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Secondary Education

Dr. Arbab Khan Afridi


Former-Director IER
University of Peshawar

In Collaboration With
MASTER COACHING ACADEMY (MCA)
(IER) UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR

All rights reserved with the Author

Authors:

Dr. Arbab Khan Afridi

Book:

Secondary Education

nd

2 Edition:

January, 2015

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS.........................................................I
UNIT-1: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF
SECONDARY EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN......................1
1.1
Secondary Education during British Rule..............................................1
1.2
Salient Features and Changes Brought about Secondary Education
from 1947 to 1998..................................................................................2
UNIT-2: ADMINISTRATIVE STRATEGIES AND DEVELOPMENT OF
SECONDARY EDUCATION AFTER INDEPENDENCE.........3
2.1
Enrolment and Facilities.........................................................................3
2.2
Curricular Development.........................................................................3
2.2.1 Characteristics of a Good Curriculum:.............................................3
2.2.3
Curriculum Development Process....................................................3
2.3
Vocational Training.................................................................................3
2.4
Science Education...................................................................................3
2.5
Women Education...................................................................................3
UNIT-3: CURRICULAR DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY
EDUCATION.........................................................3
3.1
Curricular Recommendations in 1947, 1959, 1969, 1972, 1978 and
1992........................................................................................................3
3.2
Introducing Guidance and Counseling...................................................3
3.3
Measures and Recommendations to Overcome the Constraints............3
UNIT-4: TEACHER TRAINING IN PAKISTAN............................3
4.1
Objectives & Nature of Pre Service Teacher Education......................3
4.2
Objectives and Nature of In-Service Teacher Education........................3
UNIT-5: CHALLENGES OF THE FUTURE WITH REFERENCE TO
SECONDARY EDUCATION........................................3
5.1
Quantitative Projection...........................................................................3
5.2
Qualitative Challenges............................................................................3
5.3
Related Issues (Social and Vocational)...................................................3
UNIT-6: INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO IMPROVE SECONDARY
EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN.......................................3
6.1
Innovative Approaches to Improve Secondary Education in
Pakistan...................................................................................................3

Secondary Education

UNIT-1:
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF
SECONDARY EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
1.1

Secondary Education during British Rule

1.2

Salient Features and Changes Brought about Secondary Education from 1947 to 1998

1.1

SECONDARY EDUCATION DURING BRITISH RULE

Introduction
The caste-wise division of students provides the more interesting and historically more
relevant information. This is true not only as regards boys, but also with respect to the
rather small number of girls who, according to the survey, were receiving education in
schools. Furthermore, the information becomes all the more curious and pertinent when the
data is grouped into the five main language areas -- Oriya, Telugu, Kannada. Malayalam
and Tamil. These constituted the Presidency of Madras at this period, and throughout the
nineteenth century.
System of Secondary education during the British Rule
British records show that indigenous education was widespread in the 18th century, with a
school for every temple, mosque or village in most regions of the country. The subjects
taught included Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Theology, Law, Astronomy, Metaphysics,
Ethics, Medical Science and Religion. The schools were attended by students
representative of all classes of society. But scholars have questioned the validity of such an
argument. They argue that proponents of indigenous education fail to recognize the
importance of the widespread use of printed books in the West since the sixteenth century,
which led to a remarkable advancement of knowledge. Printed books were not used in
Indian schools till the 1820s or even later. There were institutions such as Gresham's
college in London that encouraged scientific learning. In fact, there were a number of such
academic and scientific societies in England, often supported by Puritan and nonConformist merchants, the like of which probably did not exist in India. The entire claim of
indigenous education proponents is based on the thesis advocated by Dharampal which
says that there was a general decline in Indian society and economy with the coming of
British rule. In the process, indigenous education suffered. This, however, is too broad a
generalization, and the exact impact of British rule on different regions at different times
has to be studied more carefully before we conclude that the curve everywhere steadily
declined. He argues that pre-British schools and colleges were maintained by grants of
revenue-free land. The East India Company, with its policy of maximizing land revenue,
stopped this and thus starved the Indian education system of its financial resources. Again,
we need more detailed evidence to show how far inam lands were taken over by the
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government. More often, military officers, zamindar, and talukdars were deprived of
revenue-free land rather than temples, mosques, madrasas. Recent research has revealed
that inam lands continued to exist well into the nineteenth century, much more than was
previously suspected.
The current system of education, with its western style and content, was introduced &
funded by the British in the 19th century, following recommendations by Macaulay.
Traditional structures were not recognized by the British government and have been on the
decline since.
Gandhi Observation
Gandhi is said to have described the traditional educational system as a beautiful tree that
was destroyed during British rule. He was very disappointed at the condition of Indian
education during the British period. Gandhi observed two main points in Indian education
1)

Today India is more illiterate than it was fifty or hundred years ago; and

2)

The British administrators instead of looking after education and other matters
which had existed began to root them out.

1.2

SALIENT FEATURES AND CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT


SECONDARY EDUCATION FROM 1947 TO 1998

Education in Pakistan is divided into five levels:


a)

Primary (grades one through five)

b)

Middle (grades six through eight)

c)

High (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate)

d)

Intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School


Certificate) and

e)

University programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees

Pakistan also has a parallel secondary school education system in private schools, which is
based upon the curriculum set by the University of Cambridge. Some students choose to
take the O level and A level exams, which are administered by the British Council, in place
of government exams.
There are currently 730 technical & vocational institutions in Pakistan. The minimum
qualifications to enter male vocational institutions, is the completion of grade 10. The
programs are generally two to three years in length. The minimum qualifications to enter
female vocational institutions, is the completion of grade 9.
All academic education institutions are the responsibility of the provincial governments.
The federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some
financing
of
research.
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English medium education is to be introduced on a phased basis to all schools across the
country. Through various educational reforms, by the year 2015, the ministry of education
expects to attain 100% enrolment levels amongst primary school aged children, and a
literacy rate of 86% amongst people aged over 10.
Education Status at Independence
At independence, Pakistan had a poorly educated population and few schools or
universities. Although the education system has expanded greatly since then, debate
continues about the curriculum, and, except in a few elite institutions, quality remained a
crucial concern of educators in the early 1990s.
Adult literacy is low, but improving. In 1992 more than 36 percent of adults over fifteen
were literate, compared with 21 percent in 1970. The rate of improvement is highlighted by
the 50 percent literacy achieved among those aged fifteen to nineteen in 1990. School
enrollment also increased, from 19 percent of those aged six to twenty-three in 1980 to 24
percent in 1990. However, by 1992 the population over twenty-five had a mean of only 1.9
years of schooling. This fact explains the minimal criteria for being considered literate:
having the ability to both read and write (with understanding) a short, simple statement on
everyday life.
Resource Allocation
Relatively limited resources have been allocated to education, although there has been
improvement in recent decades. In 1960 public expenditure on education was only 1.1
percent of the gross national product (GNP); by 1990 the figure had risen to 3.4 percent.
This amount compared poorly with the 33.9 percent being spent on defense in 1993. In
1990 Pakistan was tied for fourth place in the world in its ratio of military expenditures to
health and education expenditures. Although the government enlisted the assistance of
various international donors in the education efforts outlined in its Seventh Five-Year Plan
(1988-93), the results did not measure up to expectations.
Structure of the System
Education is organized into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades
six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, culminating in matriculation); intermediate
(grades eleven and twelve, leading to an F.A. diploma in arts or F.S. science; and university
programs leading to undergraduate and advanced degrees. Preparatory classes (kachi, or
nursery) were formally incorporated into the system in 1988 with the Seventh Five-Year
Plan.
Academic and technical education institutions are the responsibility of the federal Ministry
of Education, which coordinates instruction through the intermediate level. Above that
level, a designated university in each province is responsible for coordination of instruction
and examinations. In certain cases, a different ministry may oversee specialized programs.
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Universities enjoy limited autonomy; their finances are overseen by a University Grants
Commission, as in Britain.
Teacher training: a foundation stone in the improvement of secondary education
Teacher-training workshops are overseen by the respective provincial education ministries
in order to improve teaching skills. However, incentives are severely lacking, and, perhaps
because of the shortage of financial support to education, few teachers participate. Rates of
absenteeism among teachers are high in general, inducing support for communitycoordinated efforts promoted in the Eighth Five-Year Plan (1993-98).
Teacher Student Ratio
In 1991 there were 87,545 primary schools, 189,200 primary school teachers, and
7,768,000 students enrolled at the primary level, with a student-to-teacher ratio of forty-one
to one. Just over one-third of all children of primary school age were enrolled in a school in
1989. There were 11,978 secondary schools, 154,802 secondary school teachers, and
2,995,000 students enrolled at the secondary level, with a student-to- teacher ratio of
nineteen to one.
Primary school dropout rates remained fairly consistent in the 1970s and 1980s, at just over
50 percent for boys and 60 percent for girls. The middle school dropout rates for boys and
girls rose from 22 percent in 1976 to about 33 percent in 1983. However, a noticeable shift
occurred in the beginning of the 1980s regarding the post primary dropout rate: whereas
boys and girls had relatively equal rates (14 percent) in 1975, by 1979-- just as Zia initiated
his government's Islamization program--the dropout rate for boys was 25 percent while for
girls it was only 16 percent. By 1993 this trend had dramatically reversed, and boys had a
dropout rate of only 7 percent compared with the girls' rate of 15 percent.
The Seventh Five-Year Plan envisioned that every child five years and above would have
access to either a primary school or a comparable, but less comprehensive, mosque school.
However, because of financial constraints, this goal was not achieved.
In drafting the Eighth Five-Year Plan in 1992, the government therefore reiterated the need
to mobilize a large share of national resources to finance education. To improve access to
schools, especially at the primary level, the government sought to decentralize and
democratize the design and implementation of its education strategy. To give parents a
greater voice in running schools, it planned to transfer control of primary and secondary
schools to NGOs. The government also intended to gradually make all high schools,
colleges, and universities autonomous, although no schedule was specified for achieving
this ambitious goal.
Main thirst of education after independence

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A rethinking on the educational system started after independence and policies were
formulated from time to time. These policies have tried to present solutions to the following
major concern:
1.

Achieving universal primary education

2.

Giving a professional bias to secondary education

3.

Developing a scientific attitude

4.

Expansion of scientific technical education

5.

Raising the standard of higher education as well as making it worthwhile for the
nation in terms of demands of the modern world.

6.

Continuation of English as medium of instruction

7.

Acceleration of women's education

8.

Forming the character of the nation particularly with a view to inculcation


national ism among the people.

9.

Benefiting from the nation's historical, religious and cultural traditions in


formulating educational objectives and co-relation them to the demands of
modern times.

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UNIT-2:
ADMINISTRATIVE STRATEGIES AND DEVELOPMENT OF
SECONDARY EDUCATION AFTER INDEPENDENCE
2.1

Enrolment and facilities

2.2

Curricular development

2.3

Vocational training

2.4

Science education

2.5

Women education

2.1

ENROLMENT AND FACILITIES

National Education Council (NEC) shows that over 36 million students were attending an
educational institution in 2005/06. Just under 50% of those students (17.8 million) were
studying at the primary level, 20.9% (7.5 million) in pre-primary, 15.4% (5.6 million) in
middle elementary, 6.9% (2.5 million) in secondary, 2.5% (.9 million) in higher secondary
and 4.9% (1.8 million) at the postsecondary level. It is clear that Pakistan is still a long way
from achieving universal primary enrolment. As indicated 1 by the primary Net Enrolment
Rate (NER)'s estimate of 62% , over 35% of the population 5 to 9 years of age is not in
school. Given a population of 5 to 9 years old of some 19.5 million, this means that about 7
million children aged 5 to 9 are out of the education system.
Furthermore, under current conditions, the education system does not provide for a
substantial percentage of students to move beyond the primary level. At present, the
average enrolment per grade at the middle elementary level is less than one-half the
average enrolment per grade at the primary level. This is considerably less than that of most
other countries, and it is clear that the delivery system needs to significantly increase the
proportion of students capable of studying beyond the primary level.
Pakistan has a Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) at the primary level of almost 80% - (when all
primary enrolment is measured against the population 5 to 9 years of age). The difference
of 80% between the Net Enrolment Rate (NER) of 62% and the GER is due to the number
of primary students who are over 9 years of age or under 5 years of age. Given the number
of repeaters in primary grades and the incidence of students beginning their primary school
after age 5, it is likely that most of the difference is due to overage students. Numerically,
this means that over 2.5 million students in primary school are over 9 years of age. Any
reduction in this number, possibly by decreasing the repetition rate, may open up places in
the primary system for some of children not currently in school.

