Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

Physics 2210 Homework 8 Spring 2015

Charles Jui February 23, 2015

IE Block Spring Incline

Wording

 A 5 kg block is placed near the top of a frictionless ramp, which makes an angle of 30 ◦ degrees to the horizontal. A distance d = 1.3 m away from the block is

an unstretched spring with k = 3 × 10 3 N/m. The block slides down the ramp and compresses the spring. Find the maximum compression of the spring. See Figure 1. Figure 1: IE Block Spring Incline

1

Solution

Since only conservative forces are at play, the total mechanical energy is con- served 1 , i.e. ME i = ME f

mg(x max + d) sin θ =

1

2 kx

2

max

which yields quadratic equation in x max

and its solutions are

x

x

max 2mg

2

k

max = mg sin θ

±

k

x max 2mgd

k

= 0

( 1 ± 1 +

mg sin θ )

2kd

We eliminate the negative solution since it would mean that the block is not in contact with the spring. And we will get

x max = 0.1541949 m

Tipler6 7.P.012.

Wording

Estimate the following:

 (a) The change in your gravitational potential energy on taking an elevator from the ground ﬂoor to the top of the Empire State Building. The building is 102 stories high (assuming a 3 min ride to the top of the building). (Assuming your mass is 68 kg and the height of one story to be 3.5 m.) (b) The average force exerted by the elevator on you during the trip. (c) The average power delivered by that force.

Solution

(a)

Change in potential energy is given by

U = mgh

where ∆h = 102 × 3.5 m = 357 m, thus

U = 238.14756 kJ

1 Note adding x max in the potential energy.

2

(b)

The average force is deﬁned by

¯

F =

h 2 h 1

1

h

h 2

1

F · dx

but ∆h = h 2 h 1 and the integral is simply the work done, which in this case

is equal to the change in potential energy, i.e.

 So we get F = ∆U ¯ ∆h ¯ F = 667.08 N (c)

The average power is deﬁned as

¯

P

= W ork time

= U

t

where the time is t = 3.5 × 60 s = 210 s, so

 ¯ P = 1.323042 kW

Tipler6 7.P.034.

Wording

A simple Atwood’s machine uses two masses, m 1 and m 2 . Starting from rest,

the speed of the two masses is 3 m/s at the end of 7 s. At that instant, the kinetic energy of the system is 54 J and each mass has moved a distance of 10.5 m. Determine the values of m 1 and m 2 . See Figure 2.

Solution

Here we have conservation of energy: At the beginning, the total energy is zero. 2 After a while

0 =

1

2

m 1 v

2

1

+

2 m 2 v

1 + m 1 gh 1 + m 2 gh 2

2

2

Let’s assume that the ﬁrst mass goes down; now we have

Hence we obtain

h 2 = h 1 = d

v 1 = v 2 = v

0 =

1

2 (m 1 + m 2 )v 2 + (m 2 m 1 )gd

2 We can pick the masses to be at the same height, for convenience.

3 Figure 2: Tipler6 7.P.034.

We are also given the total kinetic energy, i,e,

KE =

1

2

m 1 v

2

1

+

1

2

m 2 v

2

2

= 1

2

(m 1 + m 2 )v 2

Combining the two equations produces the following system

 2KE = (m 1 + m 2 )v 2 KE = (m 1 − m 2 )gd

Solving this system yields

(a)

(b)

m 1 = (

1

2gd ) KE

1

v 2 +

m 1 = 6.262 kg

m 2 = (

v 2 2gd ) KE

1

1

m 2 = 5.738 kg

Tipler6 7.P.036.

Wording

A block of mass m is pushed up against a spring, compressing it a distance x, and the block is then released. The spring projects the block along a friction- less horizontal surface, giving the block a speed v. The same spring projects a

4

second block of mass 3m, giving it a speed of 4v. What distance was the spring compressed in the second case? Give your answer in terms of a numerical factor times x, the compression of the ﬁrst block.

Solution

Transfer of energy in the ﬁrst case

kx 2 = 1

2

1

2 m 1 v

2

1

Transfer of energy in the second case

1

1 2

2

ky 2 =

2

m 2 v

2

Taking ratio of the two equations yields

Thus

 y 2 2 = m 2 v 2 2 2 = m 2 · v 2 x m 1 v 2 1 m 1 v 2 1 y = √ 3m m 4v x = 4 √ 3x v

y = 6.928 x

Tipler6 7.P.060.

Wording

In a volcanic eruption, 2km 3 of mountain with a density of 1600 kg/m 3 was lifted an average height of 513 m.

 (a) How much energy in joules was released in this eruption? (b) The energy released by thermonuclear bombs is measured in megatons of TNT, where 1 megaton of TNT = 4.2 × 10 15 J. Convert your answer for (a) to megatons of TNT.

Solution

(a)

The energy required is equal to the change of potential energy of the ash, i.e.

