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311 vues141 pagesAn overview of the CST Studio Suite software.

Aug 27, 2015

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An overview of the CST Studio Suite software.

© All Rights Reserved

311 vues

An overview of the CST Studio Suite software.

© All Rights Reserved

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Training Class

Core Module

About CST

Founded in 1992

170 employees

World-wide distribution network

Focus on 3D EM simulation

CST Worldwide

CST of America

CST Europe

CST China

CST of Korea

AET Japan

CST Products

CST MICROWAVE

STUDIO

CST PCB STUDIO

for RF Simulations

CST MICROSTRIPES

RF Simulations

for Special

Applications

Circuit Simulator

Allows Coupling of 3D Models

Interaction of EM Fields with

Free Moving Charges

5

Thermal and Mechanical

Effects of EM Fields

CST EM STUDIO

Simulations of Static or

Low-Frequency Fields

Built-In Help

Mechanisms

Documentation

<CST_INSTALLATION_DIR>\Documentation\

point to learn the workflow of the CST

STUDIO SUITE products.

in the "Documentation" subfolder of your

CST installation.

Tutorials

Step-by-Step tutorials are available for CST MICROWAVE STUDIO

and CST EM STUDIO.

Examples Overview

Many pre-calculated examples are available.

9

10

- Links to Online Help -

which provides you with extensive help for all settings.

11

CST Webpage

www.cst.com

12

Tutorial Videos

FAQ Section

13

Ask your questions. Answers are provided by other users or CST engineers.

14

CST Malaysia

Phone: +60 (3) 7731 5595

Fax:

+60 (3) 7722 5595

Email: info@sea.cst.com

Support available from

9am 5pm

15

The training courses for CST STUDIO SUITE provide you with the

knowledge needed for an efficient start with the software.

Currently the following trainings are offered on a regular basis. All

upcoming courses are announced on the CST webpage.

CST STUDIO SUITE

MW & Antenna Training

2 full days

Charged Particle

Dynamics Training

1 full day

EMC / SI / PI Training

2 full days

Performance Training

1 full day

16

CST EM STUDIO

LF Applications Training

1 full day

CST MICROSTRIPES

CST MICROSTRIPES

Training

1-2 full day(s)

CST CABLE STUDIO

CST PCB STUDIO

Training on Demand

Modeling

19

Menu Bar

Tool Bars

Primary

Window

Navigation

Tree

Message

Parameter List

20

Window

E.g., define a shortcut key

to call your favorite macro.

21

View Options

Rectangle zoom

Change the view by dragging the mouse while pressing the left

button and a key.

ctrl - rotation

shift - in-plane rotation

ctrl+shift - panning

spacebar - reset view to structure,

ctrl+f - reset view,

mouse wheel - dynamic zoom to mouse pointer.

22

Primitives

Cylinder

Torus

Cone

Sphere

Rotation

Brick

Elliptical

Hints:

Cylinder

a point numerically.

Press backspace to delete

a previously picked point.

Extrusion

23

Picks

Pick a point, an edge, or a face in the structure.

Hints:

Picked Edge

Picked Point

Pick circle

center (c)

Pick corner

Picked Face

2nd time picking an element

unselects it.

Pick face

center (a)

point (p)

Pick edge

center (m)

Pick point

24

on circle (r)

Edge from

coordinates

Pick edge (e)

The working coordinate system (WCS) allows the use of context

dependent coordinates.

Use

Use

Use

25

The WCS can be aligned, e.g., with a point, an edge, or a face.

Align the WCS

with a point

with an edge

with a face

26

The position of a WCS can be stored for later use.

27

Boolean Operations

Boolean operations can be applied to two or more shapes to

create more complex structures.

Sphere

Brick

Intersect

Brick * Sphere

28

Add

Subtract

Brick + Sphere

Brick - Sphere

Boolean insert

Sphere / Brick

Brick / Sphere

Curves can be used for

structure generation,

thin wire generation,

integration path in post-processing,

healing CAD data.

Basic Curves

Generation

Create new curve

29

Solids can be created from curves.

Creation of a

Sheet from a

Planar Curve

Extrusion of a

Planar Curve

Sweep Curve

30

Solids can be created from curves.

Creation of a

Trace

Creation of

Loft from two

Curves

31

Rotation of Profile

Rotation Axis

Press backspace to delete

the last selected point.

32

material properties, etc.

Double click on any corner

point to change its position.

3D curves and faces can be created using analytical expressions.

