pressure gauge onto
pressure check (SQ1, Illustration 22-10).

RESTRICTOR
OUTLET
SECTION

TILT PORT RELIEF (SET


TO 1250 PSI AT HIGH IDLE)

LIFT
SECTION

INLET
SECTION

RESTRICTOR

MAIN RELIEF VALVE [SET TO


2650 PSI (T 180 - 330) AT HIGH
IDLE OR 2750 PSI (T 350 - 360)
AT HIGH IDLE]

TILT
SECTION

NOTE: THE RESTRICTORS ONLY RESTRICT FLUID EXITING


THE ROD END PORTS OF THE TILT CYLINDERS. FLUID IS
ALLOWED TO FREE-FLOW INTO THE ROD END PORTS OF
THE TILT CYLINDERS THROUCH THE RESTRICTORS.

Illustration 22-8. Lift / Tilt Valve Pressure Settings

22-8

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

LOCKNUT
PRESSURE
CHECK (PQ2)

PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE


(500 PSI MAX. AT HIGH IDLE)
SETSCREW
CAP

HEX WRENCH

Illustration 22-9. Pressure Reducing Valve Pressure Setting


PRESSURE
CHECK (PQ2)
PRESSURE
CHECK (SQ2)

PRESSURE REDUCING
VALVE
PILOT PRESSURE RELIEF
(SET TO 400 PSI AT LOW IDLE)

PILOT
PUMP
PRESSURE
CHECK (PQ1)
MAIN / STEERING
PUMP
PRESSURE
CHECK (SQ1)
STEER SENSING VALVE
RELIEF SETSCREW
(SET TO 2500 PSI AT
HIGH IDLE)

Illustration 22-10. Main / Steering Pump and Pilot Pump Pressure Settings

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

22-9

2. Raise the carriage to a height that will allow


the mast to be tilted fully forward (cylinders at
full stroke).
3. Tilt the mast fully forward and dead-head the
tilt cylinders making certain the cylinders are
fully extended.
4. At high idle, observe gauge and set pressure
for 1250 psi. Refer to procedures 5. through
7. to set the pressure.
5. Loosen the locknut on the tilt relief valve (see
Illustration 22-8).
6. Turn the setscrew clockwise to increase the
pressure or counterclockwise to decrease the
pressure.
7. Tighten the locknut after the pressure has
been set.
Pressure Reducing Valve And Pilot Pump
Pressure Relief (Illustrations 22-9 and 22-10)
1. Install an appropriate pressure gauge onto
pressure check (PQ1, Illustration 22-10).
2. Loosen the locknut on the relief of the pilot
pump. Increase relief pressure to 600 psi at
low idle (turn setscrew clockwise).
3. Install the pressure gauge onto pressure
check (PQ2, Illustration 22-10).
4. Remove the cap from the pressure reducing
valve.
5. At high idle, observe gauge and set pressure
for 500 psi. Refer to procedures 6. through 8.
to adjust pressure.
6. Loosen the locknut on the pressure reducing
valve.
7. With a hex wrench, turn setscrew clockwise to
increase the pressure or counterclockwise to
decrease the pressure.
8. Tighten locknut and re-install cap on pressure
reducing valve.
9. Install the pressure gauge onto pressure
check (PQ1).
10. Decrease the pressure of the pilot pump pressure relief to 400 psi (turn setscrew counterclockwise).
11. Tighten the locknut.

Troubleshooting The Major Components


(Illustration 22-11)
This section contains information that will assist in
determining the operational status of the major
components.
Hydraulic Tank. Visually inspect for leaks on the
hydraulic tank at the fittings, breather, welds, and
connecting hoses. Ensure that the hydraulic tank
has the proper fluid level. In time or after catastrophic failure of a hydraulic component the suction strainers, located in the bottom of the tank,
can become clogged. The most efficient way to
determine that this condition has occurred is to
drain the hydraulic tank and remove the suction
strainers. Refer to Changing The Hydraulic
Fluid in the front of this section. Visually inspect
and clean strainers with solvent. Clogged suction
strainers may lead to any of the following:
1. Pump cavitation.
2. Reduced flow rate.
3. Increased response time of the hydraulic
system.
4. Pre-mature pump failure.
Main / Steering Pump. Troubleshoot the main /
steering pump by using a flowmeter on the output
side of the pump to determine if the pump is producing the correct flow. At high idle (2200 rpm)
pump output flow should be approximately 38
gpm from the 2 gear set and 22 gpm the 1 1/4
gear set. At low idle (750 rpm) pump output flow
should be approximately 13 gpm from the 2 gear
set and 8 gpm from the 1 1/4 gear set. It is possible, due to pump slippage which will increase
with wear, that the pump may produce enough
flow at high idle and not produce enough flow at
low idle. Therefore, it is critical that the flow rate
at high idle and low idle be checked. The pump
must produce the required flow rate at the
required pressure settings.
Should flow rate be low, troubleshoot as follows:
1. Low hydraulic fluid.
2. Improper hydraulic fluid.
3. Suction hose not clamped properly.
4. Suction line is restricted or crimped.
5. Hydraulic strainers, located in the bottom of
the tank, are clogged.
6. Defective pump.

22-10

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Steer Sensing Valve. Troubleshoot the steer


sensing valve for proper operation. Perform the
following procedures to troubleshoot:
1. Install a 3000 psi pressure gauge into pressure check (SQ1).
2. Fully steer tires to one side or the other and
refer to the Setting Hydraulic Pressures procedures of for the proper pressure setting for
the steer sensing valve.
3. If the pressure is low:

 Death or serious injury can
occur from being pinned and crushed by
pivoting tires. Do not enter or allow any
personnel to enter the tire pivot area with the
truck running. Lock Out & Tag Out the truck
before entering this area.
a. Remove the hose from the steer cylinder,
on the side in which the steer cylinder rod
is extended, and cap the hose.
b. Steer the truck in the same direction so as
to dead-head the fluid against the packing.
c. There should be no constant fluid flow
through the open port.
d. If fluid flow is excessive, fluid is bypassing
the piston packing. Repack the cylinder.
e. If there is no constant fluid flow, reconnect
the hose and continue to troubleshoot the
steering circuit.
4. Install a flowmeter in the main hydraulic line at
the steer sense valve and check the flow rate.
In a non-steering state, approximately 38 gpm
at 2200 rpm will be read. While steering, the
flow rate should decrease. This proves that
the spool in the load sense valve has shifted
to the steering circuit. Fully tilt back and deadhead the tilt cylinders. Ensure that you have
38 gpm at 2200 rpm at 2650 psi
(T-180S-330M) or 2750 psi (T-360L).
5. If flow rates are correct, adjust the pressure
setting of the steer sensing valve (refer to the
Setting Hydraulic Pressures procedures for
setting the hydraulic pressure for the steer
sensing valve). If unable to obtain the correct
pressure setting:
a. The steer sensing relief valve is not
adjusted properly or is defective.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

b. Defective steer sensing valve.


c. Defective steering valve.
Lift / Tilt Valve. Perform the following procedures
to troubleshoot (refer to the Setting Hydraulic
Pressures procedures of the Lift / Tilt Valve if the
required pressure readings are incorrect):
1. Inlet Section
a. Install an appropriate pressure gauge into
pressure check (SQ1, Illustration 22-10).
b. Fully retract and dead-head the tilt cylinders.
c. Observe the pressure gauge at 2200 rpm.
The pressure gauge should read 2650 psi
(T-180S-330M) or 2750 psi (T-360L).
d. Shut truck down and install flowmeter in
the 1 1/4 hose connected to the outlet
section.
e. Start truck and the flowmeter should indicate approximately 60 gpm (at 2200 rpm)
of flow if there are no accessory hydraulic
functions being operated.
2. Tilt Section
a. Install an appropriate pressure gauge into
pressure check (SQ1, Illustration 22-10).
b. Fully retract and dead-head the tilt cylinders.
c. Observe the pressure gauge at 2200 rpm.
The pressure gauge should read 2650 psi
(T-180S-330M) or 2750 psi (T-360L).
d. Raise the carriage to a height that will
allow the mast to be tilted fully forward (cylinders at full stroke).
e. Fully extend and dead-head the tilt cylinders.
f.

Observe the pressure gauge at 2200 rpm.


The pressure gauge should read 1250 psi.

3. Outlet Section
a. Install an appropriate pressure gauge into
pressure check (SQ1, Illustration 22-10).
b. Observe the pressure gauge at 2200 rpm.
The pressure reading should be minimal.
c. Install a flowmeter in the 1 1/4 hose connected to outlet section.

22-11

d. The flowmeter should indicate approximately 60 gpm at 2200 rpm.


Lift / Tilt Valve Summary. All of the procedures,
that have been listed to troubleshoot the lift / tilt
valve, are for normal operation. Should abnormal
operation of the hydraulic system be detected,
you must be capable of isolating the fault whether
it be upstream or downstream. Listed below are
some guidelines to consider:
1. Restrictions in hydraulic circuits will increase
pressure downstream and decrease flow rate
upstream.
2. In order to build pressure, the flow must be
restricted to the circuit.
Replacement of Pump
 If a pump or valve is being
replaced, always take a preliminary pressure
reading of the cold fluid, at idle rpm, because if
there is a malfunctioning pressure relief valve
in the system, it can burst the pump housing.
Normally, if a cylinder is dead-headed, the
engine will stop before bursting the pump. If
your gauge reading begins to exceed the maximum allowed pressure, do not dead-head the
function completely.
When a new pump is installed, allow the engine to
idle for 15 or 20 minutes before pressurizing the
system. This allows the pump to become thoroughly lubricated and to reach the same temperature as the fluid.
Hydraulic System Troubleshooting
(Illustration 22-11)
One of the most misunderstood systems is the
hydraulic system incorporated in industrial trucks.
What appears to be a simple failure of a component is usually corrected by replacement of that
component, without due regard to the cause of
the failure. There may be several individual systems such as lift, steer, and attachment, tied
together to become one overall hydraulic system.
In which event, what happens to one subsystem

22-12

may affect every other subsystem. Therefore, it is


absolutely necessary that special attention be given to pressures and cleanliness.
The most meaningful system check a serviceman
can use in diagnosing a problem is the check of
the hydraulic circuit pressure on any machine that
uses hydraulic components. The two cardinal
rules that should be followed are:
1. Excessive pressure does not offer any operational advantage. It only shortens component
life.
2. Pressure just high enough to achieve component function is always the most desirable setting.
We must also remember that the only reasons for
making a hydraulic pressure check are to verify
that the system is to specifications or to troubleshoot the system to pinpoint a malfunction.
Before an accurate reading can be obtained the
following steps must be taken:
1. The hydraulic fluid must be to Taylor specifications. Any fluid not to these specifications can
give a faulty reading.
2. The hydraulic system should have been run
long enough to bring the system temperature
to approximately 125 to 150F (51.6 to
65.5C).
One of the best ways to attain this temperature is to dead-head a cylinder for a short period of time, passing fluid over the relief valve to
generate heat.
3. It is extremely important that pressure readings on Taylor equipment be taken at the point
specified. If the pressure gauge is installed at
another point in the system, readings other
than the correct one can or will be obtained
due to back pressure and other causes. It
should be noted that readings for accuracy
should be obtained when the vehicle engine is
running at the recommended rpm (refer to
Illustration 22-11 for the Pressure Setting
Chart).