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Role of Private institutions
Private education institutions enroll 31% of the students who are in basic education (preprimary through higher secondary). In urban centers, private schools account for slightly
more students (51%) than the public sector (49%). However, the situation is reversed in
rural areas, where over 80% of students attend public schools. At the primary, middle
elementary and secondary levels of education, almost one-third of all students attend
private schools. Although most countries have less extensive private provision of basic
education than in Pakistan, some experience higher percentages, such as the Netherlands
and Lebanon, both of which have over 60% of their basic education provided by the private
sector.
In Pakistan, there were 14 million girls studying in basic education in 2005, compared to
18.3 million boys. In other words, there were over 4 million more boys than girls in basic
education, which results in a Gender Parity Index (GPI) of .76. This disparity in favor of
boys was prevalent at all levels of basic education, with the exception of the higher
secondary level, where there was parity between the sexes, producing a GPI of 1.0. In
Pakistan, because there are more boys than girls in the relevant population, this represents a
small disparity in favor of girls. This level of GPI at the higher secondary level shows that
many more boys than girls discontinued their education after secondary school, with the
result that their numbers matched those of the girls in the final level.
Teaching Status
Vacant teaching posts and untrained teachers both affect the quality of education provided
to Pakistan's youth. In 2005/06, basic education had a vacancy rate of 6.5%, though the
higher secondary level had the largest vacancy rate, with over 9% of the teaching positions
remaining unfilled. Most teachers in the public school system had received professional
training: (only 5% were untrained). However, by comparison, over half of the teachers in
private schools had received no professional training.
Comprehensive result developed by NEC
Analysis of the NEC shows that many schools are in need of better facilities to improve the
teaching environment. For example, 9% of primary schools do not have a blackboard, 24%
do not have textbooks available for the children and 46% do not have desks for the
students. Private primary schools are better equipped with desks and blackboards, but
almost one-quarter of primary schools in both the public and private sectors do not have
any textbooks. Only 36% of the public primary schools in the country have electricity,
though the picture improves further up the educational ladder, with most middle
elementary, secondary and higher secondary schools having access to electricity.

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2.2

CURRICULAR DEVELOPMENT

There are numerous uses of the word curriculum. The Concise Oxford dictionary defines
it as Course of Study and notes that it derives from the Latin word for a chariot racecourse. The curriculum as a race with series of hurdles to be overcome might still be a
view held by a number of you today.
Curriculum is an area of vital importance to the professional teacher. Over the past two
decades the study of curriculum has become an established part of teacher education
programs. Therefore, teachers need to be knowledgeable about curriculum and understand
the processes by which curricula may be developed. When teachers consider curriculum
issues, for example, they tackle the substantive matter of schooling which may be
expressed in terms of the fundamental questions of curriculum namely.
i)

What to teach?

ii)

How to teach?

iii)

When to teach?

iv)

What are the impacts of teaching?

v)

What knowledge is of most worth to learn?

vi)

What activities are most effective in enabling learners to acquire this knowledge
(information, facts, skills, values, attitudes etc)?

vii)

What is the most appropriate way to organize these activities?

viii)

How do I know if learners have acquired this knowledge?

2.2.1

Characteristics of a Good Curriculum:

After a vast research, the educationists agree that good curriculum dwells on the following
traits / characteristics.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
2.2.3

Development of Social Understanding


Promotion of Maximum Personal Development
Promotion of Continuity of Experience
Provision for Educational Goals
Maintenance of Balance among all Goals
Utilization of Effective Learning Experiences and Needed Resources
Curriculum Development Process

Situation Analysis
A situation which is made up of a number of factors such as pupils home and background,
school, its climate, its staff, facilities and equipment are termed as the situation analysis.
Analysis of those factors, together with a self analysis, followed by study of their
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implications for curriculum planning constitutes one step towards the rational approach of
curriculum. A situation analysis is an obvious commencement point for the construction of
a curriculum it is an ideal opportunity for curriculum developers, aware of the curriculum
presage factors affecting them, to bring a reasoned, rational approach to the development of
curricula. Above all, it is an opportunity for curriculum developers to take account of local
factors when developing curriculum to meet student needs. Analysis of factors which
constitute the situation:
a)

Cultural and social changes and expectations including parental expectations,


employer requirements, community assumption and value, changing relationships
(e.g. between adults and children) and ideology

b)

Educational system requirements and challenges, e.g. policy statements,


examinations,
local authority expirations or demands or pressures,
curriculum projects, education research

c)

The Changing nature of the subject matter to be taught

d)

The potential contribution of teacher-support system, e.g. teacher training


college, research institutes

e)

Flow of resources into the school

f)

Pupils aptitudes, abilities and defined education needs

g)

Teachers value, attitudes, skills knowledge, experience, social strengths and


weaknesses, roles

h)

School ethos culture and political structure: Common assumptions and


expectations including power conformity to norms and dealing with deviance

i)

Material resources including plant, equipment, and potential for enhancing these

j)

Perceived and felt problems and shortcomings in existing curriculum

The need for conducting a situational analysis is fundamental precept of effective


curriculum development. Developers commencing their task should ask important
questions such as: What do we know about the context the students, teachers, school
environment of this curriculum and why is it need? This provided then with an
information base to pose an even more fundamental question: what do our learners need? A
recommended approach to conduct a situational analysis involves four steps
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Identify problems in contents


Select approach factors
Data collection and analysis
Make recommendations

National Curricula
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Primary education
Primary education comprises Grades I-V. The language of instruction is either Urdu or the
regional language. The curriculum includes reading, writing, arithmetic, general science,
social studies, Islamic education, and physical education.
Middle level education
Middle level education lasts from Grades VI-VIII. The curriculum includes the compulsory
subjects of Urdu, English, mathematics, sciences, social studies, and Islamic studies. Non
Muslims are exempt from Islamiyat-Islamic Studies. Instead they are taught Moral
Education.
Secondary Education
Secondary Education lasts from Grades IX through X. Students can specialize in science,
humanities, or technical streams. Compulsory subjects for all are English, Urdu, Islamiyat,
Pakistan studies and mathematics.
In addition, students study the following subjects within the different streams:
a)
b)

Science stream: Physics, chemistry and biology/computer science/technical subject


Humanities stream: General science and two elective subjects/one elective subject

c)

and one technical subject


Technical stream: General science and two technical subjects.

However, rural areas often offer a limited choice of subjects due to lack of staff and
facilities, such as science labs in science streams. Only 35% out of 9,200 secondary and
higher secondary schools in Pakistan meet the minimum requirements of an equipped
laboratory according to official statistics published in the Education Sector Reforms: Action
Plan for 2001/2002 to 2005/2006. The government plans to construct new science labs in
about 3,000 schools during 2001-2011.
The technical education stream was introduced at the beginning of this century. The aim is
for the technical stream to be available in 1,200 secondary schools, 10 in each district,
preferably five male and five female schools. The technical education stream addresses
itself to those pupils who enter the labor market after Grade X. 34 emerging technology
streams are planned for introduction along with appropriate teaching materials. Students
passing the examination at the end of Grade X are awarded the Secondary School
Certificate.
Higher secondary education
Higher secondary education sometimes referred to as the "intermediate stage", lasts from
Grades XI to XII. It often takes place at university colleges or similar. Army public schools,
divisional public schools, autonomous colleges and some private sector institutions are
commonly recognized as being more prestigious than government schools. The earlier term
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faculty of arts/sciences for higher secondary education is still often used, e.g. in admission
materials from higher education institutions. Regional Boards are granted some autonomy
on the subjects and combinations they may offer.
The students are offered the following subjects and streams by, for example, the Federal
Board of Secondary and Intermediate Education (FBISE):
a)
b)
c)
d)

e)
f)

g)

Compulsory subjects for all groups: English, Urdu, Islamic education and
Pakistan studies
Pre-engineering group: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry
Pre-medical group: Biology (Zoology, Botany), Physics and Chemistry
Science general group:
i)
Mathematics, physics and statistics
ii)
Mathematics, economics and statistics
iii)
Mathematics, computer studies and physics
iv)
Mathematics, computer studies and statistics
v)
Mathematics, computer studies and economics
Humanities group: Three subjects out of 23 elective subjects
Commerce group:
i. Part one: Principles of accounting, principles of economics, principles of
commerce, business mathematics
ii. Part two: Principles of accounting, commercial geography, statistics,
computer studies/banking/typing
Medical technology group
i)

Part one: Elementary chemistry and chemical pathology, elementary


anatomy and micro-techniques, micro-biology I

ii)

Part two: Hematology (Heamatology) and blood banking, clinical


pathology and serology, micro-biology II.

Girls are also offered the possibility of home-economics. Dars-i-Nizami Group (Quran
reading) is introduced at secondary and higher secondary levels to bridge the gap between
Madrasah education and the formal education system in Pakistan.

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Class
1
to
5

Primary Education

Class
1
to
5
Class
11
&
12

Class
13
to
16

Class
15
16

Intermediat
e
Education
HSC/FA,
F.Sc,
I.Com

Bachelor
Degree
BA, B.Sc.,
B.Com

Master
Degree
MA
MSc.
M.Com

Age (Yrs)
5
to
10

Age (Yrs)
5
to
10

Secondary Education
Secondary School Certificate
(SSC/Matric)

Ag
e
16
to
17

Class
11
12
13

Ag
e
18
to
21

Class
13
14
15
16

Ag
e
20
21

Class
13
14
15
16

Diploma of
Associate
Engineerin
g (DAE)

Age
16
17
18

Vocational
Certificate
Courses
VTC, TTC

Bachelor
of Engg.
(B.E)/
B.Sc. Engg

Age
18
19
20
21

Class
14
B-Tech
15
(Pass)

Age
19
20

Medical
Degree
MBBS

Age
18
19
20
21
22

Class
16
17
B-Tech
(Hons)

Age
21
22

Ph.D

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2.3

VOCATIONAL TRAINING

Vocational and technical education in Pakistan is a minor educational sector. The term
technical education refers to post-secondary courses of study and practical training aimed at
the preparation of technicians to work as supervisory staff. The term vocational training
refers to the lower-level education and training for the preparation of skilled or semi-skilled
workers in various trades.
Role of Technical and Vocational Education & Training (TVET)
Technical and Vocational Education & Training (TVET) is basically the skill-development
of workforce working in the industry of a country. It is also defined as marketable and
economically relevant education for people. Technical Education refers to post-secondary
courses of study and practical training aimed at preparation of technicians to work as
supervisory staff. Vocational Training, on the other hand, refers to the lower-level education
and training for the preparation of skilled or semi-skilled workers in various trades, but it
does not enhance their level with respect to general education.
Features and Characteristics of TVET
There is a fresh awareness among policy makers in developing countries and the
international community of the critical role that TVET can play in national development.
One of the most important features of TVET is:
a)

Its orientation towards the world of work and the emphasis of the curriculum on
the acquisition of employable skills. TVET delivery systems are therefore well
placed to train the skilled and entrepreneurial workforce that the country needs to
create wealth and emerge out of poverty.

b)

That it can be delivered at different levels of sophistication.

This means that TVET institutions can respond to the different training needs of learners
from different socio-economic and academic backgrounds, and prepare them for gainful
employment and sustainable livelihoods. The youth, the poor and the vulnerable of society
can therefore directly benefit from a TVET program. In a developing country like Pakistan,
it is extremely important to realize that vast numbers of young people are outside the
formal school system, requiring the integration of non-formal learning methodologies and
literacy programs into national education programs. To revitalize, modernize and
harmonize TVET in order to transform it into a mainstream activity for the youth
development and human capacity building in Pakistan, it is necessary to:
1.

Position TVET programs and TVET institutions as vehicles for regional


cooperation and integration as well as socio-economic development as it relates
to improvements in infrastructure, technological progress, energy, trade, tourism,
agriculture and good governance; and
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2.

Secondary Education
Mobilize all stakeholders in a concerted effort to create synergies and share
responsibilities for the renewal and harmonization of TVET policies, programs
and strategies.