Enter parameterization

33

3D curves and faces can be created using analytical expressions.

34

Loft Operation

Two picked faces can be used to create a new shape by a loft

operation.

of the loft operation.

Preview

35

Bending

It is possible to bend a sheet on a solid object.

Example:

Creation of a Helix

Sheet

Solid

The solid and the sheet must touch each other.

36

Select edges.

Specify radius.

37

Shell Operation

A solid object can be shelled.

Example:

A waveguide bend consisting of three shapes is shelled.

solid2

solid3

solid1

by a Boolean add.

after the operation.

38

Transform Operation

Existing objects can be translated, rotated, mirrored, and scaled.

Translate

Scale

Rotate

Perform several transformations to the same shape using the Apply

button.

Selecting more than one solid will turn the shape center into the

common center.

39

move the face of a solid in

its normal direction.

move the face of a solid in

a coordinate direction.

when you are working with an imported

CAD model for which the model history is

not available. The "Local Modification"

tools help you to modify such geometries.

40

Feature to be removed

41

View Options

Several options are available to gain better insight into the structure.

Cutting Plane

Wireframe Mode

42

View Options

Several options are available to gain better insight into the structure.

Working Plane

Coordinate Axes

43

Ctrl+C stores the selected solids on the active working coordinate

system (WCS) to the clipboard. Ctrl+V pastes the clipboard into the

active working coordinate system.

Copy and paste of structure parts works even between different CST

projects.

the new WCS.

objects to clipboard.

44

Align Objects

Copied or imported objects can be aligned with the current model.

choose Align

Select faces to

align with.

Choose angle.

Final Result

automatically.

For shapes selected in the Navigation Tree start by choosing Align

from the Objects menu.

45

2. Use the pick tools, whenever geometrical information is already available.

Pick points to define new shapes / height of extrusion / transform.

Pick edges for rotation axis / to adjust WCS.

Pick face for extrude / rotate / transform / to adjust WCS.

3. Use the local working coordinate system (WCS).

4. Use the keyboard only for new (independent) geometric information

(e.g. points which cannot be picked and do not fit into the snapping raster).

Relative construction via picks and WCS avoids redundant information.

Parameters/Values are entered once and are later referenced via picks.

46

Solver Overview

Which solver is best suited to my application?

49

Unique answer to this question is not easily possible as the

performance and accuracy depend on many parameters:

Electrical size and geometry of the problem,

Material models and material parameters used,

Resonant behavior of the model,

Type of the mesh and the boundary conditions,

Architecture of the workstation used for the simulation,

etc.

BUT: Some helpful rules of thumb are available.

The application engineers of CST are available to

discuss the solver choice and the model setup.

50

Output Time Signal

of 3D Maxwell equations

Port 1

Port 2

1. Duration of input signal (determined by frequency range selected)

resonances of the model under study)

3. Time step width for numerical time integration (determined by the

mesh used to discretize your model)

51

Behind the Scenes

The steady state behavior of a model is calculated at different

frequency points.

point a linear

equation system

has to be solved.

interpolation.

52

in out

in out

Time Domain

in

in

out

out

TDR

53

Frequency Domain

S-parameter

S-parameter

General Purpose Solver (3D-Volume)

Solver

Transient

Frequency

Domain

Electrically medium and large sized problems

Broadband

Arbitrary time signals

Narrow band / Single frequency

Electrically small to medium sized problems

Periodic structures with Floquet port modes

Eigenmode

FD Resonant

Strongly resonant, non radiating structures (e.g. filters)

54

Integral Equation

(based on MLFMM)

Dominated by metal

Asymptotic Solver

The following rules of thumb apply:

Weak Resonances

Strong Resonances

General Purpose

+AR-Filter

for S-parameter

calculation only

Resonant Fast

55

The following rules of thumb apply:

Electrically Small

Electrically Large

problems can be solved.

very large structures

CST EM STUDIO might be a good choice.

56

The following rules of thumb apply:

Narrowband

Broadband

while the T-solver is better suited to broadband applications.

57

Specialized Products

In addition to the general purpose solvers of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO

CST offers solvers specialized to certain classes of applications.

Specialized solvers for the

simulation of PCB boards.

CST CABLE STUDIO

CST MICROSTRIPES

Efficient solvers based on the

Transmission Line Matrix (TLM)

method. Contains special

algorithms for EMC analysis.

58

simulation of complete cable

harnesses for all kind of EMC

investigations.