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Problem

Cause

1. No tilting in or slow 1. Low pilot pressure.


tilting in

Correction
1. Refer to Problem 5. of this troubleshooting chart.

2. Low hydraulic fluid flow.

2. Refer to Problem 6. of this troubleshooting chart.

3. Spool in the tilt section of the lift /


tilt valve is sticking.

3. Remove spool, visually inspect


spool and spool housing for debris.

4. Fluid is bypassing in the tilt cylinder 4. Repack the tilt cylinder.


piston packing.

2. No tilting out or
slow tilting out

5. Incorrect pressure setting of the


lift / tilt valves main relief (located
in the inlet section).

5. Set main relief for correct pressure.

6. Defective main relief in the inlet


section of the lift / tilt valve.

6. Replace main relief.

7. Incorrect pressure setting of the


accessory valves main relief
(located in the inlet section).

7. Set main relief for correct pressure.

8. Defective main relief in the inlet


section of the accessory valve.

8. Replace main relief.

1. Low pilot pressure.

1. Refer to Problem 5. of this troubleshooting chart.

2. Low hydraulic fluid flow.

2. Refer to Problem 6. of this troubleshooting chart.

3. Spool in the work section is


sticking.

3. Remove spool, visually inspect


spool and spool housing for debris.

4. Fluid is bypassing in the tilt cylinder 4. Repack the tilt cylinder.


piston packing.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

5. Incorrect pressure setting of the


lift / tilt valves main relief (located
in the inlet section).

5. Set main relief for correct pressure.

6. Defective main relief in the inlet


section of the lift / tilt valve.

6. Replace main relief.

7. Incorrect pressure setting of the


accessory valves main relief
(located in the inlet section).

7. Set main relief for correct pressure.

8. Defective main relief in the inlet


section of the accessory valve.

8. Replace main relief.

9. Incorrect tilt relief valve pressure


setting.

9. Set tilt relief valve for correct


pressure.

10. Defective tilt relief valve.

10. Replace tilt relief valve.

22-13

Problem
3. No lifting or slow
lifting

4. No lowering or
slow lowering

5. Low pilot pressure

Cause

Correction

1. Low pilot pressure.

1. Refer to Problem 5. of this troubleshooting chart.

2. Low hydraulic fluid flow.

2. Refer to Problem 6. of this troubleshooting chart.

3. Spool in the lift section of the lift /


tilt valve is sticking.

3. Remove spool, visually inspect


spool and spool housing for debris.

4. Fluid is bypassing the tilt cylinder


piston packing.

4. Repack the lift cylinder.

5. Incorrect pressure setting of the


lift / tilt valves main relief (located
in the inlet section).

5. Set main relief for correct pressure.

6. Defective main relief in the inlet


section of the lift / tilt valve.

6. Replace main relief.

7. Incorrect pressure setting of the


accessory valves main relief
(located in the inlet section).

7. Set main relief for correct pressure.

8. Defective main relief in the inlet


section of the accessory valve.

8. Replace main relief.

9. Vent hoses to the lift cylinders are


positioned at the hydraulic fluid
level in tank.

9. Reposition vent hoses at the


hydraulic tank.

1. Low pilot pressure.

1. Refer to Problem 5. of this troubleshooting chart.

2. Low hydraulic fluid flow.

2. Refer to Problem 6. of this troubleshooting chart.

3. Spool in the lift section of the lift /


tilt valve is sticking.

3. Remove spool, visually inspect


spool and spool housing for debris.

4. Defective flow regulator in the lift


cylinder.

4. Replace flow regulator.

1. Worn or defective pilot pump.

1. Repair or replace pump.

2. Incorrect pilot relief valve pressure


setting.

2. Adjust pilot relief valve for correct


pressure.

3. Defective pilot relief valve.

3. Replace pilot relief valve.

4. Defective pressure reducing valve.

4. Replace pressure reducing valve.

5. Incorrect pressure reducing valve


pressure setting.

5. Set pressure reducing valve for


correct pressure.

6. Defective hydraulic control valve.

6. Replace hydraulic control valve.

continued

22-14

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Problem

Cause

Correction

5. Low pilot pressure


(Continued)

7. Loose or crimped pilot pressure


hose.

8. Isolate and repair.

6. Low or no hydraulic fluid flow

1. Low hydraulic fluid supply.

1. Fill tank to the correct fluid level.

2. Cold hydraulic fluid.

2. Due to extended periods of cold


temperatures, the viscosity of the
hydraulic fluid can increase. Consider adding a cold weather package.

3. Breather filter is plugged.

3. Replace the breather filter.

4. Using incorrect type of hydraulic


fluid.

4. Drain and flush the hydraulic


circuits. Refer to the Fuel and
Lubricant Specifications in the
Appendices for the proper type of
hydraulic fluid to use.

5. Clogged suction strainer(s).

5. Clean suction strainer(s).

6. Air leak in suction hose to pump.

6. Locate leak and repair.

7. Worn / defective pump(s).

7. Replace or rebuild pump(s).

8. Stripped flex plate on transmission. 8. Replace flex plate.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

22-15

Hoist Circuit

22-16

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Hoist Circuit

PLACE THE FOLLOWING ILLUSTRATION IN


FOLDER ENVELOPES:
Illustration 22-11 - 22 2785 SHT. 2 (ANSI)

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
01/03)

22-17

Hoist Circuit

22-18

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

22A-Side Shift and Fork Postioners Hydraulic Circuits

Section 22A

Side Shift and Fork Positioners Hydraulic Circuits

22A-3472

Illustration 22A-1. Side Shift and Fork Positioners Hydraulic Circuits


Introduction. The side shift controls the movement of the carriage while the fork positioner
hydraulic circuit controls the movement of the
forks from side to side.
NOTE: The controls described above are used on
some trucks. Other trucks may have controls that
are different from those mentioned above.
Major Components (Illustration 22A-1). In addition to the major components of the hydraulic system in Section 22, the accessory hydraulic circuit
contains an accessory valve, side shift hydraulic
control valve and / or two fork positioner hydraulic
control valves, side shift cylinder, and / or fork positioner cylinders.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Side Shift Hydraulic Control Valve (Illustration


22A-5). The side shift cylinder is controlled by the
side shift hydraulic control valve that is located on
the control stand. Refer to Hydraulic Control
Valves in Section 22 to find more detailed information on how this type of hydraulic valve works.
Fork Positioner Hydraulic Control Valves
(Illustration 22A-4). The fork positioner cylinders
are controlled by the fork positioner hydraulic control valves that are located on the control stand.
Refer to Hydraulic Control Valves in Section 22
to find more detailed information on how this type
of hydraulic valve works.
Accessory Valve (Illustrations 22A-1 and 22A-5).
The accessory valve, located under the front side
of the cab, directs the flow of hydraulic fluid to the

22A-1

side shift cylinder for carriage positioning and to


the fork positioner cylinders for fork positioning. It
is comprised of an inlet, outlet, and three work
sections (Illustration 22A-3).
The inlet section receives approximately 22 gpm
(at 2200 governed rpm) of flow from the 1 1/4
gear set of the main / steering pump. It also contains a relief valve set at 2650 psi (T-180S-330M)
or 2750 psi (T-360L) at high idle.
The side shift work section, containing ports A
(side shift left) and B (side shift right), is connected to the side shift cylinder by hydraulic
hoses. Each port contains a relief valve limiting
the output to 2500 psi at high idle. This can be
checked by installing an appropriate gauge on the
pressure check (SQ2) and fully extending and
dead-heading the side shift cylinder.
The left fork positioner work section, containing
ports A (shift left) and B (shift right), is connected
to the fork positioner cylinder by hydraulic hoses.
Each port contains a relief valve limiting the output
to 1500 psi at high idle. This can be checked by
installing an appropriate gauge on the pressure
check (SQ2) and fully extending (or fully retracting) and dead-heading the left fork positioner cylinder at high idle.

inders. They alternately receive pressurized fluid


on one side of the piston while fluid on the other
side returns to tank. To change the cylinders
direction, the pressurized and vented sides of the
piston are exchanged through the valves and
back to tank.
Hydraulic Hose Assemblies and Fittings. All
hydraulic hose assemblies should be checked
daily for chafed or cracked hoses. Check daily to
ensure that there are no loose fittings on the
hydraulic connections.

 Do Not use hands to check
for hydraulic leaks. Because the hydraulic
system is under high pressure, leaks could
develop that can not be seen, but will penetrate the skin and possibly cause other serious
injuries. When checking for hydraulic leaks,
wear heavy gloves and safety goggles, and
use a piece of cardboard or wood to find leaks.
(See Illustration 22A-2).

The right fork positioner work section, containing


ports A (shift right) and B (shift left), is connected
to the fork positioner cylinder by hydraulic hoses.
Each port contains a relief valve limiting the output
to 1500 psi at high idle. This can be checked by
installing an appropriate gauge on the pressure
check (SQ2) and fully extending (or fully retracting) and dead-heading the fork positioner cylinder
at high idle.
The outlet section provides the connection from
the return hose back to the lift / tilt valve. When
no accessory hydraulic functions are being operated, the fluid flows from the inlet down the center
of the valve to the outlet and is sent to the lift / tilt
valve.
Side Shift Cylinder (Illustration 22A-1). The side
shift cylinder is a double-acting cylinder. It alternately receives pressurized fluid on one side of
the piston while fluid on the other side returns to
tank. To change cylinder direction, the pressurized and vented sides of the piston are
exchanged through the valves and back to tank.
Fork Positioner Cylinders (Illustration 22A-1).
The fork positioner cylinders are double-acting cyl-

22A-2

Illustration 22A-2. Detecting Hydraulic Leaks


Setting Accessory Valve Hydraulic Pressures
The accessory valve contains a main relief valve
in the inlet section and two relief valves in each of
the three work sections. The work sections consist of a side shift, left fork positioner, and right
fork positioner sections.
Circuit Relief Logic. When a port relief valve is
checked, it is necessary to be aware that there

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
08/03)

are usually other relief valves in the same circuit.


These relief valves may be set lower or near the
port relief valve that needs to be checked. It may
be necessary to temporarily increase or decrease
one of the other relief valves to insure that the port
relief valve, being adjusted, is actually controlling
the pressure. If the adjustment on a relief valve is
turned and the pressure responds, the relief valve
is controlling the pressure. Remember fluid will
always flow in the path of least resistance.


S Under no circumstances, when setting pressures, allow any portion of your body to be
positioned in front of the relief. It is possible
that the relief could be blown loose with
great force which could cause severe bodily
injury or death.
S Fluid passing over a relief generates heat;
should a relief be blown loose, hot, pressurized fluid will be forced from the open port.
This could cause severe bodily injury.
Accessory Valve Main Relief Valve (Illustration
22A-3). Perform the following procedures to set
the main relief of the accessory valve.