The rapid technological developments being witnessed in the early years of the twenty-first
century, together with the forces of globalization, are already leading to radical changes in
the world of work. In fact, the changing nature of work is already perceptible both in urban
as well as rural communities. New technologies are being developed and applied, replacing
existing technologies and processes. As the new technologies are knowledge intensive, the
developing countries, being net importers of foreign technology, are obliged to upgrade and
enhance the skill level of their manpower. This step is necessary in order to absorb and
maintain new technologies, highlighting the critical role of TEVT.
A parallel aspect of globalization is the increased international competitiveness: firms have
to compete not only on the basis of price but also on the basis of quality. The pressure of
competition has prompted firms to ensure price competitiveness, greater flexibility,
enhanced quality, and the capacity to introduce new products and services effectively. In
1950, 80% of the world's jobs were classified as unskilled; now 85% of the jobs are
classified as "skilled".
These shifting sands of technology have put a greater premium on TEVT resources that are
seen throughout the world as essential for socio-economic progress. The nature of work and
demands for skills is also changing in Pakistan and employment opportunities are shifting
across industries and occupations. The profile of the Pakistani work force in 2005 showed
43.1 percent engaged in agriculture, 13.8 percent in manufacturing and mining, and 43.1 in
services. Since 2000, there has been a shift of 5.3 % employed labor force from agriculture
sector to manufacturing /mining.
At present, there are 18 Colleges of Technology, 54 Polytechnic Institutes (11 for females)
and 25 Monotechnics whereas commerce education for business sector is provided in over
200 commercial training institutes.
TABLE 1: Country - wise Detail of Government College of Technology / Polytechnics/

Monotechnics Institutes in Pakistan


GCT

GP IB

GPIW

Monotechnic

Federal Area

Province

Punjab

13

24

Sindh

15

25

48

Balochistan

KPK

15

22

Total

18

43

11

25

97

Master Coaching Academy (MCA)

Total

14

Secondary Education
The Monotechnics /Polytechnics Institutes and College of Technology offer 3-year
Diploma Course after 10th Class (Matriculation) in over 30 Technologies. Generally, 3 to 4
technologies are offered in institute. There are 409 Vocational Institutes operating in the
provinces/area, offering training in over 40 skills / trades. Province-wise break-up of
vocational institutes are given in Table below. TABLE 2: Province/area- wise detail of
Vocational Institutes at Public Sector
Province / Area

Boys

Girls

Co
Education
1

Total

Punjab

130

134

265

Sindh

63

68

KPK

47

47

Balochistan

11

17

28

Islamabad Capital Territory


(ICT)

Total

194

1
214

409

Administration
Technical and vocational training programs are administered by a number of Federal,
Provincial and private agencies:
Federal and Provincial Departments
i)

Government Vocational Institutes (GVIs), administered by the Provincial


Education

Department
ii)

Technical Training Centers (TTCs), Vocational Training Centers (VTCs), and


Apprenticeship Training Centers (ATCs), administered by the Provincial Labor
Departments

iii)

In-Plant training Programs, i.e. apprenticeship training under the Apprenticeship


Training Ordinance 1962, administered by the Provincial Directorates of
Manpower and Training of Labor Departments in establishments employing 50 or
more workers.

Private technical training institutions


i)

On-the-job training within industries and training by Small Industries,


Departments/Corporations and private technical and vocational institutions

Master Coaching Academy (MCA)

15

ii)

iii)

Secondary Education
Commercial training institutes under the Ministry of Education, Provincial
Education Departments and Technical and Vocational Training Authority
(TEVTA) in Punjab
Polytechnic institutes and colleges of technology operating under the Federal
Ministry of Education and Provincial Education/ Labor/ Manpower/ Industries
Departments. Private technical training institutions

A technical stream exists within secondary education (Grades XI XII). The framework for
training is the National Training Ordinance 1980 with amendments and the Apprenticeship
Training Ordinance from 1962 with amendments. The National Institute of Science and
Technical Education (NISTE) (The Ministry of Science and Technology) provide science
and technical education including training of teachers. The institute has the responsibility
for the curriculum at polytechnics and colleges of technology.
At the federal level, the National Training Board works under the Ministry of Labor,
Manpower and Overseas Pakistanis. The Board coordinates the work of the four provincial
boards, one in each province, assesses training needs, and develops training syllabi and
specifies national training standards and trade tests.
A Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority (TEVTA) were established in the
Punjab in 1999 and all departments dealing with technical and vocational training have
been placed under it. It also covers post-secondary education conducted at polytechnics and
colleges of technology. Similar programs have also been started in the Khyber
Pakhtunkhuwa (KP).
Courses offer by Vocational Institutes and their duration
Vocational Institutes offer courses between three months and two years in length, although
the maximum is generally a year. Entry is based on Grade VIII. Courses for girls are often
shorter than those for boys. A two-year course leads to a Grade 3 Skilled Worker
Certificate. Technical Training Centers offer two-year courses for graduates of Grades VIII
and X. The institutes are affiliated to the technical training boards. Courses lead to Grade 2
Skilled Worker Certificate. The certificates are awarded by a Board of Technical Education
or TEVTA. Grade 2 and 3 Skilled Workers Certificates are also available via competence
testing in the workplace. Post-secondary technical and vocational education takes place at
polytechnics/colleges of technology. The three-year courses post-SSC (Secondary School
Certificate) leads to a Diploma, in the engineering field known as the Diploma of Associate
Engineer. Courses at Commercial Institutes after the SSC (Secondary School Certificate)
are completed with the Certificate in Commerce after one year and the Diploma in
Commerce after two years, also called the Intermediate in Commerce. Colleges of
Technology offer the same diploma awards as Polytechnics, but they also award degree
courses to holders of the Polytechnic Diploma.

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Secondary Education

2.4

SCIENCE EDUCATION

Introduction
Among the factors that influence growth and development, Science Education is by far the
most important. Science Education provides a sound base for education scientific research
and technological development. In view of the vital role that science education plays in
national development, it has been decided that a National Center for Science Education will
be established to improve science teaching through research and innovations and to
promote and popularize science and technology among the masses through science fairs,
museums, films etc.
National Education Equipment Centre will be further strengthened in order to improve the
quality and supply of equipment to school laboratories. Science equipment will be supplied
to the exiting laboratories in the schools and new science laboratories will be added to
schools where they do not exist.
Underlying Principle
Our national survival both in terms of economy and defense potentials depends entirely on
the kind of science education we provide to our children. If all our people are more broadly
educated in science, we can then hope that science will make its maximum contribution in
the development of leadership, inculcated with the habits of critical thinking, tolerance and
open mindedness among all people and to their effective happy living.
In spite of several curricular reforms in science education, the quality of instruction in
science education particularly at school and pre university levels had not improved
considerably. This is so because science is still being taught as a dogma. Very little
curiosity in scientific enquiry, initiative and involvement in understanding the scientific
concepts and processes is emphasized. Many teachers lack desired knowledge,
competencies, skills and scientific attitude. As such, teacher demonstrations and enquiry
directed experiences seldom find their way into classrooms and laboratories.
Effective science education program is directly linked with the establishment of an infra
structure for research in science education, training of science teachers and science
educators, mobilizations of local resources for production of indigenous equipment and
strengthening of the science laboratory and libraries. Therefore, a National Center for
Science Education is needed. The center should not only motivate and popularize science
among the masses but at the same time coordinate entire science education improvement
efforts to ensure our continued growth of scientific knowledge, its applications to national
development and an adequate supply of future scientists for our national security and
prosperity.
Science Education Center have emerged all over the world as permanent institutions
devoted entirely to the improvement and popularizations of science education not only
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17

Secondary Education
among students of science but also among the teachers of science. There are more than 150
such centers in the world today. Well known science education centers includes the Science
Teaching Center at the University of Maryland (USA), the Lawrence Hall of Science at
Berkeley University (USA), Center for Science Education at Chelsea College of Science
and Technology (England), The Institute for Promotion of Teaching Science (Thailand),
Science Education Center (Philippines) ,and Science and Mathematics Center in Lebanon.
Program
i)

In order to achieve a breakthrough in this direction, a National Center for Science


Education will be established at the national level as an autonomous body with a
Board of Governors. The center will pursue the following objectives:
a)

To coordinate activities in the improvement of science education in the


country for classes I XII.

b)

To encourage, stimulates and popularize science and technology among


the children.

c)

To act as a nerve center for research in science education and serve as


a clearing house for exchanging latest science curriculum materials,
innovative ideas, practice and strategies between Pakistan, Asian
Region and the world.

In order to achieve these objectives, the center will organize the following program:
a.
b.
c.

d.
e.
f.
g.
ii)

Modify and expand up to class VIII the National Teaching Kits developed under
the supervision of the Curriculum Wing.
Develop enquiry directed demonstrations and experiments for teachers and
students for classes IX XII.
Design and test innovative teacher education program and models for training
science teachers and develop teacher guides, handbooks instructional packages /
models and other related stuff.
Develop a mobile science laboratory to take science close to the rural population,
and organize on the spot in service training program for science teachers.
Organize science fairs at provincial and national levels and establish Mini
science Museums in the country.
Organize Future Scientists of Pakistan awards for outstanding students who
demonstrate creativity, imagination and critical thinking.
Organize national seminars, symposia, workshops, working, sessions and
conferences for coordination and promotion of science education in the country.
The National Education Equipment Center, Lahore, will be further strengthened
by increasing its present capacity and manpower for facilities the production of
science teaching kits and other inexpensive equipments.

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Secondary Education
The National Education Equipments Center will be entrusted the task of
designing and developing prototypes of low cost mobile science labs,
inexpensive simple teacher demonstrations, experiments, and working models in
Physics, Chemistry, Biology for classes IX XII in collaboration with the
National Center for Science Education.

iii)

iv)

Teaching of science will be improved and science education will facilitates, such
as strengthening of new science laboratories will be expanded at all level.

v)

At least one room in every primary school will be converted into multipurpose
science room for conducting science activities along with other related activities
of the school.

vi)

At school level, about 345 new science laboratories will be constructed and 540
school will be supplied equipments. At college level (XI - XII), laboratories
facilities will be improved in 60 colleges for boys and 12 colleges for girls and 57
degree colleges for men and 23 for women will also be provided with additional
facilities of equipment during the Fifth Plan period.

Resource Allocation
The Fifth Five Year Plan provides about Rs. 140 million as development expenditure for
improvement and expansion of the facilities for the teaching of science and promotion of
science education in schools, colleges and universities. However, the development of the
non development expenditure to be incurred on the establishment of the national centers
for science education will be met from within the resources allocated for the improvement
of science education in the Fifth Five years Plan as well as from the Miscellaneous Program
of education.
Problems and difficulties
In Science Education, a major problem area is the constant maintenance of good
instruction, particularly at the school and pre-university levels. The establishments of the
National Center for Science Education, along with its infrastructure for research in science
education and supporting professional staff will considerably reduce this problem by staff
will considerably reduce this problem by systematizing and supervising science
improvement efforts.
Future Plans
a.

b.

Phase-wise Establishment of Science Clubs network in all the districts of


Pakistan. Initially contacts will be established with heads of educational
institutions and Science Teachers to take them on board for initiating inquirybased learning of science and gradually science clubs will be established.
Monthly Workshops for Science Teachers to promote inquiry-based science
learning. These workshops will be held on equal basis in all the provinces and
Master Coaching Academy (MCA)

19

c.

d.

e.

2.5

Secondary Education
Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The target areas/districts will be remote areas having
less exposure about modern educational tools.
Preparation printed material, especially posters on inquiry-based science learning
and to motivate teachers for developing experimental materials to teach students.
Such printed material will be distributed among educational institutions.
Science exhibitions to promote inquiry-based science learning among the
students. To encourage students and teachers prizes will be awarded to them and
the best educational institutions.
After Consultation with Teachers, Provision of Experimental Equipment to
remote areas educational institution in accordance with their Syllabus.

WOMEN EDUCATION

Education plays a pivotal role in developing human capital in any society. Education has
become a universal human right all around the globe. Article thirty seven of the

Constitution of Pakistan stipulates that education is a fundamental right of every


citizen, but still gender discrepancies exist in the educational sector. According to the 2011
Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Program, approximately
twice as many males as females receive a secondary education in Pakistan, and public
expenditures on education amount to only 2.7% of the GDP of the country.
Gender roles in Pakistan
Patriarchal values heavily govern the social structure in Pakistani society. Home has been
defined as a woman's legitimate ideological and physical space where she performs her
reproductive role as a mother and wife, while a man dominates the world outside the home
and performs his productive role as a breadwinner. Men and women are conceptually
segregated into two distinct worlds. The household resources are allocated in the favor of
sons (male members of the family) due to their productive role. Education for boys is
prioritized vis-a-vis girls, because it is perceived that boys must be equipped with
educational skills to compete for resources in the public arena, while girls have to
specialize in domestic skills to be good mothers and wives, hence, education is not
perceived as being important for girls. This gender division of labor has been internalized
by the society, and girls/women do not have many choices for themselves that could change
these patriarchal realities of their lives. Society does not allow girls/women to develop their
human capabilities by precluding them from acquiring education. Lack of emphasis on the
importance of women's education is one of the cardinal features of gender inequality in
Pakistan. The Human Development Report (HDR) listed Pakistan in the category of "low
human development" countries with a female literacy rate of thirty percent, and Pakistan
has ranked 145 in the world in terms of human development.