Patch Antenna Array

a parameter sweep & optimization.

using

a farfield array combination

3D array creation

60

Single Patch

61

Frequency range: 3 8 GHz

Port size:

2*width in y-direction

Copper

Substrate (Rogers RT 5880)

5*height in z-direction

40mm

20mm

0.5mm

0.035mm

h = 0.787mm

7.5mm

20mm

w = 2.38mm

40mm

Copper groundplane,

thickness = 0.035 mm

62

Construction (i)

Choose template:

63

Load materials:

Construction (ii)

Construct the substrate:

64

Construction (iii)

Construct the patch:

65

Construction (iv)

point

Select edge centre

66

Construction (v)

Construct the feed line

Press Shift-Tab

67

Construction (vi)

Pick point

68

Construction (vii)

Construct the feed

gaps

69

Construction (viii)

Pick two points to form a

translation vector

Select solid1 by doubleclicking it

70

Construction (ix)

Transform solid1 to make a copy

71

Construction (x)

Select component patch

solid1 from patch

72

Construction (xi)

Pick bottom face of

substrate

ground plane

73

Construct Port

Pick face of feed line

74

Construct Port

Construct waveguide port

75

Simulation Settings

Set freq. range

76

Simulation

Define monitors (E-, H-, Farfield @ 5.25 GHz)

Start transient solver

77

Visualize Results

Farfield result

E-field result

78

Parameter Sweep

79

80

Optimizer Parameters

Optimizer Goal

81

83

Farfield Efficiency

Before optimization:

84

Patch Array

85

86

87

88

Transform component1 to make

a copy

substrate components

89

Construct second port and run transient simulation

without symmetry.

90

91

92

93

lg/4

lg/4

Z0

Z0/sqrt(2)

94

DS MWS co-simulation

DS circuit network

95

Definition of Ports

98

Ports for S-Parameter Computation

Discrete Ports

Waveguide Ports

(Lumped Element)

line impedance is required.

Output: Voltage and current

Output: Pattern of E- and H-field,

line impedance,

Propagation constant

Discrete ports can be used for TEM-like modes, not for higher order

modes (cutoff frequency > 0).

99

as higher accuracy for the S-parameters.

Discrete Ports

S-Parameter Port

Current Port

Voltage Port

internal resistance

Coaxial

100

Microstrip

Stripline

Coplanar waveguide

or

and impedance.

101

and impedance.

102

or

Ports for S-Parameter Computation

Discrete Ports

Waveguide Ports

(Lumped Element)

line impedance is required.

Output: Voltage and current

Output: Pattern of E- and H-field,

line impedance,

propagation constant

Discrete ports can be used for TEM-like modes, not for higher order

modes (cutoff frequency > 0).

103

as higher accuracy for the S-parameters.

Typically, waveguide ports are defined based on a geometric object. Use the

pick tools to select a unique port plane.

The port size is equal to the smallest rectangular area which includes all picked objects.

104

2. Enter port menu

3. Adjust additional

port space.

105

For the I-solver and the F-solver waveguide ports must be backed with

a PEC solid (or by electric boundaries).

Pick port using

the pick tools.

106

Materials

&

Boundary Conditions

108

Basic Materials

Define a new material or load materials from the large material database.

Material Types

PEC = Perfect Electrical Conductor (

typically used for dielectric materials.

depend upon the spatial direction.

Lossy Metal: Model for conductors with

109

Material Database

for the creation of new shapes.

110

Lossy Metal

Why is it required?

the metal surface when defining conductor as a normal material

(skin depth for copper at 1 GHz approx. 2 m).

This results in a very small time step, which leads to a very long

simulation time.

Solution:

1D model which takes skin depth into account without spatial

sampling.

111

Boundaries

CST MWS uses a rectangular grid system, therefore, also the complete calculation

domain is of rectangular shape 6 boundary surfaces have to be defined at the

minimum and maximum position in each coordinate direction (xmin, xmax, ymin,

ymax, zmin, zmax).

Example: T-Splitter

ymax

xmin

zmin

zmax

ymin

xmax

112

Seven different settings are available.

113

Electric Boundaries (default setting): No tangential electric field at surface.

setting for waveguide port boundaries.

Open Boundaries: Operates like free space Waves can pass this boundary

with minimal reflections. Perfectly matched layer (PML) condition.

Open (add space) Boundaries: Same as open, but adds some extra space for

far field calculation (automatically adapted to center frequency of desired

bandwidth). This option is recommended for antenna problems.