Side Shift Work Section Port Relief Valves


(Illustration 22A-3). Perform the following procedures to set the side shift work section port relief
valves.
1. Install an appropriate pressure gauge onto
pressure check (SQ2, Illustration 22-10).
2. Fully extend and dead-head the side shift
cylinder. The A port relief valve controls the
pressure on the piston end of the cylinder.
3. At high idle, observe gauge and set pressure
for 2500 psi as required. Refer to procedures
4. through 6. to set the pressure.
4. Loosen the locknut on the A port relief
(Illustration 22A-3).
5. Turn setscrew of the A port relief clockwise to
increase the pressure or counterclockwise to
decrease the pressure.
6. Tighten the locknut after the pressure has
been set.
7. Fully retract and dead-head the side shift
cylinder. The B port relief valve controls the
pressure on the rod end of the cylinder.

1. Install an appropriate pressure gauge onto


pressure check (SQ2, Illustration 22-10).

8. At high idle, observe gauge and set pressure


for 2500 psi as required. Refer to procedures
9. through 11. to set the pressure.

2. Loosen the locknut on the A port relief of the


side shift work section (Illustration 22A-3).

9. Loosen the locknut on the B port relief


(Illustration 22A-3).

3. Turn the setscrew clockwise several turns.

10. Turn the setscrew of the B port relief clockwise


to increase the pressure or counterclockwise
to decrease the pressure.

4. Fully extend and dead-head the side shift


cylinder.
5. At high idle, observe gauge and set the pressure of the main relief valve for 2650 psi
(T-180S-330M) or 2750 psi (T-360L). Refer to
procedure 6. through 8. to set the pressure.
6. Loosen the locknut on the main relief valve of
the inlet section (Illustration 22-10).
7. Turn the setscrew clockwise to increase the
pressure or counterclockwise to decrease the
pressure.
8. Tighten the locknut on the main relief valve
after the pressure has been set.
9. Reset the side shift A port relief setscrew
(turned in procedure 3.). Refer to Side Shift
Work Section Port Relief Valves pressure
setting procedures to reset the port relief.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

11. Tighten the locknut after the pressure has


been set.
Right and Left Fork Positioner Work Sections
Port Relief Valves (Illustration 22A-3). Perform
the following procedures to set the right and left
fork positioner work sections port relief valves.
1. All four port relief valves of the two fork positioner work sections will be set with the same
procedures.
2. Determine which port relief valve needs to be
adjusted.
a. Right Fork Positioner Work Section
(work section next to the outlet section of
the accessory valve)

22A-3

(1) The A port relief valve controls the


pressure to the piston end of the cylinder to shift the right fork to the right.
(2) The B port relief valve controls the
pressure to the rod end of the cylinder
to shift the right fork to the left.
b. Left Fork Positioner Work Section
(work section between the side shift section and right fork positioner section of the
accessory valve)
(1) The B port relief valve controls the
pressure to the rod end of the cylinder
to shift the left fork to the right.
(2) The A port relief valve controls the
pressure to the piston end of the cylinder to shift the left fork to the left.

OUTLET
SECTION

3. Install an appropriate pressure gauge onto


pressure check (SQ2, Illustration 22-10).
4. Fully extend (or fully retract) and dead-head
the appropriate fork positioner cylinder.
5. At high idle, observe gauge and set pressure
for 1500 psi as required. Refer to procedures
6. through 8. to set the pressure.
6. Loosen the locknut on the port relief valve
(Illustration 22A-3).
7. Adjust the setscrew clockwise to increase the
pressure or counterclockwise to decrease the
pressure.
8. Tighten the locknut after the pressure has
been set.

RIGHT FORK POSITIONER WORK


SECTION (SET PORT RELIEF VALVES
TO 1500 PSI AT HIGH IDLE)

LEFT FORK POSITIONER


WORK SECTION (SET PORT
RELIEF VALVES TO 1500 PSI
AT HIGH IDLE)

INLET
SECTION

SIDE SHIFT WORK SECTION


(SET PORT RELIEF VALVES
TO 2500 PSI AT HIGH IDLE)

MAIN RELIEF VALVE [SET TO


2650 PSI (T 180 - 330) OR 2750
PSI (T 350 - 360) AT HIGH IDLE]

Illustration 22A-3. Accessory Valve

22A-4

T 180S
T 180S
- 360L
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
08/03)

Troubleshooting
Follow the troubleshooting chart in Section 22 for
procedures used to troubleshoot all other hydrauProblem
1. Slow or no side
shift (in either
direction)

lic system problems not covered in this hydraulic


troubleshooting chart.

Cause

Correction

1. The accessory valves main relief


valve is defective.

1. Replace the accessory valves


main relief valve.

2. The accessory valves main relief


valve pressure setting is incorrect.

2. Set the accessory valves main


relief valve for correct pressure.

3. Low pilot pressure.

3. Refer to Problem 5. in the Hydraulic System Troubleshooting chart


in Section 22.

4. Spool in side shift work section is


sticking.

4. Remove spool, visually inspect


spool and spool housing for debris.

5. Hydraulic fluid is bypassing the cyl- 5. Repack the side shift cylinder.
inder piston packing.

2. Slow or no side
shift (in one direction only)

6. Low hydraulic fluid flow.

6. Refer to Problem 6. in the Hydraulic System Troubleshooting chart


in Section 22.

1. Incorrect pressure setting for port


relief valve in the A or B port.

1. Refer to Side Shift Work Section


Port Relief Valves in the Setting
Accessory Valve Hydraulic Pressures.

2. Defective port relief valve in the A


or B port.

2. Replace port relief valve.

3. Spool in the side shift work section


is sticking.

3. Remove spool, visually inspect


spool and spool housing for debris.

4. Hydraulic fluid is bypassing the cyl- 4. Repack the side shift cylinder.
inder piston packing.
3. Slow or no fork
1. The accessory valves main relief
positioning (in both
valve is defective.
directions)
2. The accessory valves main relief
valve pressure setting is incorrect.
3. Low pilot pressure.

1. Replace the accessory valves


main relief valve.
2. Set the accessory valves main
relief valve for correct pressure.
3. Refer to Problem 5. in the Hydraulic System Troubleshooting chart
in Section 22.

4. Defective port relief valve in the A


4. Replace port relief valve.
or B port of the fork positioner work
sections.
5. Spool in fork positioner work
section is sticking.

5. Remove spool, visually inspect


spool and spool housing for debris.

continued

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

22A-5

Problem

Cause

Correction

3. Slow or no fork
6. Hydraulic fluid is bypassing the
positioning (in both
cylinder piston packing.
directions)
7. Low hydraulic fluid flow.
(Continued)

6. Repack the fork positioner cylinder.

4. Slow or no fork
positioning (in one
direction)

1. Low pilot pressure.

1. Refer to Problem 5. in the Hydraulic System Troubleshooting chart


in Section 22.

2. Defective port relief valve in the A


or B port.

2. Replace port relief valve.

3. Spool in fork positioner work section is sticking.

3. Remove spool, visually inspect


spool and spool housing for debris.

7. Refer to Problem 6. in the Hydraulic System Troubleshooting chart


in Section 22.

4. Hydraulic fluid is bypassing the cyl- 4. Repack the fork positioning


inder piston packing.
cylinder.
5. Fork will not hold
its position

1. Hydraulic fluid is bypassing the fork 1. Repack the fork positioning


positioning cylinders piston packcylinder.
ing.
2. Spool in fork positioner work section is sticking.

22A-6

2. Remove spool, visually inspect


spool and spool housing for debris.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Illustration 22A-4. Accessory Hydraulic Controls Circuit

HYDRAULIC
TANK
(TOP VIEW)

SUCTION
STRAINER

SUCTION
STRAINER

HYDRAULIC
TANK
(SIDE VIEW)

22C-2276

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

22A-7

22A-8

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Hoist Circuit

PLACE THE FOLLOWING ILLUSTRATIONS IN


FOLDER ENVELOPES:
Illustration 22A-5 - 22 2786 SHT. 2 (ANSI)
Illustration 22A-6 - 22C2200 SHT. 2 (ANSI)

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
01/03)

22A-9

22A-10

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

22E-Accumulator

Section 22E

Accumulator
Introduction. The accumulator acts as a shock
absorber in the hydraulic system.
When the driven member of the hydraulic system
stops suddenly, it creates a pressure wave that
travels back through the system. This shock wave
can develop peak pressures several times greater
than normal working pressures and can be the
source of system failure. The gas cushion in an
accumulator will minimize this shock, protecting
expensive hydraulic components.
Accumulator. The accumulator, located below
the air tank, is a hydro-pneumatic piston type
accumulator which is precharged to 1250 psi of
dry nitrogen.
Checking Precharge. The precharge check
should be performed monthly or every 250 hours,
whichever comes first. Follow the procedures
listed below to check precharge (a charging kit is
available from Taylor, part number 1000-503).
See Illustration 22E-1 for charging kit.
1. To read and adjust the gas pressure or precharge pressure, all the hydraulic fluid must
be drained from the fluid side of the accumulator to zero hydraulic pressure. To accomplish
this, let the lift cylinder down and hold lever in
DOWN position for approximately one minute.
2. Remove the valve guard and cap from the
accumulator.
3. Ensure that the shaft of the air chuck (4) is fully retracted by turning the bar handle counterclockwise until it stops.
4. Do not have the charging hose (8) connected
to the gauging head assembly (1) unless free
end of charging hose is plugged.
5. Mount the swivel of the air chuck (4) on the
accumulators valve stem and hand tighten to
compress the gasket in the swivel to prevent
gas leakage.

S When precharging, the initial 50 psi of dry


nitrogen should be introduced slowly into
the accumulator.
1. Install the charging kit (Illustration 22E-1) as
explained in the Checking Precharge procedures above.
2. Connect the charging kit to a nitrogen bottle
with the charging hose (8).
3. Inflate the accumulator to the predetermined
pressure by opening the valve on the nitrogen
bottle slowly, closing it occasionally to allow
the needle of the pressure gauge (2) to settle
into position giving an accurate pressure reading.
4. When the proper precharge pressure is
reached, close the valve on the nitrogen
bottle.
5. To release pressure in excess of the desired
precharge, slowly open the bleeder valve (6)
until the pressure drops to the desired level.
6. Rotate the bar handle counterclockwise to the
full stop position, then disconnect the swivel
(7) from the adapter (3)
7. Remove the air chuck (4) from the accumulator valve stem.
8. Check the valve stem for leaks with a soapy
water solution or oil. If the core is leaking,
depress it quickly, once or twice, to reseat the
core. It may be necessary to further tighten or
replace the core if leakage persists.
9. Install the accumulator valve stem cap, then
tighten 1/2 turn beyond hand tight.
10. Install the accumulator valve guard.
11. Recheck precharge one week after charging
for pressure loss.

6. Turn the bar handle clockwise until the shaft


depresses the valve stem core of the accumulator. The precharge pressure should now be
indicated by the pressure gauge (2).
Charging The Accumulator (Illustration 22E-1).
Perform the following procedures to charge the
accumulator.

S Use only dry nitrogen to charge the
accumulator.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

22E-1

2
3

BAR
HANDLE

4
5
8

ACCUMULATOR

6
9

10

11

Accumulator Part Number / Size

PSI Setting

2215-121 / 1 qt.

1000 psi

2788-970 / 1 qt.

1000 psi

2215-124 / 1 qt.

1500 psi

2788-955 / 1 qt.

1500 psi

2788-940 / 1 gal.

65 psi

2788-960 / 1 gal.

800 psi

2788-949 / 1 gal.