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Secondary Education
Importance of Women's Education
Education has been of central significance to the development of human society. It can be
the beginning, not only of individual knowledge, information and awareness, but also a
holistic strategy for development and change. Education is very much connected to
women's ability to form social relationships on the basis of equality with others and to
achieve the important social good of self-respect. It is important, as well, to mobility
(through access to jobs and the political process), to health and life (through the connection
to bodily integrity). Education can allow women to participate in politics so they can ensure
that their voices and concerns are heard and addressed in the public policy. It is also crucial
for women's access to the legal system. Education is a critical input in human resource
development and is essential for the country's economic growth. It increases the
productivity and efficiency of individuals and it produces skilled labor-force that is capable
of leading the economy towards the path of sustainable growth and prosperity. The progress
and wellbeing of a country largely depends on the choices of education made available to
its people. It can be one of the most powerful instruments of change. It can help a country
to achieve its national goals via producing minds imbue with knowledge, skills and
competencies to shape its future destiny. The widespread recognition of this fact has created
awareness on the need to focus upon literacy and elementary education program, not
simply as a matter of social justice but more to foster economic growth, social well-being
and social stability. Women's education is so inextricably linked with the other facets of
human development that to make it a priority is to also make change on a range of other
fronts, from the health and status of women to early childhood care, from nutrition, water
and sanitation to community empowerment, from the reduction of child labor and other
forms of exploitation to the peaceful resolution of conflicts.
Economic benefits of women's education
Apart from the acquisition of knowledge and values conductive to social evolution,
education also enables development of mind, training in logical and analytical thinking. It
allows an individual to acquire organizational, managerial, and administrative skills.
Moreover, enhanced self-esteem and improved social and financial status within a
community is a direct outcome of education. Therefore, by promoting education among
women, Pakistan can achieve social and human development, and gender equality. A large
number of empirical studies have revealed that increase in women's education boosts their
wages and that returns to education for women are frequently larger than that of men.
Increase in the level of female education improves human development outcomes such as
child survival, health and schooling. Lower female education has a negative impact on
economic growth as it lowers the average level of human capital. Developmental
Economists argue that in developing countries female education reduces fertility, infant
mortality and increases children's education. Gender inequality in education directly and
significantly affects economic growth. Empirical studies done by using regression analysis
Master Coaching Academy (MCA)

21

Secondary Education
reveal the fact that the overall literacy rate, enrollment ratio, ratio of literate female to male
have positive and significant impact on economic growth. Education has the significant
inverse relationship with poverty because it provides employment opportunities and rejects
poverty. The inclusion of trained and education women workforce will not only ensure
women's welfare, it will also increase the overall productivity of the workforce due to more
competitiveness. Hence, the developmental and feminist economists argue that it is
desirable for the government to allocate more resources towards women's education, as it is
going to benefit the whole society.
Gender Disparity in Education in Pakistan
According to UNDP 2010 report, Pakistan ranked 120 in 146 countries in terms of Genderrelated Development Index (GDI), and in terms of Gender Empowerment Measurement
(GEM) ranking, it ranked 92 in 94 countries. Gender inequality in education can be
measured in different ways. Gross and net enrollment rates and completion and drop-out
rates are the ways to identify the gender inequality in education. Pakistan aims to achieve
Millennium Development Goals and also aims to eliminate gender disparity at all levels of
education by the year 2015. Elimination of gender disparity at all levels of education
requires higher allocation of resources on women's education. Strong gender disparities
exist in literacy and educational attainment between rural and urban areas of Pakistan.
Socio-Economic Hurdles
Patriarchal values are deeply embedded in the society of Pakistan, and its different
manifestations are observed in different aspects of the society. As mentioned above, gender
division of labor enforces women to primarily specialize in unpaid care work as mothers
and wives at home, whereas men perform paid work, and come out as breadwinners. This
has led to a low level of resource investment in girls' education not only by their families
but also by the state. This low investment in women's human capital, compounded by
negative social biases and cultural practices, restrictions on women's mobility and the
internalization of patriarchy by women themselves, becomes the basis for gender
discrimination and disparities in most spheres of life. Some of the ramifications are that
women are unable to develop job-market skills; hence, they have limited opportunities
available to them in the wage-labor market. Moreover, social and cultural restrictions limit
women's chances to compete for resources in a world outside the four walls of their homes.
It translates into social and economic dependency of women on men. The nature and degree
of women's oppression and subordination vary across classes, regions and the rural and
urban divide in Pakistan. It has been observed that male dominant structures are relatively
more marked in the rural and tribal setting where local customs and indigenous laws
establish stronger male authority and power over women.

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Secondary Education
Insurgency Hurdles
Destruction of schools and killings have harmed women's education in Pakistan. 14-yearold education activist and blogger Malala Yousafzai was shot in the head and neck by
Taliban insurgents 9 October 2012 after she had blogged about the destruction of schools
and closing of all-girls schools in her town of Mingora in the Swat District. Later, the
Taliban denied that it opposes education and claimed "Malala was targeted because of her
pioneer role in preaching secularism and so-called enlightened moderation."
In September 2012 the Pakistani newspaper Dawn reported that 710 schools have been
destroyed or damaged by militants in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 401 schools have been
destroyed or damaged in Swat. While the Taliban's campaign extends beyond girls to
secular education in general, at least one source reports the damage was related to Taliban
opposition to girls' education. Another source includes the bombing of girls' schools as
among the Taliban policies.
Rural vs. Urban
In year 2006, the literacy rate in urban areas was recorded 58.3% while in rural areas it was
28.3%, and only 12% among rural women. An interesting factor in this context is that
female enrollment was recorded highest at the primary level, but it progressively decreases
at the secondary, college and tertiary levels. It was estimated that less than 3% of the 1723
age group of girls have access to higher education.
Statistics
The latest official statistics on enrollment that are provided by the Ministry of Education of
Pakistan are of year 20052006. The statistics can be divided into two categories, public
schools and private schools.
A)

Pre-primary

i)

Public Sector

According to the Government of Pakistan, total enrollment level of pre-primary in public


sector was 4,391,144. Out of 4,391,144 pre-primary students, 2,440,838 are boys, and
1,950,306 are girls. It shows that 56% of enrolled students are boys, and 44% are girls.
Further breakdown of these statistics into urban and rural enrollment levels reveals almost
similar percentage of enrollment among boys and girls, i.e. in rural schools 57% are boys
and 43% are girls.
ii)

Private Sector

There is a huge sector of private education in Pakistan. According to the government of


Pakistan, 2,744,303 pre-primary students are enrolled in private schools. Among them,
1,508,643 are boys, and 1,235,660 are girls. It shows that 55% of enrolled kids are boys
Master Coaching Academy (MCA)

23

Secondary Education
and 45% are girls. Of the total number, 39% students are in rural areas, and the percentage
of enrolled boys and girls in rural areas are 58% and 42% respectively.
B)

Primary Education

Primary education is compulsory for every child in Pakistan, but due to poverty, and child
labor, Pakistan has been unable to achieve 100% enrollment at the primary level.
i)

Public Sector

The total enrollment in primary public sector is 11,840,719, and among them, 57%
(6,776,536) are boys, and 43% (5,064,183) are girls. The 79%of all the primary students in
Pakistan are enrolled in rural schools, and the gender enrollment ratios are 59% and 41%
for boys and girls respectively in rural Pakistan.
ii)

Private Sector

The private schools are mostly located in urban centers, and the total enrollment in private
primary schools was 4,993,698.
C)

Middle School Level

The enrollment level falls dramatically from primary to middle school level in Pakistan.
These statistics can be very helpful in comprehending the problems faced by Pakistan in its
educational sector.
i)

Public Sector

3,642,693 students are enrolled in public middle schools, and among them, 61%
(2,217,851) are boys, and 39% (1,424,842) are girls. Of the total enrollment, 62% students
are in rural areas, and the enrollment of girls are much lower in rural middle schools vis-vis urban schools. In rural schools, 66% enrolled students are boys and 34% are girls.
ii)

Private Sector

The enrollment in private schools declines sharply after primary level, as the cost of
attendance in private schools increases and the majority of the population cannot afford
private education in Pakistan. The total number of students enrolled in private schools at
middle level is 1,619,630. Of the total level of enrollment in private schools, 66% students
are in urban schools. Hence, the ratio of boys and girls is relatively balanced with 54%
boys and 46% girls.
D)

High School Level

In Pakistan grades 8 to 10 constitute high school education.


i)

Public Sector

Master Coaching Academy (MCA)

24

Secondary Education
The total number of students enrolled in private high schools is 1,500,749. The 61% of
students are boys and 39% are girls. Overall enrollment decreases sharply at high school
level. A very disproportionate gender ratio is observed in rural high schools, only 28% of
the enrolled students are girls, and 72% are boys.
ii)

Private Sector

632,259 students are enrolled in private high schools. Most of them are in urban centers.
The ratio of boys and girls enrollment is 53% and 47% respectively.
E)

Higher Secondary

The overall ratio seems to equalize among boys and girls in higher secondary education.
i)

Public Sector

There are 699,463 students enrolled in higher secondary education in public institutions.
There is almost 50% boys and girls enrollment in higher secondary education. But there is a
discrepancy between urban and rural enrollments. Only 16% of the students from the total
number are from rural areas, and among them only 28% are female students. While in
urban centers, 55% students are female students.
ii)

Private Sector

154,072 students are enrolled in private higher secondary institutions, with 51% boys and
49% girls.
F)

Degree Level Education

Female students outnumber their male counterparts in degree level education.


i)

Public Sector

There are only 296,832 students are enrolled in degree level education in public sector
institutions, and 62% of them are female students while 38% are male students. Very small
number (less than 1%) of students are in rural institutions.
ii)

Private sector

29,161 students are enrolled in private sector institutions, among them 64% are female
students, mostly in urban city centers.
Summary of Statistics
These statistics shed some interesting facts about education in Pakistan; the gender
disparity in education is much lower in urban places vis--vis rural areas. One of the
possible explanations of this pattern is relatively stronger dominance of tribal, feudal and
patriarchal traditions in rural areas. Moreover, there are very few employment opportunities
for women in rural areas, and thus, there is very little financial incentive for families to

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Secondary Education
send their girls to schools. However, it is interesting to note that, despite the meager
representation of females in the education sector, the level of achievement of female
students is consistently far higher than that of their counterpart male students. Girls
generally outclass boys in examination, and they are also higher achievers in universities.
Unfortunately, the majority of the girls never get an opportunity to develop their
educational capabilities.
Role of Government in Women's Education
Officially the government of Pakistan is committed to provide every citizen an access to
education, but critics say that its budget allocation towards education does not correspond
with its former commitment. The expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP was
1.82% in 20002001, while it has been raised slightly in 20062007 to 2.42%, and it is still
relatively lower than most neighboring countries. Feminist economists argue that the
government of Pakistan needs to fully address and resolve the gender concerns that exist in
the educational sector. They suggest that one of the ways to improve this situation is by
increasing funding for women's education, encourage and financially incentivize people in
the rural areas to send their girls to schools. In the apprentice of gender studies, the gender
division of labor is considered patriarchal, and feminists argue that it can be consciously
neutralized by the public policies, i.e. encouraging girls to study mathematics, science,
computers, and business administration etc. This way, girls will specialize in higher paying
fields (jobs) instead of solely focusing on care work.
Winding Up
Statistics show that education in Pakistan can be characterized by extensive gender
inequalities. Girls/women have to face socio-cultural hurdles to acquire education.
International community has developed a consensus through the Millennium Development
Goals to eliminate gender inequality from education. The proponents of gender equality
argue that it is not only humane and ethical thing to provide everyone easy access to
education without any gender bias, but it is also essential for development and progress of a
society that both men and women are educated. They also point towards empirical studies
that have confirmed that gender inequality in education has significant impact on rural
poverty in Pakistan, and female literacy is important for poverty alleviation. Feminists like
Martha Nussbaum are arguing that there is an immediate need to increase the public
expenditures on female education in order to achieve gender equality at all levels.

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Secondary Education

UNIT-3:
CURRICULAR DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY
EDUCATION
3.1

Curricular recommendations in 1947, 1959, 1969, 1972, 1978 and 1992.