Conducting Wall: Electric conducting wall with finite conductivity (defined

in Siemens/meter).

114

Periodic Boundaries: Connects two opposite boundaries where the calculation

domain is simulated to be periodically expanded in the corresponding direction.

Thus, it is necessary that facing boundaries are defined as periodic.

The resulting structure represents an infinitely expanded antenna pattern,

phased array antennas. F! (hexahedral mesh), T! + 0 phase shift

boundary with hexahedral mesh. A two dimensional periodicity other than

in direction of the coordinate axes can be defined. If there are open

boundaries perpendicular to the unit cell boundaries, they are realized by

Floquet modes, similar to modes of a waveguide port .

115

Three different settings are available.

Three possible symmetry planes.

116

Meshing Basics

119

Question: How does a proper mesh look like and what are the

best settings to get it?

Answer: This depends on your problem under study as well as

the type of result you are interested in.

However, there are some rules of thumb:

For several classes of application (e.g. antennas, PCB boards

etc.) there are some common properties a "good" mesh

possesses (project templates make use of this fact).

It is known that the results become more accurate when the

mesh is refined (automatic mesh refinement is based on this

knowledge).

Geometry and material of the model influences the behavior of

the EM fields (fixpoints, material based meshing, and other

special techniques are based on this knowledge).

120

Global Mesh Properties

template. Global settings for mesh controls of

automatic meshing algorithms.

global mesh better to the model under study.

Defined per shape or per material.

121

Select Project Template

122

values which we found to be a good starting

point for a certain area of application.

geometry of your model.

really specific requirements of your model.

Perform Simulation

study (e.g. using adaptive mesh refinement).

Results

about the dependency of the results on the

mesh settings.

Project Templates

A project template makes some basic settings for a new project. A

project template can be applied to an already existing project.

Information about the

settings the template

will apply.

Template Title

(Area of Application)

123

It is known that the numerical solution calculated by the solvers converges to

the analytical solution if the grid is sufficiently refined.

The automatic mesh refinement in CST tries to refine the initial mesh in a

clever way such that the results are accurate.

124

refinement are shown in the "Navigation Tree".

125

Transient Simulations

126

1. Hexahedral Mesh Configuration Options

2.1 Some Representative Meshes for Common Structures

2.2 Meshing Pitfalls

3. Influence of the Mesh on Simulation Performance

127

Mesh lines in one

mesh plane are shown

in the 3D view.

View mesh.

Mesh controls are

displayed in the mesh

view.

cells is displayed in status bar.

128

Corner

Correction

Fixpoints

dependent setting to

determine the largest

mesh step.

size of the smallest

mesh step.

129

Automatically create

and use mesh controls.

Strongly recommended!

Largest Mesh Step - "Lines per Wavelength"

upper limit of the frequency range.

130

usually leads to a finer mesh.

Largest Mesh Step - "Lower Mesh Limit"

dimensions of the computational domain.

131

face of the comp. domain is divided by

this number. Result is used as the max.

mesh step width allowed in the model

Smallest Mesh Step - "Mesh Line Ratio Limit"

The time needed to complete a time domain simulation heavily depends on the size

of the smallest mesh step (see later in section "Performance Aspects of Meshing").

The size of the minimum mesh step can be

limited using the "Mesh Line Ratio Limit" or the

"Smallest Mesh Step" setting.

inserted at

fixpoints.

maximum value allowed for the ratio of the

maximum mesh step width to the minimum

mesh step width.

132

Smallest Mesh Step - "Smallest Mesh Step"

The time needed to complete a time domain simulation heavily depends on the size

of the smallest mesh step (see later in section "Performance Aspects of Meshing").

value allowed for the minimum mesh step

width in terms of the units defined in your

project.

Note: If the settings for "Steps per Wavelength"

or "Lower Mesh Limit" lead to a smaller

then the "Smallest Mesh Step" setting is

ignored.

133

1. Hexahedral Mesh Configuration Options

2. Some Meshing Guidelines

2.1 Some Representative Meshes for Common Structures

2.2 Meshing Pitfalls

3. Influence of the Mesh on Simulation Performance

134

The gap between inner and outer conductor

should be resolved by at least one mesh cell.

Partially filled cells are handled with PBA/FPBA

technique.

Coaxial Line

1-2 mesh lines

(depends on thickness)

Microstrip Line

135

permittivity of the substrate the number

of mesh lines should be at least as shown

in the picture.