1250 psi

2788-950 / 1 gal.

1000 psi

2788-951 / 1 gal.

1500 psi

2788-952 / 1 gal.

1500 psi

2788-961 / 1 gal.

1500 psi

2788-965 / 2-1/2 gal.


2788-966 / 2-1/2 gal.

800 psi
1500 psi

We have a charging kit available. Taylor part


number 1000-503.

NITROGEN
BOTTLE

Charging Kit
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

GAUGING HEAD ASSEMBLY


PRESSURE GAUGE
ADAPTER
AIR CHUCK
TANK VALVE ASSEMBLY
BLEEDER VALVE
SWIVEL CONNECTOR
CHARGING HOSE
COUPLING
GLAND
GLAND NUT

Illustration 22E-1. Charging Accumulator

22E-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Section 27

ULTRA-VU Mast Assembly


Introduction. The mast assembly, in conjunction
with the carriage and forks, is responsible for lifting
and lowering loads.
Major Components. The mast consists of the
inner mast, outer mast, two hydraulic lift cylinders,
main rollers, slide bearing blocks, chain rollers,
and two multiple leaf lift chains.
Structural Inspection and Reporting Procedure
(Refer to SIRR in the Appendices). Follow the
OSHA rules, 29 CFR, 1910.178 (Q)(1), (5), & (7)
which require inspecting industrial trucks daily
before being placed in service, removing trucks
from service if cracks are found, and making
repairs only if authorized by the manufacturer. If
trucks are used on a round-the-clock basis, they
shall be examined after each shift. OSHA 29 CFR
1910.178 (p)(1) requires that trucks in need of
repair be taken out of service.
Mast Assembly Structure. This is an ULTRA-VU,
nested channel type mast with two multiple leaf lift
chains and two lift cylinders that are located behind
the mast rails. The mast assembly is carefully
engineered and ruggedly constructed, although
welded steel structures always contain undetectable cracks, especially welded joints. When these
joints are subject to fluctuating stresses of significant magnitude, these cracks will grow. This is
known as fatigue crack growth. No matter how
low the stress levels are kept, some fatigue crack
growth will occur in all welded structures.


S Periodic inspection is required to detect
fatigue cracks that have grown to a significant size in order to avoid serious failure of
the structural weldment. When a crack is
found, the truck must be immediately taken
out of service and repaired.
S Under no circumstances, without prior
written approval from Taylor Machine Works,
Inc. Engineering Department, should the
mast assembly be modified. As per OSHA
29 CFR1910.178 (a) (4).
S If the fatigue crack is allowed to grow, catastrophic failure could occur in the mast
assembly or other welded components causing serious injury to personnel and / or property.
Maintenance / Inspections. There are several
inspectional requirements which must be per-

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

formed daily. These inspections must include


checking all welds and structural members for
cracks. Check all mast mounting hardware and lift
chains for damage or loose bolts. Hydraulic
hoses and fittings must be checked for leaks and
signs of wear or damage.


S Do not climb on the mast of the forklift, on
top of the cab, or on other high places of the
truck while performing maintenance.
S Always use OSHA approved ladders, stands,
or manlifts to reach high places on the truck.
S Never ride on the forks of the truck.
S Do not use a material handling forklift as a
means to elevate personnel.
Main Rollers (Illustration 27-4). The main rollers
employ greaseable, shielded, tapered roller bearings for increased durability. The main rollers must
be greased monthly or every 250 hours, whichever comes first. To access the grease fittings for
the main rollers, the inner mast must be raised so
that the grease fitting of each main roller aligns
with the grease holes located in the outer mast.
The main rollers should be inspected for flat spots
or evidence of sliding any time the inner mast is
taken apart from the outer mast.
 The roller assemblies must not
be over lubricated. Excess grease inside the
mast rails may cause the rollers to slide when
subjected to a heavy load. If this happens, a
flat spot will be worn on the rollers and the
rollers will continue to slide until replaced with
new rollers.
Chain Rollers (Illustration 27-4). The chain rollers
use sealed ball bearings. Check the chain rollers
for looseness, cracks or flat spots.
Slide Bearing Blocks Shimming (Illustrations
27-1 and 27-2). The slide bearing block life
depends on the duty cycle and operation of the
truck. Periodically, the slide bearing blocks may
require shimming to adjust for wear. To prevent
undue flexing of the inner mast on a telescopic
mast assembly, it is essential for all slide bearings
to be properly shimmed. The correct procedure is
outlined here. This method is to be used for fork
lifts equipped with Ultra-Vu telescopic masts.

27-1

PROCEDURE 2

PROCEDURE 3

PROCEDURE 1
PROCEDURE 4

PROCEDURE 5

Illustration 27-1. Mast Slide Bearing Shimming Procedure


1. Raise the carriage to allow enough room to
install shims in the outer mast slide bearings.
The carriage and inner mast should then be
secured in position by an appropriate means
or they can be lowered to a height where they
can more easily be blocked in position and
shimmed. Shim the outer mast until the clearance is 1/16 to 1/32. (See NOTE below procedure 5.)
2. Raise the carriage until the top carriage slide
bearings are aligned with the outer mast slide
bearings. Pry the carriage from side to side
and measure the movement. The carriage
and inner mast should then be secured in
position by an appropriate means or they can
be lowered to a height where they can more
easily be blocked in position and shimmed.
Calculate the thickness of the shims needed
by subtracting 1/32 from the distance the carriage moved and shim the top carriage slide
bearings. (See NOTE below procedure 5.)
3. Raise the carriage until the bottom carriage

27-2

slide bearings are aligned with the outer mast


slide bearings. Pry the carriage from side to
side and measure the movement. The carriage and inner mast should then be secured
in position by an appropriate means or they
can be lowered to a height where they can
more easily be blocked in position and
shimmed. Calculate the thickness of the
shims needed by subtracting 1/32 from the
distance the carriage moved and shim the bottom carriage slide bearings. (See NOTE
below procedure 5.)
4. Align the bottom carriage slide bearings and
the inner mast top slide bearings. Pry the
inner mast from side to side (this must be
done from the rear of the mast) and measure
the movement. Calculate the thickness of the
shims needed by subtracting 1/32 from the
distance the inner mast moved. Raise the carriage to allow access to the inner mast top
slide bearings. The carriage and inner mast
should then be secured in position by support-

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

ing with an appropriate means. (See NOTE


below procedure 5.)
5. Align the bottom carriage slide bearings and
the inner mast bottom slide bearings. Pry the
inner mast from side to side (this must be
done from the rear of the mast) and measure
the movement. Calculate the thickness of the
shims needed by subtracting 1/32 from the
distance the inner mast moved. Raise the carriage to allow access to the inner mast bottom
slide bearings. The carriage and inner mast
should then be secured in position by supporting with an appropriate means. (See NOTE
below)
NOTES:
S Clearance at each position should be
between 1/16 and 1/32. Repeat the above
procedure if the clearance is not as specified.
Shims should be divided as evenly as possible
between the slide bearings.
S Replace any slide bearing blocks that become
cracked, damaged, or worn to 1 - 3/4 thickness
(See Illustration 27-3).
 Do Not attempt to eliminate
inner mast slide bearing slack in procedures 4.
and 5. by adding shims to the carriage slide
bearings. This can result in broken slide bearings.

Back Rest Slide Blocks (Illustration 27-2). The


back rest slide block life depends on the duty
cycle and operation of the truck. Periodically, the
back rest slide blocks may require shimming to
adjust for wear. Perform the following procedures
to shim the back rest slide blocks:
1. Raise the carriage and note the position of the
inner mast when the distance between it and
the back rest slide block is the least amount.
Shims should be added at this position.
2. Shim the back rest slide blocks until the slide
blocks just touch the inner mast.
NOTE: Replace any slide bearing blocks that
become cracked, damaged or worn to 5/8 thickness.
Lubrication (Illustration 27-4). Lubrication of the
mast consists primarily of lubricating the tilt cylinder anchor pins, mast anchor pins, and main
rollers.
All grease fittings on the mast, including the main
rollers grease fitting, should be lubricated monthly
or every 250 hours of operation, whichever comes
first.
Lift Chains. The lift chains must be lubricated
every 500 hours of operation (refer to Leaf Chain
Care, Maintenance, and Replacement section in
the back of this manual). Refer to the Fuel and
Lubricant Specifications for the type of lubricant
to be used to lubricate the lift chains.

Troubleshooting
Problem
1. Cracks in welds,
especially at the
point where the
mast is pinned to
the chassis.
(Refer to SIRR in the
Appendices)
Notify Taylor
Machine Works,
Inc. for proper
repair procedures.

Cause
1. Metal fatigue.

1. Have cracks in welds repaired


immediately.

2. Overloading.

2. Refer to Correction 1. and avoid


overloading the truck.

3. Rough terrain.

3. Refer to Correction 1. and, if possible, avoid operating truck on


rough terrain.

4. Travelling with load in an unrecom- 4. Refer to Correction 1. and the


mended travel position (excessive
Operators Guide for proper travelling positions.
height and / or fully side-shifted,
one side or the other).
5. Severe duty cycles.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Correction

5. Have cracks in welds repaired


immediately.

27-3

INNER MAST

OUTER MAST

BACK REST
SLIDE BLOCK

Illustration 27-2. Back Rest Slide Blocks

27-4

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

MAST RAIL

SHIM

SLIDE BEARING HOUSING

SLIDE BEARING BLOCK

CRACKED OR
DAMAGED SLIDE
BEARING BLOCK

REPLACE BEARING BLOCKS


WORN TO 1-3/4 THICK OR BLOCKS
THAT ARE CRACKED OR BROKEN

1-3/4 MINIMUM

Illustration 27-3. Slide Bearing Block Replacement

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

27-5

CHAIN
ROLLER

OUTER MAST
SLIDE BEARING
BLOCK

OUTER
MAST

INNER
MAST

SLIDE
BEARING
BLOCK
MAIN
ROLLERS

Illustration 27-4. Mast Assembly Components

27-6

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Note: Photocopy this sketch to identify fatigue cracks or


structural damage to the mast. Be very descriptive of
damage to the mast, i.e. location, depth, length.
Illustration 27-5. Mast Assembly

TT180S
180S--360L
360L(Rev.
(10/02)
12/03)

27-7

Section 28

Type C Carriage
Introduction. Described in this section is the
maintenance required for the standard Type C
carriage, optional fork positioning, and the side
shift carriage. The standard Type C carriage
permits independent, manual adjustment of the
forks from middle to full width. The Type C carriage with fork positioners permits independent
fork positioning. The side shift carriage allows the
outer carriage to be moved in either direction from
the center.
NOTE: Some trucks may be equipped with both
fork positioning and side shifting capabilities.
Major Components. The carriage consists of two
forks, fork pin, main rollers, slide bearing blocks,
two fork positioner cylinders / side shift cylinder (if
equipped), and the carriage itself.
Structural Inspection and Reporting Procedure
(Refer to SIRR in the Appendices). Follow the
OSHA rules, 29 CFR, 1910.178 (Q)(1), (5), & (7)
which require inspecting industrial trucks daily

before being placed in service, removing trucks


from service if cracks are found, and making
repairs only if authorized by the manufacturer. If
trucks are used on a round-the-clock basis, they
shall be examined after each shift. OSHA 29 CFR
1910.178 (p)(1) requires that trucks in need of
repair be taken out of service.