3.2

Introducing Guidance and Counseling

3.3

Measures and recommendations to overcome the constraints

3.1

CURRICULAR RECOMMENDATIONS IN 1947, 1959, 1969, 1972,


1978 AND 1992

Introduction
Pakistan achieved independence from over a century of British colonial rule in August
1947. The colonial period did witness some progress in education. However, the progress
was largely limited to what emerged as India. The regions comprising Pakistan were
relatively backward in all respects, including in education. At independence, 85 percent of
the population was illiterate and in the more backward regions of the country, e.g.,
Balochistan, the literacy rate was even lower, with the rate for rural women therein being
virtually zero. It was realized then that the task of nation building would not be achieved
without an educated and skilled manpower. And in recognition thereof, a National
Education Conference was convened the same year, which recommended that
universalization of primary education should be achieved within a period of 20 years. Since
then, universal primary education has remained an important objective of all governments.
And to this end, considerable resources have been expended in creating new infrastructure
and facilities and various projects and schemes have been launched. Yet, the desired
progress has not been achieved, either quantitatively or qualitatively.
Half a century down the road, Pakistan remains a largely illiterate country. Close to twothirds of the population and over 80 percent of rural women are still illiterate. More than a
quarter of children between the ages of five and nine do not attend school. And for those
who do, the quality of education is seriously wanting. One 1994 study conducted arithmetic
and Urdu language tests to grade-3 school children in Lahore and found that only 33
percent of students in government schools passed both the tests. The same test conducted in
1996 to test grade-3 students in 5 districts in Punjab found that only 22 percent of the
students in government schools passed both the tests. The same test administered to the
teachers did not elicit an encouraging result either.

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Secondary Education
All Pakistan Education Conference 1947
After freedom in 1947, a conference was arranged to structure the education system of
Pakistan. Quaid-E-Azam could not attend this due to illness, but he forwarded his message
which later laid down the foundation for recommendations of education policy. His
message contained four major aspect:
1)

Education system should suit the genius of Pakistan.

2)

It should be consonant with our history and culture.

3)

It should inculcate high sense of honor and integrity.

4)

It should emphasis on science and technology.

Recommendations or Salient Features


The major recommendations of the conference were:
i)

Education should be teamed with Islamic values.

ii)

Free and compulsory education in Pakistan.

iii)

Emphasis on science and technical education.

Implementation
This policy could not be implemented properly due to increased number of immigrants and
other administrative problems of new born country. So more or less British colonial system
was continued.
Report on commission on national education, 1959
The commission on national education is a beacon / inspiration for educational history of
Pakistan because of its thorough study of Pakistani culture and need of the people.
Recommendations
Its recommendations were as follows:
a)

Character building.

b)

Compulsory primary education.

c)

Subject was bifurcated in core and additional subjects.

d)

National language as medium of instruction.

e)

Focus on science and technical education.

f)

Examination system should be combination of internal (25%) and external (75%)


evaluation.

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g)

Elimination of illiteracy.

h)

Religious education should be introduced in three stages i.e. compulsory at


middles level, optional at secondary level and research at university level.

i)

Establishment of university grants commission.

j)

Three-year degree program.

Implementation
Although it was an excellent policy, but it failed due to lack of proper planning and
implementation. The proposal of three-year degree program created unrest among students
and parents and this was withdrawn.
Education Policy 1970
This policy has following salient features:
i)

Emphasis on ideological orientation.

ii)

Emphasis on science and technology education.

iii)

Decentralization of educational administration.

iv)

Eradication of illiteracy.

v)

Formation of national education corps.

Implementation
This policy was not implemented due to change in government.
Education policy 1972-1980
Salient features of this policy are:
i)

Promotion of ideology of Pakistan

ii)

Personality development.

iii)

Equality in education.

iv)

Universal education.

v)

Curriculum based on socioeconomic needs of the society.

vi)

Integrated technical and science education.

vii)

Active participation of teacher, students and parents in educational affairs.

viii)

Nationalization of educational institutions.

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Implementation
This policy was a good approach towards betterment, but has many drawbacks due to
which it cannot be achieved thoroughly e.g. universal basic education, shift towards agrotechnical studies etc.
National Educational Policy, 1979
In 1979 National Educational Conference was held for reviewing the education system and
developed following aims:
a)

Fostering loyalty to Islam

b)

Creation of concept of Muslim Ummah.

c)

Promotion of science and technical education.

d)

Equal opportunities.

Recommendations
The following strategies were recommended to achieve above goals:
a)

Curriculum revision

b)

Merging Madarrsa and traditional education

c)

Urdu as a medium of education

d)

Effective participation of community in literacy programs

e)

Linked scientific and technical education

f)

Separate instates for male and female

g)

Mosque schools.

Implementation
This policy was not implemented properly and failed due to lack of planning and financial
resources.
National education Policy, 1992-2002
This was announced in December 1992. The major aspect, aims and goals are as follows:
1.

Promotion of Islamic values through education.

2.

Improvement in women education.

3.

Diversification of general and technical education at secondary level.

4.

Demand oriented curriculum.

5.

Expended span of graduation and post graduation.

6.

Use of AV aids promoting private sector to participate in enhancement of literacy.


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Secondary Education
Implementation
This policy could not be implemented due to change in political scenario of country.
National education policy 1998-2010
Major objectives of this policy were as follows:
1.

To make the Quaranic principles and Islamic practices an integral part of


education system.

2.

To achieve universal primary education.

3.

To meet the basic educational needs of every individual.

4.

To expand the basic education.

5.

To ensure equal opportunity of higher education.

6.

Laid emphasis on diversification.

7.

To make curriculum development a continuous process.

8.

To introduce in-service training programs for betterment of education.

Recommendations
Suggestions for achievement of above goals were:
a)

Diversification of curriculum.

b)

Expansion and emphasis on technical and science education

c)

Upgrading the quality of Deeni Madaras

d)

Teacher training programs both pre and in service

e)

Introduction of idea of multiple text books

f)

Development of National Testing Services

g)

Introduction of comprehensive monitoring system

3.2

INTRODUCING GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

The quality of a nation depends upon the quality of its citizens. The quality of citizens
depends on the quality of their education and quality of education besides other factors
depends upon study habits and study attitude of the learners. Quality of education is
reflected through academic achievement which is a function of study habits and study
attitude of the students. Thus to enhance the quality of education, it is necessary to improve
the study habits and study attitudes of the students. To improve study habits and study
attitude, those factors are needed to be identified which affect these characteristics
adversely. Identification of these factors may lead towards remedial measures. To identify
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Secondary Education
factors having negative effect on study habits and study attitudes, to propose remedial
measures and to employ strategies for the development of good study habits and study
attitudes, well organized guidance services are needed in schools.
Guidance refers to leading a person to self-actualization or helping him to develop his full
potential. This objective of self-actualization is difficult to be attained if a student is
unaware of, or unrealistic about his potential. A process of helping the individual finds
solutions to his own problems and accepts them as his own. Guidance is an integral part of
education; a continuous service; both generalized and specialized service, for the whole
child and is not confined only to some specific aspects of his personality.
It is the process of helping an individual to understand himself and his world.
Conceptually, guidance involves the utilization of a point of view to help an individual as
an educational construct. It refers to the provision of experiences which assist pupils to
understand their own selves and as a service it refers to organized procedures and process
to achieve a helping relationship.
Guidance & Counseling at Secondary level
Guidance programs for secondary school students are designed to address the physical,
emotional, social and academic difficulties of adolescence. By resolving physical,
emotional, social and academic difficulties of the students and by helping students
understand their learning strengths and weaknesses; their study habits can be improved.
Better study habits and study skills lead to better achievement scores. The guidance
programs promote academic, educational, personal, social and career development.
Guidance programs foster positive attitude towards school learning and work and hence,
improve academic achievement. In a comparative study of structured and non directive
counseling styles have the great impact on the academic performance of high-risk students.
Results indicated that students in structured counseling condition had higher GPAs than
those in non-directive counseling condition at the end of semester.
The secondary school guidance program should be a part of the total school program and
complement learning in the classroom. It should be child centered, preventive and
developmental. The guidance program should aim at maximizing the students potential by
encouraging their social, emotional and personal growth at each stage of their development.
Guidance is necessary to help the pupil with specific problems like lack of relationship
between ability and achievement, deficiency in one or several school subjects, faulty study
habits, and defective methods of learning and poor motivation. Some counselor are of the
opinion that for better student achievement, it is necessary to aid pupils make progress in
their education by removing their difficulties and developing good study skills. Hence
guidance programs must include this aspect of student aid. Guidance plays a vital role in
removing the educational, personal, social, mental, emotional and other similar problems of
the students.
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The main purpose of instruction is to enable the child to learn, whereas the teachers task is
to facilitate the learning process and develop study habits and right attitude toward
learning. A teacher who has the guidance point of view in teaching will keep all this in
mind.
Purpose of guidance and Counseling at Secondary level
The purposes of guidance and counseling services for school children are to:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Improve academic achievement


Foster positive attitudes toward school, learning, and work
Increase acquisitions and application of conflict resolution skills.
Decrease dropouts.

In modern times the complexity of life has intensified the need of organized guidance
services. Both developed and developing countries lay great emphasis on the guidance of
their youth to channelize their energies. Students need to be guided for developing good
study habits and adequate preparation to sit in the examination.

3.3

MEASURES AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO OVERCOME THE


CONSTRAINTS

Measures
The following are the measures which need to be overcome
A.

Low literacy level and low standard of education

These are general problems. The literacy level is very much low due to the lack of physical
facilities (building, laboratory, financial problems, untrained teachers, lack of harmonized
curriculum etc). The absence of anyone of them will greatly affect the quality and standard
of education and thus cannot be maintained and uplifted.
B.

Inappropriateness of curricula and pedagogy

The curricula and related pedagogy are usually inappropriate or at least inadequate for the
set goals in many disciplines. Furthermore, there is no integrated system in which one step
leads to the next to enable a student to develop a truly sound base for the discipline he or
she is interested in. Moreover, even at the higher levels of education, there is no mechanism
worth its name to help a student in gauging his or her potential or in deciding on a suitable
academic career.
C.

Multiplicity of educational systems

There are many systems working here, resulting in not synergy but social division and
conflict. For example we have English medium schools, Urdu medium schools, and
religious Madrasas. Students coming out of English medium schools, especially good
private sector schools, have little or no awareness of their religion and culture whereas
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those passing out from Urdu medium schools are usually destined to work in clerical and
lower level positions. Religious madrasas churn out yet another class that are usually
unaware of the world outside their own and, with their strong sectarian bias and little or no
training in modern disciplines, are usually ill-equipped to interact meaningfully with the
larger society and are also monumental at times in spreading sectarianism.
Recommendations
The following are recommendations formulated to overcome the measures.
A.

Declare educational emergency

The present government should declare a national educational emergency and involve the
whole nation, including the army, in waging a war against illiteracy. Some steps that the
government might consider taking in this regard are:
1)

Declare education as the highest priority of the government. Explain that unless
the impediments of illiteracy and lack of education are removed, the road to
democracy will remain fraught with the danger of exploitation of the masses by
the select few, and that in the absence of political will in the ruling classes to do
something tangible in this arena, it seems that it is up to the army to defend the
country against illiteracy and lack of education, for there is no factor more
important to the well-being of a nation than human resource and no negligence
worse than ignoring its development.

2)

Make it mandatory for government and army officers at all levels to do stints at
various educational institutions in relation to their skills and national
requirements.

3)

Make it a mandatory requirement for various degree programs that the


candidates,
after taking their exams, shall spend a specified period of
time [for specified hour(s)] in teaching at assigned institutions. (These
assignments should be given in a judicious and practical manner).

4)

Ask for volunteers with specified qualifications to contribute their services in


their areas of work or residence under organized bodies that can be formed for
this purpose by the government.

5)

Ask the public to contribute financially for this purpose. Modern marketing and
fund raising techniques can be adopted for this task.

6)

Many government school buildings can be converted into commercial schools of


good level. The government can consider offering many of these schools to
private sector organizations in the field of education on the condition that a
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Secondary Education
specified percentage of right students from the lower and middle classes will be
granted admission and scholarships. Tax benefits/exemptions may also be made
part of the deal to encourage entrepreneurship in this area.
7)

Offer tax benefits/exemptions and other such incentives to private sector groups
to invest in education in rural and less developed areas.

8)

Make it mandatory for each industrial unit/agricultural estate of an area above a


specified limit to provide for a school within the premises/area. Alternatively, the
owner can be asked to share costs with the government for setting up such school.
Another option is giving various financial/tax incentives.

9)

Introduce standardization of curricula and licensing and certification of teachers


to improve standards [as is done in the USA and now in progress in Pakistan by
National Accreditation Council for Teacher Education (NACTE)].

10)

Introduce high quality selection procedure for higher level teachers and offer the
candidates better incentives.

11)

Use electronic media more extensively for educational purposes. A channel could
be devoted to just education. In this regard,
i)

teachers of high caliber can take classes for different subjects at various
levels,

ii)

these lecturers can be telecast as well as recorded,

iii)

the lectures can be delivered by


telecasting them or by playing
recorded cassettes even in schools in far flung areas where
quality education is usually not available,

iv)

later on computers can also be used with sufficient data banks and with
internet and e-mail facilities for

v)

more interactive education

if an appropriate system is designed, more students can be taught in one


school using cassettes, discs, etc. With relatively less teachers.