It is NOT necessary to resolve the

thickness of the microstrip line by the

mesh.

The gap between multiple strip lines should be

resolved by at least one or two mesh cells.

A discrete port must be discretized by at least

one mesh cell.

Discrete Ports

136

Cells which contain more than two metallic

material boundaries are completely filled

with PEC (staircase cells).

solver to inform you of this

modification.

mesh view.

137

Staircase cells must be avoided if

they influence the electrical

behavior of the model, i.e. if they

introduce shortcuts.

Example: Shortcut between two

microstrip lines is introduced by a

staircase cell.

the electrical behavior of a model

are usually OK.

138

a wire in free space.

PBA

139

TST

boundaries the cell is filled with PEC material (staircase cell).

Quite often such cells do not influence the simulation result

much, but if they introduce shortcuts (as shown on the previous

slide) this might be critical.

1. Hexahedral Mesh Configuration Options

2. Some Meshing Guidelines

2.1 Some Representative Meshes for Common Structures

2.1 Meshing Pitfalls

3. Influence of the Mesh on Simulation Performance

140

For stability, the time step of the numerical quadrature is determined by the

smallest mesh step. Increasing the smallest mesh step will increase the

time step.

tiny t: slow

big t: fast

The smaller the smallest mesh step width, the smaller the time

step for the numerical time integration.

141

The smallest mesh step in a model can be visualized in the mesh

view.

142

Select a proper project template for your application to get good

initial mesh settings.

Perform an adaptive mesh refinement to find a good mesh.

Fine tune the mesh if necessary using the local mesh settings.

Try to avoid critical cells. Quite often they are an indicator that the

mesh is too coarse at least in some regions.

Try to avoid to use a mesh with a very high mesh line ratio limit.

Consider using subgrids for models which require a very fine mesh at

localized positions.

143

- Memory-Consumption versus Mesh Size -

A structure with open boundaries and material losses requires

about 1 GB RAM to handle 3-4 million mesh cells.

A structure with closed boundaries and without material losses

requires about 1 GB RAM to handle 5 million mesh cells.

Subgridding:

The subgridding feature starts to be efficient when the mesh

cell reduction factor is larger than 3.

(Macros Calculate Subgridding Meshcell Factor)

144

for Frequency Domain Simulations

145

Steps per wavelength: This value refers to the

highest frequency of the simulation. It defines the

minimum number of mesh cells that are used for a

distance equal to this wavelength.

Minimum number of steps: This value controls the

global relative mesh size and defines a lower bound

for the number of mesh cells independently of the

wavelength. It specifies the minimum number of

mesh edges to be used for the diagonal of the model

bounding box.

(HEX mesh even works with INVALID ACIS model...)

146

-Global Mesh Settings -

upper limit of the frequency range.

147

usually leads to a finer mesh.

-Global Mesh Settings -

the mesh globally independently of the

frequency range settings.

148

mesh edges to be used for the diagonal

of the model bounding box.

The method for surface and volume meshing can be chosen.

General purpose: A simple surface mesh

generation which is adequate in most cases.

to meshing large or complex structures. If used

together with (tetrahedral) volume mesh

generation, this method can be combined only

with Delaunay volume mesh generation.

Delaunay: Fast tetrahedral volume meshing

method (recommended).

or imported geometry is less

accurate than the default tolerance

1e-6, it is recommended to select a

larger tolerance. Otherwise artificial

shapes might arise or the model

preparation might fail.

149

generate a volume mesh. Advantageous in some

cases (like thin layers), because the surface

mesh can be generated more flexible than with

Delaunay, that is, it can be altered during the

mesh generation if necessary. This method is

available only in combination with the general

purpose surface mesh generation.

30

100

default = 100

If cylinders are

still not well

discretized,

increase it

to, e.g., 200-300.

150

the maximum deviation (d) of the surface mesh from the

actual shape of the structure divided by the edge length

(h) of the surface triangle (as shown in the picture above).

Smaller values lead to better approximation of curved

objects.

(recommended), the mesh connectivity of the

preliminary volume mesh is changed to improve the

mesh quality.

(recommended), the position of mesh vertices will

be changed in order to enhance the mesh quality.

151

Multi-frequency adaptive mesh refinement

The adaptation frequency samples are sequentially processed before

the broadband sweep.

Example: Diplexer

Initial mesh

152

Optimized mesh

Open Discussion

153

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