S Periodic inspection is required to detect
fatigue cracks that have grown to a significant size in order to avoid serious failure of
the structural weldment. When a crack is
found, the truck must be immediately taken
out of service and repaired.
S Under no circumstances, without prior
written approval from Taylor Machine Works,
Inc. Engineering Department, should the carriage assembly be modified. As per OSHA
29 CFR1910.178 (a) (4).

MAIN
ROLLER

SLIDE BEARING
BLOCKS

Illustration 28-1. Standard Type C Carriage

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

28-1

S If the fatigue crack is allowed to grow, catastrophic failure could occur in the mast
assembly or other welded components causing serious injury to personnel and / or
property.
Maintenance / Inspection. There are several
inspectional requirements which must be performed daily. These inspections must include
checking all welds and structural members for
cracks. Check all carriage mounting hardware for
damage or loose bolts. The hydraulic fork positioner cylinders / side shift cylinder and hydraulic
hoses should be checked for leaks and functional
operation.
Forks. The forks must be inspected daily to
assure proper carriage operation. Forks must be
magnetic particle tested (magnafluxed) annually to
check for cracks (refer to the Fork Inspection,
Repair, and Testing in the Appendices).
Main Rollers (Illustration 28-1). The main rollers
employ greaseable, shielded, tapered roller bearings for increased durability. The main rollers must
be greased monthly or every 250 hours, whichever comes first. The grease fittings for the main
rollers can be found on the inside of the carriage
plate. The main rollers should be inspected for
flat spots or evidence of sliding any time the carriage is taken out of the inner mast.

Carriage. The carriages welds and structural


members must be checked for cracks (see the
Structural Inspection and Reporting Procedure
at the front of this section).
Lubrication. Refer to the Lubrication section in
the Appendices for information on the lubrication
of the carriage.

 The roller assemblies must not


be over lubricated. Excess grease inside the
mast rails may cause the rollers to slide when
subjected to a heavy load. If this happens, a
flat spot will be worn on the rollers and the
rollers will continue to slide until replaced with
new rollers.
Slide Bearing Blocks. The slide bearing block
life depends on the duty cycle and operation of
the truck. Periodically, the slide bearing blocks will
require shimming to adjust for wear. It is essential
for all slide bearings to be properly shimmed.
Because of a number of instances of improper
shimming techniques, the correct shimming procedure is outlined in Section 27.
Fork Positioner Cylinders. Refer to Section
22A for the fork positioner cylinders description
and troubleshooting.
Side Shift Cylinder. Refer to Section 22A for the
side shift cylinder description and troubleshooting.

28-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Illustration 28-2. Optional Type C Carriage With Side Shift and Fork Positioners

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

28-3

Troubleshooting
Problem
1. Cracks in welds
(refer to SIRR in the
Appendices)
Notify Taylor
Machine Works,
Inc. for proper
repair procedures.

Cause

Correction

1. Metal fatigue.

1. Have cracks in welds repaired


immediately.

2. Overloading.

2. Refer to Correction 1. and avoid


overloading the truck.

3. Rough terrain.

3. Refer to Correction 1. and, if possible, avoid operating truck on


rough terrain.

4. Travelling with load in an unrecom- 4. Refer to Correction 1. and the


mended travel position (excessive
Operators Guide for proper travelling positions.
height and / or fully side-shifted,
one side or the other).
5. Severe duty cycles.

5. Have cracks in welds repaired


immediately.

6. Trying to use fork positioners while


loaded.

6. Use fork positioners only when


forks have no load.

1. Refer to the Troubleshooting


2. Fork positioning
chart in Section 22A for causes.
hydraulic problems

28-4

1. Refer to the Troubleshooting


chart in Section 22A for corrections.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Contents
Appendices

Page
SIRR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Fork Inspection, Repair, and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-13
Leaf Chain Care, Maintenance, and Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-15
Welding Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-21
Torque Chart - Nuts and Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-23
Lubrication Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-27
Service Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-33
Preventive Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-35
Fuel and Lubricant Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

THD 180 - 360L (Rev. 06/00)

Section 1

Section Title

SIRR
Structural Inspection, Reporting, And Repair
For Powered Industrial Trucks

This document contains information of vital importance concerning the


inspection, reporting, and repair of fatigue cracks. If fatigue cracks are
not corrected they can lead to a catastrophic failure causing serious
injury to personnel and / or property.
It is important that the machine be inspected regularly. Any existing
fatigue cracks should be reported to the Taylor Machine Works, Inc.
engineering department immediately. Repairs must be made in
accordance with AWS methodologies.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

A-1

A-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

These symbols are in accordance with AWS


A2.4-76, Symbols for Non-Destructive Testing.



Dangerous Action. Operating a powered industrial truck without inspecting, identifying, and
repairing fatigue cracks in the mast, carriage,
attachment, steer axle, and frame weldments.
What Can Happen. If the fatigue crack is allowed
to grow, catastrophic failure could occur in the
mast or other welded components causing serious
injury to personnel and / or property.
How To Avoid The Danger. Follow the OSHA
rules, 29 CFR, 1910.178 (q)(1), (5), & (7) which
require inspecting industrial trucks daily before
being placed in service, removing trucks from service if cracks are found, and making repairs only
as authorized by the manufacturer. If trucks are
used on a round-the-clock basis, they shall be
examined after each shift. OSHA 29 CFR
1910.178 (p)(1) requires that trucks in need of
repair be taken out of service.
Structural Inspection and Reporting Procedure. The information enclosed in this procedure
is directed to the structural weldments of the truck
assembly. Areas that should be included for
inspection on the front end of the truck are the
mast and carriage. Areas to be inspected on the
truck chassis include mast hangers, drive axle
mounts, A-frame connections, and steer axle
mounts.
Inspection for Fatigue Cracks. Welded steel
structures always contain undetectable cracks,
especially at welded joints. When these joints are
subject to fluctuating stresses of sufficient magnitude, these cracks will grow. This is known as
fatigue crack growth. No matter how low the
stress levels are kept some fatigue crack growth
will occur in all welded structures.
Eventually, these fatigue cracks will become large
enough to be detectable by nondestructive testing
methods, i.e. VT, MT, DPT, or UT.
Abbreviations. Basic Testing Symbols

Type of Test
Visual
Magnetic Particle
Dye-Penetrant
Ultrasonic

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Symbol
VT
MT
DPT
UT


 Periodic inspection is
required to detect fatigue cracks that have
grown to a significant size in order to avoid
serious failure of the structural weldment.
When a crack is found, the truck must be
immediately taken out of service and repaired.
Restoring the weld to its original condition by complete penetration welding is usually acceptable.
Sometimes this is not practical and a change in
geometry by means of cutting, grinding or adding
additional material is more economical; however,
the user must be cautioned that OSHA 29 CFR
1910.178 (a)(4) requires manufacturers prior
written approval for modifications and additions
which affect capacity and safe operation.
Cracking may occur due to overloading, rough
operation, poor yard conditions, severe duty
cycles, failing to keep lift chains properly adjusted,
improper shimming of mast rails, carrying the
loads too high or not properly centered, using
attachments that clamp the load to the forks, etc.
If such cracking is found, a review of the operation
should be made to see if any of the above listed
problems are occurring and if so, a change in the
operation should be made to avoid future problems. Some cracking may be due to geometry,
modifications or due to the attachments welded to
the structure. If this is the case, the geometry
may have to be changed, the modification corrected, or the attachment changed or relocated to
correct the cracking problem. OSHA requires that
you have prior written approval of the manufacturer for such changes.
Test Procedures
1. Visual (VT). Dirt and grease should be
removed from the surface by wiping with a rag.
One should look for cracked paint and rust
showing through the paint. Also, look for
movement at bolted joints, irregular lines in
welds or dents, or deformations in the material. Proper lighting is required in order to
obtain satisfactory results.
2. Magnetic Particle (MT). The test surface
must be free of loose rust, scale, moisture,
and painted surfaces must be cleaned at all
points of electrode contact. Grinding, brush-

A-3

ing, or blasting do not affect results of this


method of testing in most instances.
A magnetic field can be applied to the test
material with:
a. Permanent magnet.
b. Yoke which is an electromagnet type of
device.
c. Passing high amperage current through
the part.
3. Dye-Penetrant (DPT). The test surface must
be thoroughly cleaned and dried. This can be
done with chemical solvents, vapor degreasing, or by mechanical methods. However,
cleaning mechanically, such as grinding, blasting, or wire-brushing, might prove detrimental
to the test because surface discontinuities can
be masked by cold working of the surface.
Therefore, mechanical cleaning methods must
be kept to a minimum.
One of the following type penetrants should be
used in conjunction with the proper procedure
to get satisfactory results:
a. Water soluble penetrant
b. Post emulsifiable penetrant
c. Solvent removable penetrant
Follow the directions supplied with the dyepenetrant for best results.
4. Ultrasonic (UT). Testing should be done in
accordance with AWS D1.1 approved methods.
Frequency of Inspection. There are three (3)
levels of inspection:
1. Daily. Mandatory daily examination of the
truck as required by OSHA. (See Operators
Guide and Safety Check for details.) This
examination is usually performed by the operator (or other designated person).
2. Three-month inspection. A thorough visual
inspection (VT) following the guidelines shown
in this procedure should be made every three
months (refer to sketches for details). These
inspections should be performed by qualified
maintenance personnel.
3. 6,000 Hour Inspection. Full-scale inspection
(FS) including all examinations outlined in this
procedure (VT, MT, and DPT) should be made
after the first year of operation and then every
two years or 6,000 hours, whichever is sooner,

A-4

thereafter. These inspections should be performed by qualified maintenance personnel.


NOTE: Duty cycles vary from extremely severe
(capacity loads, high frequency of loading, rough
yards, etc.) to very light (partial capacities, few
load cycles, good yard conditions, etc.). Duty
cycle directly affects product life and maintenance
requirements. Depending on the quality and thoroughness of the daily inspections and the service
experience of the vehicle, the three-month visual
inspection interval and the full-scale inspection
interval may be adjusted (increased or decreased)
to levels appropriate for an individual vehicle duty
cycle.

     
    ! 
 "
Reporting Procedure. Taylor Machine Works,
Inc. should receive reports of the results of any
inspections.
Photocopy a sketch from your maintenance manual, make your own sketch, or photograph, and
show indication of crack if any are evident, stating
the following:
1. Location (right, left, inner, outer, machine side
etc.);
2. Size of crack;
3. Extent of crack;
a. In toe of weld;
b. Propagating into the base metal;
c. Other description, etc.
4. Method of testing to detect cracks.
If no cracks are found by yearly inspections,
please confirm by a fax or a short letter.
Repair Procedure
1. Contact Taylor Machine Works, Inc.
2. If rewelding is suggested, use AWS approved
welding procedures.
3. If design modification is indicated, contact Taylor Machine Works, Inc. OSHA 29 CFR
1910.178 (q)(5) requires that replacement
parts be equivalent as to safety with those
used in the original design. Different steel
grades are used for different components. Dif-

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

ferent steel grades require different welding


procedures, pre-heatings, rods, etc.
Inspection Locations. The following illustrations
are a representative set for the general welds
used on Taylor Machine Works trucks. They are
used as a reference for specific details, but do not
necessarily represent exact details used in the
construction of your truck. The inspection method
for both the three-month inspection (3), and the
full-scale inspection (FS), are shown.