12)

In rural areas, provide each school with at least one army man to ensure that
people face no resistance from the feudal in educating their children.

13)

Provide people with incentives to educate their children. This can be done in
various ways. For instance i) Even lower level government jobs as for clerks,
peons, constables can be linked to a minimal level of education and entrance
tests. ii) Various loans (e.g. agricultural loans) can be linked to whether an
applicant has educated or is educating his children.
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14)

Secondary Education
Link agricultural loans/tax benefits to feudal landlords with a specified number of
people they have helped in obtaining a required level of education.

15)

Similarly, link industrial loans to education.

16)

Similar linkages can be made in relation to adult education programs.

B.

Improve, update and form curricula, texts, pedagogy, and examination


andevaluation techniques

There is no need to say that improvements, updating and new work needs to be done in
these areas. Again, some steps that the government might consider taking are:
1)

Give more importance to language education and mathematics at the primary and
secondary levels. The unfortunate fact is that usually even our postgraduates lack
basic skills in these areas. Language and
mathematics are the foundation
on which acquisition of other skills depends. Though much of the problem is due
to poor teaching, yet curricula, texts, pedagogy and examination techniques also
have a lot to do with the current situation.

2)

Various teams of experts should be involved in performing the above mentioned


task of improvement and formation.

3)

Instruction in science, history and social studies should be incorporated in


language teaching at the primary and secondary levels through activities and
projects.

4)

Computer education should also be introduced gradually right from the


elementary stage in education.

5)

At the proper stage, instruction in foreign languages (especially Arabic for closer
cultural and economic ties with the Arab world, for curbing sectarianism and
fanaticism, for greater unity in the Ummah, and for better understanding of Islam
in the educated classes) and social skills (for enhancing Emotional Intelligence)
should also be encouraged. Both these areas have gained immense importance in
the wake of globalization.

6)

More emphasis should be given to the development of educational institutions for


some unconventional disciplines as fashion designing, art, music and literature.
There is a lot of talent in the country in this field and a great, high return
international market for the products and services of skillful people in this area.

7)

Similarly, a system of continual vocational training should also be introduced for


workers in different fields.

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8)

Secondary Education
Interesting and informative documentaries and activities should also be designed
for the education of students. Similarly, institutions as museums, internet clubs,
libraries, etc. should also be developed. Contributions from the public can also be
sought for this purpose.

9)

Various bodies of academic experts should also be formed to monitor, standardize


and develop all the above mentioned programs.

C.

Eliminate multiplicity in education gradually

A uniform system of education should be introduced gradually to eradicate the problems


multiplicity of systems creates as pointed out earlier. Two important things that the
government should attempt in this regard are:
1)

Introduce one medium of instruction. In the international environment of


competition today, English has assumed an unprecedented importance. Although
Urdu will perhaps remain a language of our people for a long time to come,
English has to be given preference if a choice is to be made.

2)

Religious education should be incorporated in the mainstream education. For this


purpose, the most important thing is introduction of Arabic as a second language
at the appropriate stage.

This may not be as difficult as it seems. Some work may be required in forming the
curricula and pedagogy, but the rest can be done just by including good level Arabic in
Civil Services and Army entrance examinations. Similarly, good Arabic can be made a
prerequisite for entrance into a number of other professions and for promotion. (For
example in the judiciary it makes sense to have a judge who has a sound base in Arabic
deciding about Islamic law). Demand will create its own supply, and it is expected that
schools, institutions and parents will also be important contributing factors.

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UNIT-4:
TEACHER TRAINING IN PAKISTAN
4.1

Objectives & Nature of Pre service Teacher education

4.2

Objectives & Nature of In service Teacher education

4.1

OBJECTIVES & NATURE OF PRE SERVICE TEACHER


EDUCATION

Introduction
An educational institution performs a significant function of providing learning experiences
to lead their students from the darkness of ignorance to the light of knowledge. The key
personnel in the institutions who play an important role to bring about this transformation
are teachers. As stated by NACTE (1998) in Quality Concerns in Secondary Teacher
Education, the teacher is the most important element in any educational program. It is the
teacher who is mainly responsible for implementation of the educational process at any
stage. This shows that it is imperative to invest in the preparation of teachers, so that the
future of a nation is secure. The importance of competent teachers to the nations school
system can in no way be overemphasized. The National Curriculum Framework 2005
places demands and expectations on the teacher, which need to be addressed by both initial
and continuing teacher education.
Meaning and Nature of Teacher Education
Meaning of Teacher Education
It is well known that the quality and extent of learner achievement are determined primarily
by teacher competence, sensitivity and teacher motivation. The National Council for
Teacher Education has defined teacher education as a program of education, research and
training of persons to teach from pre-primary to higher education level. Teacher education
is a program that is related to the development of teacher proficiency and competence that
would enable and empower the teacher to meet the requirements of the profession and face
the challenges therein. According to Goods Dictionary of Education Teacher education
means, all the formal and non-formal activities and experiences that help to qualify a
person to assume responsibilities of a member of the educational profession or to discharge
his responsibilities more effectively. In 1906-1956, the program of teacher preparation
was called teacher training. It prepared teachers as mechanics or technicians. It had
narrower goals with its focus being only on skill training. The perspective of teacher
education was therefore very narrow and its scope was limited. Teacher education
encompasses teaching skills, sound pedagogical theory and professional skills.

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Secondary Education
Teacher Education = Teaching Skills + Pedagogical theory + Professional skills
T.E. = T.S. + P.T. + P.S.
Teaching skills would include providing training and practice in the different techniques,
approaches and strategies that would help the teachers to plan and impart instruction,
provide appropriate reinforcement and conduct effective assessment. It includes effective
classroom management skills, preparation and use of instructional materials and
communication skills. Pedagogical theory includes the philosophical, sociological and
psychological considerations that would enable the teachers to have a sound basis for
practicing the teaching skills in the classroom. The theory is stage specific and is based on
the needs and requirements that are characteristic of that stage.
Professional skills include the techniques, strategies and approaches that would help
teachers to grow in the profession and also work towards the growth of the profession. It
includes soft skills, counseling skills, interpersonal skills, computer skills, information
retrieving and management skills and above all lifelong learning skills. An amalgamation of
teaching skills, pedagogical theory and professional skills would serve to create the right
knowledge, attitude and skills in teachers, thus promoting holistic development.
Nature of Teacher Education
1)

Teacher education is a continuous process and its pre-service and in-service


components are complimentary to each other. According to the International
Encyclopedia of Teaching and Teacher education (1987), the teacher education
can be considered in three
phases:
a)

Pre-service,

b)

Induction

c)

In-service

The three phases are considered as parts of a continuous process.


2)

Teacher education is based on the theory that teachers are made, not born in
contrary to the assumption, teachers are born, not made. Since teaching is
considered an art and a science, the teacher has to acquire not only knowledge,
but also skills that are called tricks of the trade.

3)

Teacher education is broad and


comprehensive. Besides pre-service and
in-service programs for teachers, it is meant to be involved in various community
programs and extension activities, viz adult education and non-formal education
programs, literacy and development activities of the society.

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4)

Secondary Education
It is an ever-evolving and dynamic. In order to prepare teachers who are
competent to face the challenges of the dynamic society, Teacher education has to
keep abreast of recent developments and trends.

5)

The crux of the entire process of teacher education lies in its curriculum, design,
structure, organization and transaction modes, as well as the extent of its
appropriateness.

6)

As in other professional education programs the teacher education curriculum has


a knowledge base which is sensitive to the needs of field applications and
comprises meaningful, conceptual blending of theoretical understanding available
in several cognate disciplines. However the knowledge base in teacher education
does not comprise only an admixture of concepts and principles from other
disciplines, but a distinct gestalt an emerging from the conceptual blending,
making it sufficiently specified.

7)

Teacher education has become differentiated into stage-specific programs. This


suggests that the knowledge base is adequately specialized and diversified across
stages, which should be utilized for developing effective processes of preparing
entrant teachers for the functions which a teacher is expected to perform at each
stage.

8)

It is a system that involves an interdependence of its Inputs, Processes and


Outputs.

Need, Scope and Objectives of Teacher Education


The need for teacher education is felt due to the following reasons;
1)

It is common knowledge that the academic and professional standards of teachers


constitute a critical component of the essential learning conditions for achieving
the educational goals of a nation. The focus of teacher preparation had to shift
from training to education if it had to make a positive influence on the quality of
curriculum transaction in classrooms and thereby pupil learning and the larger
social transformation. The aspects that need greater emphasis are;
a)

The length of academic preparation

b)

The level and quality of subject

c)

The repertoire of pedagogical skills that teachers possess to meet the


needs of diverse learning situations

d)

The degree of commitment to the profession, sensitivity to


contemporary issues and problems

e)

The level of motivation

matter knowledge

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Secondary Education
This is not possible if teacher preparation focused only on training. Holistic
teacher building is necessary and therefore teacher education needed more
emphasis than mere training.
2)

Educating all children well depends not only on ensuring that teachers have the
necessary knowledge and skills to carry out their work, but also that they take
responsibility for seeing that all children reach high levels of learning and that
they act accordingly.

3)

People come to teacher education with beliefs, values, commitments,


personalities and moral codes from their upbringing and schooling which affect
who they are as teachers and what they are able to learn in teacher education and
in teaching. Helping teacher candidates examine critically their beliefs and
values as they relate to teaching, learning and subject matter and form a vision of
good teaching to guide and inspire their learning and their work is a central task
of teacher education.

4)

Teacher education like any other educational intervention, can only work on
those professional commitments or dispositions that are susceptible to
modification. While we cant remake someones personality, we can reshape
attitudes towards the other and develop a professional rather than a personal role
orientation towards teaching as a practice.

5)

The Ministry of Education document Challenge of Education: A Policy


Perspective (1985) has mentioned, teacher performance is the most crucial input
in the field of education. Whatever policies may be laid down, in the ultimate
analysis these have to be implemented by teachers as much through their personal
example as through teaching learning processes. Pakistan has reached the
threshold of the development of new technologies which are likely to
revolutionize the classroom teaching. Unless capable and committed are teachers
in service, the education system cannot become a suitable and potential
instrument of national development. The teacher is required to acquire adequate
knowledge, skills, interests and attitudes towards the teaching profession. The
teachers work has become more complicated and technical in view of the new
theories of psychology, philosophy, sociology, modern media and materials. The
teacher can be made proficient with well planned, imaginative pre-service and inservice training programs.

Scope of Teacher Education


The scope of teacher education can be understood in the following ways:
a.
b.
c.

Teacher education at different levels of education


Triangular basis of teacher education
Aspects of teacher education
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a.

Secondary Education
Teacher Education at different levels of Education

Teacher education reaches teachers at all levels of education, namely Pre-primary, Primary,
Elementary, Secondary, Higher Secondary and the Tertiary. The needs and requirements of
students and education vary at each level. Hence level and stage-specific teacher
preparation is essential. Teacher education also helps in the development of teaching skills
in teachers of professional institutions. The teachers in professional institutions have only
the theoretical and practical knowledge of their respective subjects. They require
specialized teacher training inputs to deal with students entering their professions. Teacher
education also reaches special education and physical education. Thus where there are
teachers, there would be teacher education. The knowledge base is adequately specialized
and diversified across stages, in order to develop effective processes of preparing entrant
teachers for the functions which a teacher is expected to perform at each stage.
b)

Triangular Basis of Teacher education

Construction of the relevant knowledge base for each stage of education requires a high
degree of academic and intellectual understanding of matter related to teacher education at
each stage. This involves selection of theoretical knowledge from disciplines cognate to
education, namely, psychology, sociology and philosophy, and converting it into forms
suitable for teacher education. Teacher education derives its content from the disciplines of
Philosophy, Sociology and Psychology. These disciplines provide the base for better
understanding and application of Teacher education.
The Philosophical basis provides insights to the student teachers about the implications ofthe various schools of philosophy, ancient and modern philosophical thoughts, educational
thoughts of philosophical thinkers on education and its various aspects such as curriculum
construction and discipline.
The Sociological basis helps the student teachers to understand the role of society and its
dynamics in the educational system of a nation and the world at large. It encompasses the
ideals that influence national and international scenes.
The Psychological basis helps the student teachers develop insights into students
psychological make-up. This enables the student teachers to understand their self, their
students and the learning situations such that they are able to provide meaningful and
relevant learning experiences to their students.
c)

Aspects of Teacher Education

Teacher education is concerned with the aspects such as, who (Teacher Educator), whom
(Student teacher), what (Content) and how (Teaching Strategy). Teacher education is
dependent upon the quality of teacher educators. The quality of pedagogical inputs in
teacher education programs and their effective utilization for the purpose of preparing
prospective teachers depend largely on the professional competence of teacher educators
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Secondary Education
and the ways in which it is utilized for strengthening the teacher education program.
Teacher education, thus, first deals with the preparation of effective teacher educators.
Teacher education reaches out to the student teachers by providing the relevant knowledge,
attitude and skills to function effectively in their teaching profession. It serves to equip the
student teachers with the conceptual and theoretical framework within which they can
understand the intricacies of the profession. It aims at creating the necessary attitude in
student teachers towards the stakeholders of the profession, so that they approach the
challenges posed by the environment in a very positive manner. It empowers the student
teachers with the skills (teaching and soft skills) that would enable them to carry on the
functions in the most efficient and effective manner. Teacher education therefore pays
attention to its content matter.
Objectives
Vision of Teacher Education
Teacher education has to become more sensitive to the emerging demands from the school
system. For this, it has to prepare teachers for a dual role of:
a)

Encouraging, supportive and humane facilitator in teaching learning situations


who enables learners (students) to discover their talents, to realize their physical
and intellectual potentialities to the fullest, to develop character and desirable
social and human values to function as responsible citizens; and,

b)

An active member of the group of persons who make conscious effort to


contribute towards the process of renewal of school curriculum to maintain its
relevance to the changing societal needs and personal needs of learners, keeping
in view the experiences gained in the past and the concerns and imperatives that
have emerged in the light of changing national development goals and
educational priorities.