E = ∆U = Mgh = ρV gh

where V = 2 × 10 9 m 3 . This gives value

E = 1.610E + 16 J

5

(b)

Simple ratio E/(4.2 × 10 15 J) yields

3.834 Mton TNT

Pendulum

Wording

A mass m = 4.7 kg hangs on the end of a massless rope L = 2.05 m long. The pendulum is held horizontal and released from rest.

1) How fast is the mass moving at the bottom of its path?

2) What is the magnitude of the tension in the string at the bottom of the path?

3) If the maximum tension the string can take without breaking is T max = 382 N , what is the maximum mass that can be used? (Assuming that the mass is still released from the horizontal and swings down to its lowest point.)

4) Now a peg is placed 4/5 of the way down the pendulum’s path so that when the mass falls to its vertical position it hits and wraps around the peg. As it wraps around the peg and attains its maximum height it ends a distance of 3/5 L below its starting point (or 2/5 L from its lowest point). How fast is the mass moving at the top of its new path (directly above the peg)?

5) Using the original mass of m = 4.7 kg, what is the magnitude of the tension in the string at the top of the new path (directly above the peg)? Figure 3: Pendulum 1

6 Figure 4: Pendulum 2

Solution

1)

Forces acting on the pendulum are conservative, thus the energy is conserved, i.e.

 mgL = 1 mv 2 2 so we get v = √ 2gL and numerically v = 6.342 m/s 2)

At the bottom, the vertical component of the acceleration must be equal to centripetal acceleration. At the same time, the net force is made up of gravity and tension; hence according to the II.Newton law

which gives 3

and thus

T

mg = m v 2

L

T = m ( g + v 2 ) = m ( g + 2gL ) = 3mg

L

L

T = 138.321 N

3)

Turning around the result of the previous part

m max =

T max

3g

m max = 12.980 kg

3 Using results of the previous part for the speed at the bottom.

7

4)

Once again, all the force involved are conservative, thus the energy is conserved

so

which gives

1

mgh i = mgh f + 2 mv 2

v = 2g(h i h f ) = 2g(3/5)L = (6/5)gL

v = 4.912 m/s

5)

Here the approach is analogous to the one in part 3) with the modiﬁcation of the net force:

with the value of

T + mg = m

v 2

(1/5)L

T = m ( 5v 2

L

g ) = 5mg

T = 230.535 N

Loop the Loop

Wording

A mass m = 73 kg slides on a friction-less track that has a drop, followed by a loop-the-loop with radius R = 18.1 m and ﬁnally a ﬂat straight section at the same height as the center of the loop (18.1 m oﬀ the ground). Since the mass would not make it around the loop if released from the height of the top of the loop (do you know why?) it must be released above the top of the loop-the-loop height. See the Figure 5. (Assume the mass never leaves the smooth track at any point on its path.) Figure 5: Loop the Loop

8

1) What is the minimum speed the block must have at the top of the loop to make it around the loop-the-loop without leaving the track?

2) What height above the ground must the mass begin to make it around the loop-the-loop?

3) If the mass has just enough speed to make it around the loop without leaving the track, what will its speed be at the bottom of the loop?

4) If the mass has just enough speed to make it around the loop without leaving the track, what is its speed at the ﬁnal ﬂat level (18.1 m oﬀ the ground)?

5) Now a spring with spring constant k = 15300 N/m is used on the ﬁnal ﬂat surface to stop the mass. How far does the spring compress?

6) It turns out the engineers designing the loop-the-loop didn’t really know physics – when they made the ride, the ﬁrst drop was only as high as the top of the loop-the-loop. To account for the mistake, they decided to give the mass an initial velocity right at the beginning. How fast do they need to push the mass at the beginning (now at a height equal to the top of the loop-the-loop) to get the mass around the loop-the-loop without falling oﬀ the track?

Solution

1)

At the top of the loop, the centripetal force needs to be at least as large as the force of gravity, hence

so we get

and numerically

2

min

F g = m v

R

v min = gR

v min = 13.325 m/s

2)

Requirement of the previous part puts the total energy of the box at the top of the loop to

TE =

1

2 mv min + mg(2R)

2

which needs to be equal to the original potential energy

thus getting

hence

mgh =

1

2 mv min + mg(2R)

2

h = 2R + v

2

min

2g

=

2R + (1/2)R = 5 R

2

h = 45.25 m

9

3)

So energy conservation dictates

Solving for the speed

and

4)

gives

so

5 R = 1

2

mg 2

mv

v b = 5gR

2

b

v b = 29.796 m/s

5 R =

mg 2

1

2 mv f + mgR

2

v f = 3gR

v f = 23.080 m/s

5)

The kinetic energy will be transferred to the spring

Solving for distance

hence

6)

So the initial energy is

1

2 mv

2

f =

x = mv

2

f

k

=

1

2 kx 2

3mgR

k

x = 1.594 m

TE i =

1 2

2 mv

0 + mg(2R)

which must be equal to the energy at the top of the loop

TE =

1

2 mv min + mg(2R)

2

Solving for the initial velocity

or

v 0 = v min

v 0 = 13.325 m/s

10