 The areas being inspected
must be properly cleaned prior to performing
the inspection. If not properly cleaned potentially dangerous cracks may not be detected.

 Never go under a raised mast,
carriage or forks unless proper blocking has
been securely placed to prevent the mast, carriage or forks from falling in event of hydraulic
failure or drift. See Safety Check.

List of Illustrations
Illustration. 1.
Illustration. 2.
Illustration. 3.
Illustration. 4.
Illustration. 5.
Illustration. 6.
Illustration. 7.

Inner and Outer Mast Arrangement . . . A-6


Inner Mast Details 1 and 2 . . . . . . . . . . A-7
Outer Mast Details 3 and 4 . . . . . . . . . . A-8
Carriage Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-9
Chassis Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-10
Chassis Details 1 and 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . A-11
Chassis Details 3 and 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . A-12

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

A-5

Inner and Outer Mast Arrangement

Detail 2

Detail 3

Detail 1

Detail 4

Illustration 1. Inner and Outer Mast Arrangement

A-6

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Inner Mast Details

Detail 2

VT (3)
MT (FS)

Detail 1

VT (3)
MT (FS)

Illustration 2. Inner Mast Details 1 and 2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

A-7

Outer Mast Details

Detail 3

VT (3)
MT (FS)

VT (3)
MT (FS)

Detail 4

VT (3)
MT (FS)

Illustration 3. Outer Mast Details 3 and 4

A-8

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Carriage Details

VT (3)
MT (FS)

VT (3)
MT (FS)

Illustration 4. Carriage Details

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

A-9

Chassis Arrangement

Detail 4

Detail 3

Detail 2

Detail 1
Illustration 5. Chassis Arrangement

A-10

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Chassis Details

VT (3)
MT (FS)

Detail 2

Detail 1
VT (3)
MT (FS)

Illustration 6. Chassis Details 1 and 2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

A-11

Chassis Details

VT (3)
MT (FS)

Detail 3

Detail 4

VT (3)
MT (FS)

Illustration 7. Chassis Details 3 and 4

A-12

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Fork Inspection, Repair, and Testing


Forks in use shall be visually inspected daily and
must be magnetic particle tested (magnafluxed)
for cracks at intervals of not more than 2400 hours
or whenever any defect or permanent deformation
is detected. Severe applications will require more
frequent inspection.
When forks are used in pairs, the rated capacity of
each fork shall be at least half of the manufacturers rated capacity of the truck, and at the rated
load center distance shown on the lift truck nameplate.
Fork inspection shall be carried out carefully by
trained personnel with the aim of detecting any
damage, failure, deformation, etc., which might
impair safe use. Any fork which shows such a
defect shall be withdrawn from service, and shall
not be returned to service unless it has been satisfactorily repaired.

 Do not weld on forged forks.
Failure to follow this warning could lead to
seriously weakened forks that could fail prematurely under normal loads. When necessary, the welding of fork bushings should only
be done by qualified welders knowledgeable of
the appropriate welding practice.
The fork shall be thoroughly examined visually for
cracks and if considered necessary, subjected to a
nondestructive crack detection process, special
attention being paid to the heel and welds attaching all mounting components to the fork blank.
This inspection for cracks must also include any
special mounting mechanisms of the fork blank to
the fork carrier including bolt type mountings and
forged upper mounting arrangements for hook
and shaft type carriages. The forks shall not be
returned to service if surface cracks are detected.
The straightness of the upper face of the blade
and the front face of the shank shall be checked.
If the deviation from straightness exceeds 0.5% of
the length of the blade and/or the height of the
shank, respectively, the fork shall not be returned
to service until it has been repaired.

(Rev. 3/96)

Any fork that has a deviation of greater than 3


fork angle from the original specification shall not
be returned to service.
The difference in height of one set of forks when
mounted on the fork carrier shall be checked. If
the difference in tip heights exceeds 3% of the
length of the blade, the set of forks shall not be
returned to service until repaired.
It shall be confirmed that the positioning lock is in
good repair and correct working order. If ant fault
is found, the fork shall be withdrawn from service
until satisfactory repairs have been effected.
The fork blade and shank shall be thoroughly
checked for wear, special attention being paid to
the vicinity of the heel. If the thickness is reduced
to 90% of the original thickness, the fork shall not
be returned to service.
The support face of the top hook and the retaining
faces of both hooks shall be checked for wear,
crushing, and other local deformations. If these
are apparent to such an extent that the clearance
between the fork and the fork carrier becomes
excessive, the fork shall not be returned to service
until repaired.
If the fork marking is not clearly legible, it shall be
renewed. Marking shall be renewed per instructions from original supplier.
Each fork shall be clearly stamped with its individual load rating in an area readily visible and not
subject to wear.
Only the manufacturer of the fork or an expert of
equal competence shall decide if a fork may be
repaired for continued use, and the repairs shall
only be carried out by such parties.
It is not recommended that surface cracks or wear
be repaired by welding. When repairs necessitating resetting are required, the fork shall subsequently be subjected to an appropriate heat treatment, as necessary.
A fork that has undergone repairs shall only be
returned to service after being submitted to, and
passing, the test procedures. The test load shall

A-13

correspond to 2.5 times the rated capacity marked


on the fork.

Illustration 1. Typical Fork


Fork strength shall permit the following loading
and method of test.
1. The test load F shall be applied to it at the
applicable distance D from the front face of the
fork arm shank (see Illustration 1).
2. The fork arm shall be restrained in a manner
identical to that used on the forklift truck.
3. The test load shall be applied twice, gradually
and without shock, and maintained for 30
seconds each time.
4. The fork arm shall be checked before and
after the second application of the test load.
It shall not show any permanent deformation.

A-14

(Rev. 3/96)

Leaf Chain Care, Maintenance, and Replacement


The leaf chain (or chains) on your Taylor material handling equipment was selected based on thousands of hours of safe operation over many years of fork lift trucks working in various types of material
handling operations.
The entire chain system, including chain anchors, anchor supports, bearings, and chain rollers, is
sized for the basic model capacity and load center shown on the serial plate.
The utility of fork lift truck type material handling equipment requires it to operate under a wide variety
of load conditions. These vary from a few low lifts to a very large number of high lifts per operating
hour.
The leaf chain is subjected to all the variations of environment, such as moisture, chemicals, temperature extremes, abrasives, and even salt water in some applications. The chain cannot have the benefit of a protective coating (paint) and must depend on proper lubrication for combating the effect of
these conditions. The lubrication program greatly affects chain life.
The utility of the lift truck requires it to operate with a variety of attachments, such as forks, coil rams,
paper roll clamps, containers, marinas, and other attachments, all of which will place different dynamic
loads and load requirements on the hoist chains.
This wide variety of variables makes it impossible for Taylor to accurately predict an exact service life
of the leaf chain on the Taylor material handling equipment. Therefore, the following procedure of
inspection and replacement is recommended to avoid sudden failure.
Maintenance and Replacement of the Leaf Chain
In addition to the daily walk-around inspections, at each 500 hours of operation, the chain should be
thoroughly cleaned and inspected for elongation, pin rotation and protrusion, cracked plates, enlarged
holes, worn contour and worn surfaces on outside links or pin heads. If any of the above are
observed, replace the entire length of both chains. (Illustrations are on the following pages under
Modes of Chain Failure.)
Careful visual inspection of both inside and outside of the chain links where possible will reveal
some of these early indications of chain failure which may result in total chain breakage if left in service.
NOTE: A hand-held mirror can aid tremendously in hard to see areas.
Particular attention should be given to that part of the chain which passes over the chain roller the
most frequently when under load.
It will be necessary to move the carriage to several locations and block it to prevent any possibility of
falling to gain the best possible visual access to the greatest number of pitches of chain.
After the chain is inspected and found to be serviceable, relubricate and place back in service.

 Utilize proper safety precautions when blocking.
At 2,000 hours, disassemble the leaf chain from the vehicle in accordance with the shop service
manual (page 27A-1). Thoroughly clean the chain and visually inspect for possible failure modes
as listed for the 500 hour interval adding to that procedure the following. Articulate each joint of the
chain in both directions where the entire radius around each pin can be inspected for cracks.
Particular attention should be given to that length of chain which passes over the rollers.
If the 2,000 hour inspection does not reveal any apparent excess wear or chain damage, relubricate
and install the chain in its original position on the machine.
At each 500 hours after the leaf chain is reinstalled, inspect and relubricate and follow the same procedure as on a new machine.
At 4,000 operating hours remove and discard the leaf chain and replace with a new and lubricated chain.
Taylors recommendation to replace the chain at 4,000 hours is based on typical service duty cycles.
Experience in a specific application may allow this interval to be increased or may require that it be
decreased. Any change should be based on thorough inspection procedures outlined in this manual.
T 180S - 360L (10/02)

A-15

Modes of Chain Failure See Illustrations on the following two pages


1). Normal Wear Chain Elongation. This is the result of wear when the load chain articulates over the chain rollers. See illustration No. 1 for explanation of wear limits. When a
theoretical length of 12-in. new chain has elongated from wear to a length of 12.360-in.
(3%), it has exceeded the allowable wear limit. The wear should be measured in the
area that passes over the roller most often. If the length in the articulating section
exceeds allowable wear limits (see text), replace entire length of both chains.
2). Chain Stretch. This can be caused by a combination of chain wear and overload. This
(overload) can show up as elongation of plates which do not pass over the rollers. If
there is any significant (1%) elongation in the area which does not pass over the rollers,
replace the entire length of both chains. Cracked chain plates (illustration no. 3) and
enlarged holes (illustration no. 7) can also result from chain stretch. The entire length of
both chains must be replaced if either of these conditions are found.
3). Plate / Pin Rotation and / or Plate / Pin Lateral Movement. This is generally caused
by the plate seizing the pin at articulation which indicates lack of lubrication where the
joint rotates over the roller. (See illustration No. 2.) This can result in pin breakage in
extreme cases. If any evidence of pin rotation is noted, replace entire length of both
chains.
4). Plate / Pin Cracks. Cracks result from fatigue, stress corrosion, corrosion fatigue. (See
illustrations No. 3, 4, and 5.) If any cracks are observed of any kind on any link, replace
entire length of chain.
5). Chain Joint Stiffness. (See illustration No. 6.) Lack of lubrication. Check the chain for
other modes of failure. If none are observed, lubricate thoroughly and place back in service. If stiffness remains, the chain may have been damaged and require replacement.
6). Edge Wear of Plates. (See illustration No. 8.) Edge wear can occur at extended hours
of service and if sliding of chain occurs because of chain roller bearing problems. If wear
exceeds 5% of plate height of unused plate, replace entire length of chain.
7). Worn Outside Links or Pin Heads. (See illustration No. 9.) Check for misalignment of
the chain roller.
Replace the chain if wear is significant. Check (see Check Procedure) the chain for all
modes of failure. If none are found, eliminate the misalignment and place back into service.

A-16

T 180S
- 360L
(10/02)
T 180S
- 360L
(Rev.
12/03)

Modes of Chain Failure


Appearance and/or Symptom

Probable Cause

Correction

1. Excessive Length (elongation)


If chain gauge shows more than 12.3
inches per foot of elongation.