These expectations suggest that teacher operates in a larger context and its dynamics as
well as concerns impinge upon her functioning. That is to say, teacher has to be responsive
and sensitive to the social contexts of education, the various disparities in the background
of learners as well as in the macro national and global contexts, national concerns for
achieving the goals of equity, parity, and social justice as also excellence.
To be able to realize such expectations, TE has to comprise such features as would enable
the student teachers to
a)

Care for children, and who love to be with them;

b)

Understand children within social, cultural and political contexts;

c)

View learning as a search for meaning out of personal experience;


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d)

Secondary Education
Understand the way learning occurs, possible ways of creating
conductive conditions for learning, differences among students in
respect of the kind, pace and styles of learning.

e)

View knowledge generation as a continuously evolving process of


reflective learning.

f)

Be receptive and constantly learning.

g)

View learning as a search for meaning out of personal experience, and


knowledge generation as a continuously evolving process of reflective
learning.

h)

View knowledge not as an external reality embedded in textbooks, but


as constructed in the shared context of teaching-learning and personal
experience.

i)

Own responsibility towards society, and work to build a better world.

j)

Appreciate the potential of productive work and hands-on experience as


a pedagogic medium both inside and outside the classroom.

k)

Analyze the curricular framework, policy implications and texts.

l)

Have a sound knowledge base and basic proficiency in language.

The objectives of teacher education would therefore be to:


a)

Provide opportunities to observe and engage with children,


communicate with and relate to children

b)

Provide opportunities for self-learning, reflection, assimilation and


articulation of new ideas; developing capacities for self directed
learning and the ability to think, be self-critical and to work in groups.

c)

Provide opportunities for understanding self and others (including


ones beliefs, assumptions and emotions); developing the ability for
self analysis, self evaluation, adaptability, flexibility, creativity and
innovation.

d)

Provide opportunities to enhance understanding, knowledge and


examine disciplinary knowledge and social realities, relate subject
matter with the social milieu and develop critical thinking.

e)

Provide opportunities to develop professional skills in pedagogy,


observation, documentation, analysis, drama, craft, story-telling and
reflective inquiry.

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Secondary Education

4.2

OBJECTIVES AND NATURE OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER


EDUCATION

As required by state law, local governments are implementing teacher qualification systems
and promoting in-service training for large numbers of school principals, so as to further
improve school management standards.
To cope with the shortage of qualified teachers, the State Education Commission decreed in
1985 that senior-middle-school teachers should be graduates with two years' training in
professional institutes and that primary-school teachers should be graduates of secondary
schools. To improve teacher quality, the commission established full-time and part-time
(the latter preferred because it was less costly) in-service training programs. Primary-school
and preschool in-service teacher training programs devoted 84 percent of the time to
subject teaching, 6 percent to pedagogy and psychology, and 10 percent to teaching
methods. In-service training for primary-school teachers was designed to raise them to a
level of approximately two years' postsecondary study, with the goal of qualifying most
primary-school teachers by 1990. Secondary-school in-service teacher training was based
on a unified model, tailored to meet local conditions, and offered on a spare-time basis.
Ninety-five percent of its curricula was devoted to subject teaching, 2 to 3 percent to
pedagogy and psychology, and 2 to 3 percent to teaching methods. There was no similar
large-scale in-service effort for technical and vocational teachers, most of whom worked
for enterprises and local authorities.
In service Teacher Education is classified into Degree and Non Degree Education
Degree education includes not only the make up education for in-service teachers without
qualified certificates but also up gradation for in service teachers with qualified certificates.
Non Degree education: Continuing education of primary and secondary school teachers.
It is divided into 2 parts
i)

Probation Period Training of New Teachers and

ii)

Post Training of existing teachers.

i)

Probation Training: Formation of ardent love for education and students,


familiarization with education regulations and teaching outlines, common rules
on textbooks, professional ethics.

ii)

Post Training: According to present job


and parts of post requirements at higher level.

responsibility, qualifications

In service education helps teachers to accomplish their tasks and create conditions for
promotion.

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Secondary Education
Objectives
a)

To maintain the continuity of elementary education and to prepare students for


the study of diversified courses and appropriate selection of subjects at the senior
secondary stage,

b)

To empower the prospective teachers to adopt disciplinary approach in teaching,


and to develop among students interest in such studies.

c)

To enable them to understand the implications of liberalization, privatization,


globalization (LPG) free market, and Outsourcing etc. on education and adopt
precautionary measures against their unsound effects.

d)

To train them in the use of ICT, its advantages, disadvantages and safeguards,

e)

To curtail the educational and cultural gap between the rich and the poor the
schools meant for them by adopting suitable educational approaches.

f)

To develop among the prospective teachers love for Pakistani culture, and its
contribution to the world and to inculcate a sense of national pride and identity.

g)

To enable them to develop the teaching competencies and performance skills for
the subjects they have to teach, using appropriate aids including ICT, organize
supplementary educational activities and elicit community cooperation,

h)

To empower student teachers not only to understand the nature of subjects but
also the unity and integrity of knowledge,

i)

To prepare them for the development of personality, inculcation of values,


fostering the spirit of citizenship and patriotic feeling.

j)

To create among them the awareness of environmental protection and need to


maintain an ecological balance.

k)

To enable students to acquire, construct, process and utilize knowledge as per the
requirement of circumstances,

l)

To help them to grasp the main thrust of the curriculum and develop appropriate
transactional and evaluation strategies for the same.

m)

To enable them to integrate yogic, health, physical, aesthetic and inclusive


education with other educational activities.

n)

To enable the prospective teachers to orient and sensitize the students with care
and caution about Life Skill education. HIV / AIDS preventive education,
reproductive health, etc.

Master Coaching Academy (MCA)

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o)

Secondary Education
To develop among them the capacity for undertaking action research for
improving the quality of education, for the solution of its problems and to evolve
the culture specific and community oriented pedagogy.

p)

To help them evolve happy and healthy school and community relationship and
promote interest in lifelong learning,

q)

To acquaint them with Indian nations distinctive character of unity of diversity


and adopt curriculum development practices to strengthen them.

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Secondary Education

UNIT-5:
CHALLENGES OF THE FUTURE WITH REFERENCE TO
SECONDARY EDUCATION
5.1

Quantitative Projection

5.2

Qualitative Challenges

5.3

Related Issues (Social and Vocational)

5.1

QUANTITATIVE PROJECTION

Different data indicate that that education system in Pakistan generally is not doing well.
Tracing causative factors responsible for the present state is a critical need. These include
defective curricula, dual medium of instruction, poor quality of teachers, cheating in the
examinations and overcrowded classrooms. However, efforts are on the way of molding the
curriculum in accordance with our ideological, moral and cultural values as well as our
national requirements in the fields of science, technology, medicine, engineering and
agriculture, etc. In the following table the enrolment of the students has been indicated in
various schools.
Table-1
Year

Enrolment in Educational Institutions by Kind, Level and Sex


Primar
y

School
s

Middl
e

School
s

Secondar
y

School
s

Total

Female

Total

Female

Total

Female

1992-93

130596

38080

11808

5055

9326

3029

1993-94

134050

39987

12126

5194

9655

3142

1994-95

139634

41967

12571

5562

13335

3323

1995-96

143130

43434

13330

5719

10119

3329

1996-97

149661

42042

14487

5760

10436

3394

1997-98

156318

51204

17354

7168

11685

4019

1998-99

159330

56515

18072

7985

12931

4710

1999-2000

162521

58748

18435

8146

13211

4805

2000-01

147736

42870

25472

5875

15416

3009

2001-02

149085

37165

26790

18837

15658

8554

Source: Pakistan Statistical Year Book 2004, Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of
Pakistan

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Secondary Education
Literacy levels continue to be low with male literacy being higher at 61. 3% and female
literacy considerably below the average at 36.8%. According to the 1998 provincial
population census reports, the school age population of the age group 5-9 years is more
than 20 million. Of this about 11 million (57%) have never attended school. The nexus
between poverty and education is reflected in the data which shows that 42% of the
population living in households with illiterate heads is poor, compared to 21% of those in
households with literate heads. Net primary enrolment rate is 59% for the non-poor, and
37% for the poor, and is particularly low among poor female children in rural areas. On the
other hand, Pakistan reportedly has the highest number of private schools in the region with
candidates for foreign held examinations at the secondary and higher secondary levels also
being the highest. This situation is reflective of widespread discrimination in access and
opportunity, which has serious social implications. Compared to other countries in the
region Pakistan is lagging behind in all the important indicators as indicated by the table
below.
Table-2 Key Education Indicators
Key Education Indicators

Pakista
n

India

Sri
Lanka

Adult literacy rate % (1999)

45

56. 5

91. 4

Female literacy rate % (1999)

30

44. 5

88. 6

Primary enrolment (% gross (1997)

74

100

109

Secondary enrolment (gross) % (1997)

26

49

75

Percentage of children dropping out before grade 5


(1995-1999)

50

48

Public expenditure on education (as % of GNP)


1995-97

2. 7

3. 2

3. 4

Source: Human Development Center, 1999


In addition to the public sector, the private sector is emerging as a major contender in
providing access to education at all levels and in all fields including professional and
technical. There are 36, 096 private schools in the country. Of the total the majority are in
the Punjab 66. 4%, while Sindh accounts for 17. 9%, NWFP 12. 3%, Balochistan 1.5%,
FATA 0. 9% and Islamabad Capital Territory 1%. Urban areas account for 61% and rural
areas 39% of private schools. Under Pakistans Social Action Program billions of rupees
were allocated to the four social sectors with education as a priority area. Yet, there was an
actual decline in the gross enrollment rate for primary education. Thus, between 1991 and
1996/97 while girls participation increased from 59% to 64%, boys participation rate went
down from 86% to 80%.

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Secondary Education
The reforms identified eight areas for interventions aimed at addressing issues of access
and quality. These include
i)

National Literacy Campaign

ii)

Madrassa Education

iii)

Universal Primary/ Elementary

iv)

Quality Assurance

v)

Technical Education at Secondary Level

vi)

Higher Education

vii)

Public Private Partnership

viii)

Innovative Programs.