Normal Wear
Permanent deformation
(stretch) from overload

12.3/FT.

Replace chain when it


reaches 12.3 inches per
foot.

Replace chain immediately


and eliminate the source
of overloads.

2. Abnormal Protrusion or Turned Pins


Excessive friction from high
loading and inadequate lubrication

Replace chain and lubricate


more frequently

3. Cracked Plates
(Fatigue)
Loading beyond chains capacity (dropping load and catching
it)

4. Arc-like Cracked Plates (Stress


Corrosion)

5. Cracked Plates (Corrosion Fatigue)


Perpendicular to Pitch Line, plus rust
or other evidence of chemical
corrosion

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Severe rusting or exposure to


acidic or caustic medium, plus
static stress at press fit
between pin and plate. (No
cyclic stress necessary)

Corrosive environment and


cyclic motion (chain under
cyclic operation)

Replace chain and eliminate


dynamic (impulse)
overloading

Replace chain and protect


from hostile environment by
lubricating more frequently

Replace chain and protect


from hostile environment by
lubricating more frequently

A-17

Appearance and/or Symptom

Probable Cause

Correction

6. Tight Joints
Dirt or foreign substance
packed in joints

Clean and relube


Corrosion and rust
Bent pins

Replace chain
Replace chain

7. Enlarged Holes

High overload, dropping and


catching load

8. Worn Contour (Edge Wear)

Replace chain when wear


reaches 5% of H.
Normal wear on sheave bearing
area
Abnormal wear, rubbing on
roller

Replace chain and correct


cause of overload

Replace chain and correct


cause of overload
Check chain roller bearing

5% of H
9. Worn Surfaces on Outside Links
or Pin Heads
Misalignment, rubbing on roller
flanges

Check alignment of
anchors, chain rollers
and chain roller pin.



I.

Use proper safety precautions.


a. Always lower the mast and carriage to its lowest position before inspecting the leaf chain,
unless the mast and carriage are securely blocked.
b. Always use OSHA approved support means (man lift, scaffolding, ladder, or platform) when
inspecting, removing, or servicing lift chains. Always turn off the engine. Do not allow anyone
to touch the controls while people are near the upright.

II. Use Lockout / Tagout Procedure to reduce causes of possible injury.


III. Use only assembled chain. Do not build lengths from individual components.
IV. Do not attempt to rework damaged chains by replacing only the components obviously faulty. The
entire chain may be compromised and should be discarded.

A-18

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

V. Do not weld any chain or component. Welding spatter should never be allowed to come in contact
with chain or components.

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

A-19

Appendix

Welding Precautions
Introduction. Once a crack is found in the truck
structure, it is advisable that you contact Taylor
Machine Works, Inc. for proper welding procedures. Your truck is comprised of different metals,
each requiring its own unique repair procedure.
Welding Precautions. Occasionally parts have
failed because of electric arc damage that
occurred during welding. This damage (starting
the failure), occurred when the current passed
from the electrode through a pin, bearing, cylinder
piston, or other moving part, seeking the ground.
Illustrated in the illustration below are some of the
parts on lift trucks subject to damage by the
passage of welding current.

Care and common sense are the best guides to


avoid such damage to the components.

S Should any truck equipped with an APC
module require welding on its structural
members, the RS connector must be
unplugged from the APC module prior to any
welding. Failure to comply with this caution
may lead to damage to the APC module.
S Always connect the ground (closest to the
area to be welded, as possible, to provide
the shortest path for welding current flow) to
the part or welded assembly that is to be
welded.

TILT CYLINDER ENDS


AND ALL INTERNAL
COMPONENTS
CHAIN ROLLERS

LIFT CHAINS
AND MAST
ROLLERS

ENGINE
GEARS AND
BEARINGS
WHEEL
AND
SPINDLE
BEARINGS

CARRIAGE
ROLLERS
AND PINS

AXLE BEARINGS
AND GEARS

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

UNIVERSAL
JOINT
BEARINGS

TRANSMISSION
GEARS AND
BEARINGS

STEER AXLE PIVOT

A-21

Hoist Circuit

A-22

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Torque Chart - Nuts and Bolts


Force - 100 lbs.
12 or 1

Force - 200 lbs.


6 or 1/2

Graphic Illustration
of Torque
Lever Arm or Wrench Handle

Lever Arm or Wrench Handle

Torque - 100 ft-lbs. or 1200 in-lbs.

Torque - 100 ft-lbs. or 1200 in-lbs.

NOTE: These charts are intended as a guide for


the wrench torque that should be applied to tightening nuts and bolts, studs, or capscrews when
no torque is specified on the assembly print or
separate instructions. A steady pressure should
be applied to the torque wrench until the torque
value is obtained. A jerking action on the torque
wrench may not yield the proper torque value.
When tightening a bolt with a slotted nut, torque to
the lower value shown on the applicable chart.
Then continue to tighten until the hole in the bolt
and the slot in the nut line up. Nuts must be of

the same SAE grade as the bolts on the chart.


When nuts and bolts are of different grades, use
the torque value for the lower of the two grades.
These charts are not intended for use in seating a
stud in a housing. The torque values, listed in the
charts, are the maximum and minimum dry torque
values. To convert dry torque values to lubricated
torque values, multiply the max. or min. dry torque
value by 75% (.75). Lubricated is defined as oilcoated bolts, LoctiteR coated bolts, plated bolts or
bolts used with hardened flatwashers.
Recommended Torque, Foot-pounds (ft-lbs)

SAE Grade 5

SAE Grade 8

12pt Ferry Head Capscrew

Torque

Torque

Torque

NF Threads
1/4 - 28
5/16 - 24

9
17

- 10
- 19

13
23

- 14
- 25

15
31

- 17
- 34

3/8 - 24
7/16 - 20

32
50

- 35
- 55

45
72

- 50
- 80

59
92

- 65
- 102

1/2 - 20
9/16 - 18

81
108

- 90
- 120

108
153

- 120
- 170

135

- 150
NA

5/8 - 18
3/4 - 16

162
270

- 180
- 300

216
378

- 240
- 420

271
482

- 301
- 536

7/8 - 14
1 - 14

423
657

- 470
- 730

594
918

- 660
- 1020

793 - 881
1130 - 1255

1-1/8 - 12
1-1/4 - 12

792 - 880
1116 - 1240

1296 - 1440
1800 - 2000

NA
NA

1-3/8 - 12
1-1/2 - 12

1512 - 1680
1980 - 2200

2448 - 2720
3200 - 3560

NA
NA

1/4 - 20
5/16 - 18

7
15

- 8
- 17

11
23

- 12
- 25

14
28

- 15
- 31

3/8 - 16
7/16 - 14

28
45

- 31
- 50

41
63

- 45
- 70

52
83

- 58
- 92

1/2 - 13
9/16 - 12

68
99

- 75
- 110

99
135

- 110
- 150

120

- 133
NA

5/8 - 11
3/4 - 10

135
234

- 150
- 260

198
342

- 220
- 380

240
432

- 266
- 480

7/8 - 9
1-8

387
576

- 430
- 640

540
810

- 600
- 900

671
940

- 746
- 1044

NC Threads

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

A- 23

SAE Grade 5

SAE Grade 8

12pt Ferry Head Capscrew

Torque

Torque

Torque

1-1/8 - 7
1-1/4 - 7

720 - 800
1008 - 1120

1152 - 1280
1638 - 1820

NA
NA

1-3/8 - 6
1-1/2 - 6

1314 - 1460
1746 - 1940

2142 - 2380
2844 - 3160

NA
NA

NF Threads

Recommended Torque for Metric Bolts


Torque (ft-lbs)
Bolt Size

Class 8.8
(Equiv. to Grade 5)

Classs 10.9
(Equiv. to Grade 8)

M6-1.00

- 8

10 - 11

M8-1.25

17 - 19

24 - 27

M10-1.50

33 - 37

48 - 53

M12-1.75

59 - 65

83 - 92

M16-2.00

144 - 160

207 - 230

M20-2.50

279 - 310

405 - 450

M24-3.00

486 - 540

690 - 775

M30-3.50

970 - 1078

1386 - 1540

Taylor Engineering Standards


Tightening procedure for countersunk flathead
bolts with internal hex drive used for holding caps
on tapered TimkenR bearings (found on the mast
and carriage main rollers):

Recommended Torque for Countersunk


Flathead Bolts with Internal Hex Drive
(these torque values applies only to hold caps
on tapered TimkenR bearings found on the
mast and carriage main roller assemblies)
Torque (ft-lbs)

1. The bolts and tapped holes must be clean and


free of oil. (This can be done by using a spray
degreaser (Zep AerosolveR or equivalent) and
drying with compressed air.)

5/16 - 18

7.5 (90 in-lbs)

8.5 (102 in-lbs)

2. Apply LoctiteR to bolt threads.

3/8 - 16

14 (168 in-lbs)

16 (192 in-lbs)

3. Gradually tighten the bolts using a crossing


pattern.

7/16 - 14

24 (288 in-lbs)

26 (312 in-lbs)

1/2 - 13

38 (456 in-lbs)

42 (504 in-lbs)

5/8 - 11

74

81

3/4 - 10

135

150

4. Repeat Step 3 until bolts hold at least the minimum torque value indicated in the torque chart
below. Stake head at three places with a center punch.

Bolt Size

Min.

Max.

5. When bearings are removed, it is necessary to


run a tap in the threaded holes and a die on
the bolts to remove LoctiteR residue. If a die
is not available, use new bolts.

A- 24

T 180S
- 360L
(Rev.(10/02)
12/03)
T 180S
- 360L

Torque Chart - Nuts and Bolts


Tightening procedure for Grade 8 countersunk
flathead bolts with internal hex drive used for
retaining the slide bearing block housings (found
on the mast and carriage):
1. Do Not use starwashers or any other type of
locking washer with grade 8 bolts.
2. Generously lubricate the head and threads of
the bolt with oil before installing.
3. Gradually tighten the bolts using a crossing
pattern until they hold at least the minimum
torque value as indicated in the torque chart
below.
4. In order to achieve torque values of this magnitude, a high quality hex bit driver tool should
be used.
5. In order to minimize bending stresses in the
tool and thereby increase its life, the length of
the hex bit should be as short as possible
(e.g., Snap-OnR Stubby length).
Recommended Torque for Countersunk
Flathead Bolts with Internal Hex Drive
(these torque values applies only to those
bolts used to retain the slide bearing block
housings)
Torque (ft-lbs)
NC Threads

Hex Bit Size

5/16 - 18

Min.

Max.

3/16

13

15

3/8 - 16

7/32

20

22

7/16 - 14

1/4

30

32

1/2 - 13

5/16

65

70

5/8 - 11

3/8

110

115

3/4 - 10

1/2

265

270

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

A- 25

Hoist Circuit

A- 26

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Lubrication
Introduction. The fork lift truck has a large number of moving parts which operate under extreme
conditions. Frequent periodic lubrication is absolutely essential to keeping the truck performing
satisfactorily with a minimum of downtime. The
illustrations in this section indicate the lubrication
locations, intervals and type of lubrication service
to be performed. The Lube Chart Legend, located
below, contains the type of lubricant to be used for
each symbol and the abbreviation representation
for each type of lubrication service. Refer, also, to
the Preventive Maintenance chart in the Appendices for lubrication intervals and to the Fuel and
Lubricant Specifications in the Appendices for
the types and weights of lubricants to be used in
different temperature ranges.


S Always park the truck on level ground, apply
the parking brake, shut down engine and
Lock Out & Tag Out truck before performing
lubrication.
S Do not climb on the mast assembly or on
other high places of the truck while performing lubrication.
S Always use OSHA approved ladders, stands,
or manlifts to reach high places on the truck.

SYMBOL

S Do not use a material handling forklift as a


means to elevate personnel.
Chassis Lubrication (See Illustration 1 for chassis lubrication)
Carriage Lubrication (See Illustration 2 for carriage lubrication)
Mast Assembly Lubrication (See Illustration 3
for mast assembly lubrication)
NOTE: In severe environments, more frequent
lubrication service intervals may be required.
Lift Chains. The lift chains of the mast assembly
must be lubricated every 500 hours of operation
(refer to Leaf Chain Care, Maintenance, and
Replacement section in the Appendices). Refer
to the Fuel and Lubricant Specifications in the
Appendices for the type of lubricant to be used to
lubricate the lift chains.
Steer Axle Lubrication (See Illustration 4 for
steer axle lubrication)

 When each side of the steer
axle is lubricated, the truck must be steered to
one side to access the grease fittings and
Locked Out & Tagged Out.

LUBRICANT

ABBREVIATIONS

ENGINE OIL, CF4 SAE 15W 40


HYDRAULIC FLUID C-4 TYPE with
FRICTION CONTROL MODIFIERS
GEAR OIL, GL-5 OR MIL-2105D
GREASE, CHEVRON ULTRA-DUTY OR EQUIVALENT

X - Check Lubricant Level


DR - Drain and Refill
GR - Grease
CG - Change

GREASE, CHEVRON ULTI-PLEX OR EQUIVALENT


VISTAC ISO 150 OR EQUIVALENT
LUBE CHART LEGEND

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

A-27

500 GR
LIFT CHAINS
250 GR
TILT CYLINDERS

10 X
3000 CG
HYDRAULIC
RESERVOIR

10 X
250 DR / CG
ENGINE

250 X
BRAKE
RESERVOIR

10 X
1000 DR
TRANSMISSION
250 X
3000 DR
PLANETARY
HUBS
250 X
3000 DR
DRIVE AXLE

250 GR
DRIVE SHAFT

NOTE: Refer to the Lube Chart Legend for the type of lubricant to be
used. In addition, refer to the Fuel and Lubricant Specifications for
the types and weights of lubricants to be used in different temperature
ranges.

Illustration 1. Chassis Lubrication Points (See Lube Chart Legend for Lubrication Symbol Designation)

A-28

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

250 GR
FORK
250 GR
FORK PIN

250 GR
CARRIAGE
MAIN ROLLERS

NOTE: Refer to the Lube Chart Legend for the type of lubricant to be
used. In addition, refer to the Fuel and Lubricant Specifications for
the types and weights of lubricants to be used in different temperature
ranges.

Illustration 2. Carriage Lubrication Points (See Lube Chart Legend for Lubrication Symbol Designation)

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

A-29

CHAIN
ROLLER

OUTER MAST
SLIDE BEARING
BLOCK

OUTER
MAST

INNER
MAST

250 GR
MAIN
ROLLERS

250 GR
TILT CYLINDER
EAR

NOTE: MAIN ROLLERS MUST BE


ALIGNED WITH GREASE HOLES
LOCATED IN OUTER MAST RAIL.

NOTE: Refer to the Lube Chart Legend for the


type of lubricant to be used. In addition, refer to the
Fuel and Lubricant Specifications for the types
and weights of lubricants to be used in different
temperature ranges.

250 GR
MAST HANGER
PIN (LOCATED
ON CHASSIS)

Illustration 3. Mast Lubrication Points (See Lube Chart Legend for Lubrication Symbol Designation)

A-30

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

250 GR
UPPER SPINDLE PIVOT
250 GR
PIVOT BLOCK

3000 GR
WHEEL BEARING

250 GR
STEER LINK

250 GR
STEER LINK

250 GR
LOWER SPINDLE
PIVOT

NOTE: Refer to the Lube Chart Legend for the type of lubricant to be used. In addition, refer to the Fuel and Lubricant
Specifications for the types and weights of lubricants to be
used in different temperature ranges.

Illustration 4. Steer Axle Lubrication Points (See Lube Chart Legend for Lubrication Symbol Designation)

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

A-31

SERVICE CAPACITIES

Engine Lubrication
Cummins QSB5.9-C155 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Quarts
General Motors 8.1L-V8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Quarts
General Motors 7.4L-V8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Quarts
Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Gallons
Fuel Tank
T 180S - 220S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Gallons
T 250M - 360L, TH 300L, TH 350L, TB 180S - 300L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Gallons
Transmission
TC-32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Quarts
Drive Axle
PRC-425Q
Differential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Each Planetary Hub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
PRC-775P
Differential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Each Planetary Hub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5

Quarts
Quarts
Quarts
Quarts

Hydraulic Tank
T 180S - 360L, TH 300L, TH 350L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Gallons
TB 180S - 300L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Gallons

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SETTINGS


Accessory
Model

Lift

Tilt Out

Steering

T 180S - 330M

2650 psi

1250 psi

T 360L

2750 psi

TH 300L

Side Shift

Fork Positioner

2500 psi

2500 psi

1500 psi

1250 psi

2500 psi

2500 psi

1500 psi

2650 psi

1250 psi

2500 psi

2500 psi

1500 psi

TH 350L

2750 psi

1250 psi

2500 psi

2500 psi

1500 psi

TB 180S, TB 220S

2650 psi

1250 psi

2500 psi

2500 psi

1500 psi

TB 250M, TB 300L

2750 psi

1250 psi

2500 psi

2500 psi

1500 psi

T 180S 360L (Rev. 12/03)

A-33

Hoist Circuit

THD-180S 360L (10/98)

A-34

Preventive Maintenance
A-Adjust
C-Clean
D-Drain
GR-Grease
POWER UNIT

Service Symbols
CG-Change
X-Check

ENGINE (Refer To The Engine Manufacturers Maintenance Manual For


Additional Requirements):
Hourmeter - check reading to determine when inspections are due
Oil level-check for evidence of external leakage
Oil change and filter element
Throttle control linkage
Clean engine
Check engine mounts
FUEL SYSTEM:
Fill fuel tank-check for leaks
Fuel filter with fuel / water separator
Fuel filter elements (diesel engines)
Inline fuel filter elements (if equipped)
Fuel tank, cap, hoses and clamps
AIR INTAKE SYSTEM:
Check for leaks
Air cleaner element filter indicator
Air cleaner primary element (as conditions warrant)
Air cleaner safety element (or by filter indicator)
COOLING SYSTEM:
Coolant level and fan belts
Hoses, clamps, and radiator-check for leaks
Radiator (clean externally as conditions warrant)
Drain and flush cooling system (every 2 years or 6,000 hours)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM:
Battery-check water level
Alternator belts
POWER TRANSFER
TRANSMISSION:
Maintain fluid level to full mark and check for leaks
Clean transmission breather
Drain and refill transmission (every 1000 hours)
Transmission filter element (every 500 hours)

Service Intervals
Daily Or
10 Hours

DRIVE AXLE - Visually inspect daily


Differential and planetary hubs - maintain oil level
Drain and refill differential and planetary hubs (refer to the Fuel and Lubricant
Specifications in the Appendices for the type of gear oil to be used)
Inspect brake linings
Check mounting bolts
BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEM
BRAKES:
Air tank (manual drain)
Check air hoses and connections
T 180S - 360L (10/02)

Six Months Or
1500 Hrs.

Yearly Or
3000 Hrs.

X
X
D / CG
X
C
X
X
D

CG
CG
CG

X
X
X
CG
CG
X
X
X

X
X

X
C

DRIVE SHAFT:
Lubricate drive shaft, universal joints, slip joints, and all other bearings.
AXLES
STEER AXLE - Visually inspect daily
Lubricate all grease fittings on steer axle (refer to the Lubrication section in the
Appendices)
Repack wheel bearings
Check mounting bolts

Monthly Or
250 Hours

GR
X
GR
GR
X
X
X
D
X
X

D
X

A-35

Service Symbols
A-Adjust
C-Clean
CG-Change
D-Drain
GR-Grease
X-Check
BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEM (Continued)
Fluid level in wet disc brake reservoir
PARKING BRAKE:
Actuation
Brake pads (replace as conditions warrant; refer to Section 15)
Actuator adjustment (or whenever the parking brake pads are replaced)
CHASSIS
Visually inspect chassis structure
Lubricate all grease fittings on machine not listed elsewhere. Use engine oil on
linkage not having grease fittings.
Mirrors and windows
Access and anti-slip surfaces (clean)
Audio-visual warning devices
Handrails
WHEEL EQUIPMENT:
Check tires, valve caps, wheels, lugs, and tire pressure (refer to data plate on
vehicle for torque information)
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
HYDRAULIC PIPING AND RESERVOIR:
Maintain fluid level in hydraulic tank to full mark.
Check piping for chafing, cracked hoses, loose fittings, and leaks.
Drain hydraulic fluid, clean inside hydraulic tank and refill entire hydraulic
system.

Service Intervals
Daily Or
10 Hours

Monthly Or
250 Hours

X
X
A
X
GR
X
C
X
X

X
X
CG / C

CG
CG
C

HYDRAULIC VALVES:
Check for free operation

HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS:
Observe speed of movement - check for leaks

ACCUMULATOR:
Check precharge

CARRIAGES - Visually inspect daily


Lubricate fork pin on Type C carriage
Lubricate cylinders, fork positioner cylinders, and any other grease fittings on
carriage assembly, including special equipment.
FORKS - visually inspect daily. See maintenance manual for additional inspection requirements.

Yearly Or
3000 Hrs.

HYDRAULIC FILTERS:
Replace hydraulic tank breather (as conditions warrant)
Hydraulic tank return filter
Hydraulic filter screens (suction strainers)

ATTACHMENT
MAST - Visually inspect daily
Lubricate inner and outer mast channels (or as required)
Lubricate mast hinge
Lubricate tilt cylinder bushings and other grease fittings on mast, including
special equipment.
Refer to Leaf Chain Care, Maintenance, and Replacement for additional
inspection requirements.
Check all mast mounting hardware (mast hanger)

Six Months Or
1500 Hrs.

X
X
GR
GR
GR
X
X
X
GR
GR
X

The service intervals for Preventive Maintenance are calculated based on normal operating conditions including ten hours
per day, fifty hours per week. If your operating conditions or duty cycles are more severe, the service should be conducted
more frequently, i.e. extremely dusty conditions may require more frequent servicing of the filters.

A-36

RTGP-9040
(12/95)
T 180S
- 360L (10/02)

CALIFORNIA

Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to
the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, and other
reproductive harm.

Hoist Circuit

Section 6

Electrical System

T 180S - 360L (10/02)

6-1

Hoist Circuit

Insert The Current Fuel and Lubricant


Specifications Form FL Here

6-2

T 180S - 360L (10/02)