Education

The quality assurance component of the Education Sector Reforms is directed towards
reforms in teacher education & training together with changes in the curriculum and
assessment systems. Economic survey of 2006-2007 indicates that in the recent years the
literacy levels in Pakistan have improved over time at a modern pace. He overall literacy
rate (10 years & above) was 45 percent in 2001 which has increased to 54 percent in 200506, indicating at 9.0 percentage points increase over a period of only 5 years. Males literacy
rate (10 years & above) increased from 58 percent in 2001 to 65 percent in 2005-06 while it
increased from 32 to 42 percent for females during the same period highlighting the gender
gaps that still persist in access to education. The percentage of children aged 10- 18 that left
before completing primary level has increased from 15 percent in 2001 to 10 percent in
2005.
According to the Education Census 2005, there are currently 227791 institutions in the
country. The overall enrolment is recorded at 33.38 million with teaching staff of 1.357
million. Out of the total institutions 151,744 (67 percent) are in public sector catering to 22
million (64 percent) of enrolled students and 0.723 million (53 percent) of the teaching
staff. In the case of private sector, there are 76047 institutions (33 percent) catering to 12
million student and 0.632 (47 percent) of teaching staff. In terms of physical infrastructure
out of the total covered institutions 12737 (5 percent) have been found non-functional.
From the covered institutions 12737 (11589 schools and 1148 others) almost all in the
public sector have been reported as non-functional.
Gender Differences
Education is important especially for women because it provides important means for their
empowerment. Apart from the acquisition of knowledge and values conducive to social
evolution, education provides many other benefits. The development of the mind, training
in logical and analytical thinking, organizational, administrative and management skills
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Secondary Education
accrue through education. Enhanced self-esteem and improved financial and social status
within the community is a direct outcome of education. Education, therefore, be made
available to all. For better parenting and healthier living also, education is an important
factor. It is beyond doubt that educating girls can yield a higher rate of return than any other
investment.
There is great difference in the rates of enrollment of boys, as compared to girls in
Pakistan. Primary school enrolment for girls stands at 60 per cent as compared to 84 per
cent for boys. The secondary school enrolment ratio is even more discouraging, 32 per cent
for females and 46 per cent males. Regular school attendance for female students is
estimated at 41 per cent while that for male students is 50 per cent.
The overall literacy rate in Pakistan was 45 percent. The number of literate females
increased from 0.8 million in 1961 to 11.4 million in 1998 -97. The growth rate for males'
literacy was 5.1 percent per annum. It may be noted that the overall literacy rate in Pakistan
is lower when compared to other countries in the region. The reasons could be limited
number of educational institutions in the country and accessibility to those. The situation in
rural areas, where the majority of population resides, is even more serious. The people in
those areas avoid sending their children to schools especially females because schools are
in far flung areas.

5.2

QUALITATIVE CHALLENGES

Education provides the bedrock for reducing poverty and enhancing social development.
An educational system of poor quality may be one of the most important reasons why poor
countries do not grow. In Pakistan, the quality of education has a declining trend. It is
realized that science education in particular is reaching lowest ebb and needs to be
improved urgently. There is acute shortage of teachers. Laboratories are poor and ill
equipped and curriculum has little relevance to present day needs. The schools generally
are not doing well. Tracing causative factors responsible for the present state is a critical
need. These include defective curricula, dual medium of instruction at secondary level,
poor quality of teachers, cheating in the examinations and overcrowded classrooms.
In Pakistan efforts have been made to mould the curriculum in accordance with our
ideological, moral and cultural values as well as our national requirements in the fields of
science, technology, medicine, engineering and agriculture, etc. The rise in supply of
educational infrastructure or removal of the supply side constraints can play an important
role in raising literacy and education of the population. Development budget allocation for
the social sector has been very low throughout and is evident from the budgetary allocation
for education.

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Secondary Education

Table-3 Finance Act 1995-96 to 2002-03 (Rs in Billion)


Year

Recurring

Development

Budget

Budget

Total
Education

% Of
GDP

Budget
1995-96

39.610

2.585

42.195

2.00

1996-97

40.536

1.968

42.504

2.62

1997-98

46.100

2.984

49.084

2.34

1998-99

46.979

2.427

49.406

2.40

1999-2000

51.572

2.430

54.002

1.7

2000-2001

54.396

1.966

56.362

1.6

2001-2002

64.975

2.500

67.475

1.9

2002-03

67.270

2.604

69.874

1.7

Source: (Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan)


From the tabular data it can easily be concluded that government is not able to invest the
requisite amount on education in accordance with the population growth. Allocations lag
behind the developing countries in the region.
The Role and Appointment of Teachers
The quality of teachers, which is a key factor in any education system, is poor in Pakistan.
The main reason is the low level of educational qualifications required to become a primary
school teacher; which includes ten years of schooling and an eleven-month certificate
program. It has been established through various studies that pupil achievement is closely
related to the number of years of formal schooling of teachers. Thus, students of teachers
with 12 years of schooling perform better than students of matriculate (10 years education)
teachers, who in turn perform better than students of teachers with only grade eight
qualifications.
The second factor relates to the quality of teacher certification programs, which suffers
from the lack of adequately trained master trainers, little emphasis on teaching practice and
non-existence of a proper support/monitoring system for teachers. In the absence of any
accredited body to certify teachers, the mere acquisition of a certificate/diploma is
considered sufficient to apply for a teaching position.
In addition, teacher appointment in schools is subject to interference from local interest
groups seeking to place teachers of their choice within their constituency. This has opened
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Secondary Education
the system to graft and rent seeking leading to high levels of teacher absenteeism
accentuated by the absence of an effective supervision system. The appointment of teachers
especially in primary schools is subject to the political influence or paying huge money.
Training for Government Teachers
The administration of teacher training in Pakistan is a provincial responsibility. However,
the curriculum wing at the federal level is also responsible for teacher education
institutions. Government primary school teachers are trained through Government Colleges
for Elementary Teachers (GCETs), the distance education program of the Allama Iqbal
Open University (AIOU), and teacher training courses run in secondary schools known as
Normal Schools or PTC units. Graduates of these institutions are taught a similar
curriculum, and receive the Primary Teaching Certificate (PTC) or Certificate in Teaching
(CT) at the end of one year. Generally, the number of applicants is far greater than the
number of places available. There is also an acute shortage of teacher training facilities,
particularly for female teachers in certain regions and especially in the province of
Balochistan.
In-service training is the responsibility of the Curriculum Boards and Extension Centers. In
addition, the provinces have assigned in-service responsibilities to one or more GCETs.
There are three different types of in-service education possibilities for the teachers:
a)

In-service training of untrained staff through full-time crash programs


of three months duration provided by the government

b)

Short term refresher courses for those already teaching provided by the
government

c)

Limited private sector initiatives (short as well as medium term)

d)

Varied donor-funded projects directed towards in-service training of


government teachers

Each province has an Education Extension Center and/or Directorate of Staff Development
responsible for in-service education. The intention is to provide one in-service training
program to each teacher at least once every five years. A recent study of in-service refresher
courses in the province of Punjab found that these INSET (In-Service Education and
Training) courses reach an insignificant proportion of teachers. There are scores of teachers
who are at the end of their career and have not had any in-service training.
Private School Teachers
The quality of education imparted by the majority of private schools is questionable owing
to an acute dearth of properly trained and qualified teachers, and any kind of support
mechanism for these teachers. Except for large school systems like Beacon house, City,
Lahore Grammar, and others, which constitute a small percentage of the existing private
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Secondary Education
schools the majority of others have appointed teachers who are qualified up to intermediate
(12 years of schooling) or BA level (14 years of education), and are paid much lower
salaries compared to their counterparts in the government sector in addition to no job
security. The large schools and school systems have instituted their own teacher training
programs or access specialized private institutions. There is less inclination in these schools
to hiring teachers who have previously been trained by government institutions and hold
degrees in B. Ed or M. Ed; their preference is for those fluent in English language. Thus,
very few teachers hired by the private schools have had any pre-service training. There is a
felt need to enhance the professional skills of those who are currently working through
various inset programs.

5.3

RELATED ISSUES (SOCIAL AND VOCATIONAL)

A)

Social Issues

Policy makers in Pakistan have been preoccupied in seeking ways of making the content of
education more meaningful and the methods of delivery more cost-effective within the
context of nation building and economic development. The attention has been on the role
of education in preparing children to participate actively and productively in national
building. The literature is full of such attempts at making education more relevant.
The lack of social demand for education is related to the fact that families and communities
do not value or are ambivalent about formal education. The parental disillusionment with
the present education systems and expressed support for more relevant curricula is more
closely related to the daily lives of students and providing practical skills for students. The
problem is even more acute with girls where gender bias in subject choices together with
cultural factors limits girls chances of progress.
B)

Technical and Vocational Issues

While successive governments have realized the important role of trained, skilled and
proud blue collar employees with profitable jobs, little has gone into real investment in this
area. Policies and plans have been developed generally in divorce from the overall
educational policy planning. Even presently, the National Technical and Vocational
Education Commission is housed outside the Ministry of Education. This disconnects and
divorce is detrimental to the incorporation of technical and vocational educations
awareness in early and secondary education. The efforts do not get mainstreamed into
general educational planning and energies and resources are wasted in dissipation.
Introduction of technical and agro-technical education has been a trend since 1947 under
different governments. TEVT can play a pivotal role in the economic development of a
country if it:
a)

Responds to industrial and technological changes around the globe


Master Coaching Academy (MCA)

54

b)

Secondary Education
Provides job-market oriented training

c)

Is capable of providing on the job education and training at the


workplace

d)

Is flexible to accommodate all capable with minimum requirements

e)

Provides financial assistance during training

f)

Promotes a culture of micro financing for self employment

g)

Provides equal opportunities for higher education to the TEVT


candidates

Research and experience have shown that students from lower income families and
students who are academically average or good usually opt for technical subjects. Subject
combinations with technical components are more popular than combinations with
humanities components, and students usually report that studying technical subjects does
not handicap them when moving on to higher studies after the Secondary level, or after
matriculation. In addition, a significant number of parents claim that their children apply at
home the technical skills they learn at school.
Despite these advantages, the allocation of time for technical subjects in schools has gone
down over the last thirty years and the state of technical and agro technical education has
remained grim. Almost all the funds disbursed so far have been used for brick and mortar,
rather than improving existing facilities and investing in equipment and human resources.
As a result, a large number of provincial schools do not have adequate equipment or tools,
and there are cases of unqualified teachers teaching technical subjects.
Many students opt for vocational training to learn a specific skill to lend a helping hand to
their families. This training need not be the province of any one party; it could be provided
by the public and the private sector in a number of locations (on the job, at school, in a
training centre, or at a community centre). Under school-based training, there are options
for comprehensive or vocational secondary, vocational schools or streams, and technical
schools or streams. In an employment-based training, it is possible to set up dual
apprenticeships or traditional apprenticeships.

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Secondary Education

UNIT-6:
INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO IMPROVE SECONDARY
EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
6.1

INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO IMPROVE SECONDARY


EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

1.

Policy Statement

With limited resources we cannot solve the innumerable educational problems of


quantitative expansion and qualitative improvement through conventional methods which
have already failed us during the past many decades. We will, of necessity, have to
improvise structures, initiates new approaches, design new strategies and intensify
innovative efforts to accomplish the educational tasks. A number of innovative projects
will, therefore, be launched to achieve educational objectives of crucial importance.
2.

Underlying principle

Innovation in our context means creating structures, approaches and systems which our
meager / little financial resources can sustain in delivering educational services relevant to
our needs and conditions. It may involve carving out entirely new designs which usually is
an expensive undertaking or identification of hidden resources of men and materials and
drawing rich experiences and wisdom of the masses accumulated over several centuries for
their proper utilization in educational growth.
Despite the establishment of formal education system, certain traditional arrangements
made by the communities themselves for the education of children and youth still persist.
Besides, a number of innovative projects are going on in isolated setting. There is a terrible
need to support such ventures and disseminate information on them and promote exchange
of experience amongst such projects within the country. Innovations in our case, is
therefore, essentially a matter of identifying the indigenous educational arrangements and
developing them into a framework for the evolution of an education system true to our own
genius and aspirations.
3.

Programs

i)

All unused and under utilized resources available in our communities, having
potentials for education will be identified harnessed and developed.

ii)

The arrangements which are simple, low cost, represents joints community effort
and spring from the genius of the people will be particularly selected as models to
re define the traits of an indigenous education system.

Master Coaching Academy (MCA)

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iii)

Secondary Education
The actual realization of an indigenous education system will be initiated through
the establishment of Mosque schools Mohalla schools, Village workshop
schools etc.

iv)

Indigenous games, sports and other folklore / tradition will be carefully examined
and incorporated into the curricular and extracurricular activities of the
educational institutions.

v)

The causal gathering of community groups during noon and evenings will be
used as useful occasions for informal education of the people.

vi)

The customs and traditions of our communities in mobilizing total resources for
occasions like marriages, burials etc. are excellent examples of cooperative social
actions. These potentialities will be channelized fruitfully for educational
purposes.

vii)

The Development Groups for educational Innovations at the Federal and


Provincial levels will be strengthened to establish linkages between various
centers of innovations within the country and with other developing countries of
the Asian region.

The innovative program will be implemented within the allocation made in the Fifth Five
Years Plan.
4.

Problems

Innovations, by their very nature, have equal chances of success and failure. In any case,
they provide a modality for field testing a new idea / notion and determining its
feasibility. The innovative projects must, therefore be regarded as tool for experimenting
with different policy options. A great more support and resource allocation is needed for
educational innovations at secondary level in Pakistan.

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