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1.Which of the following substances represent strong acids?

TABLE OF STRONG ACIDS


Completely Ionized in Water to Give One (or more) Protons per Acid Molecule

HI
H+(aq) + I-(aq)
HBr H+(aq) + Br-(aq)
HClO4H+(aq) + ClO4-(aq)
HCl H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
HClO3
H+(aq) + ClO3-(aq)
H2SO4
H+(aq) + HSO4-(aq) (HSO4- is a weak acid that
contributes additional protons)
HNO3 H+(aq) + NO3-(aq)
TABLE OF STRONG BASES
Completely Ionized in Water to Give One (or more) Hydroxides per Base Molecule
NaOH Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)
KOH K+(aq) + OH-(aq)
LiOH Li+(aq) + OH-(aq)
RbOH Rb+(aq) + OH-(aq)
CsOH
Cs+(aq) + OH-(aq)
Ca(OH)2
Ca2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) (but not very soluble)
Ba(OH)2
Ba2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) (but not very soluble)
Sr(OH)2
Sr2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) (but not very soluble)
2. Conjugate acid of NH3 is ... NH4
3. Polymers are made up by identical structural units named...
Monomers / mere;
4. What representst the activation energy in a chemical reaction? the
minimum energy that must be input to a chemical system with potential reactants to cause
a chemical reaction.
5. MgO + C = Mg +CO H>0 G>0 equilibrium will move towards left.
6. Oxidation Involves Loss of electrons
Reduction Involves Gain of electrons.

7. Electron configurations (TROLLING) look for the element in the periodic table,
according to the given Z and then C&P it from the table below

8. Catalysts A catalyst is a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction, but
is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. An inhibitor does the opposite it slows
down chemical reactions.
9. Establish from the substances below, which one has the most electropositive
characater:Electropositivity increases <- in the periodic table and electronegativity
increases ->
10. Kc is an equilibrium constant in terms of molar concentrations and is
usually defined as:
Kc=[C]c[D]d/[A]a[B]b
in the general reaction,
aA+bBcC+dD
If a large Kc is formed then there are more products formed. Inversely, a
small Kc indicates that the reaction favors the reactants.
Kp is an equilibrium constant in terms of partial pressures. and is usually
defined as:
Kp=(C)c(D)d/(A)a(B)b
for the general reaction
aA+bBcC+dD
11. The metals with the best conductibility at room temperature are: copper, precious
metals, iron, aluminium (61%) etc.

12. Substanele ionice (NaCl, NaOH, KI, etc.) i covalente polare (HCl, NH3, HF) sunt
solubile n solveni polari (de ex. apa). Moleculele de ap se aranjeaz in jurul moleculelor de
substan polar (sau in jurul ionilor) respectnd regulile atraciei electrostatice:
Substanele nepolare (I2, S, P, ulei, grsimi) se dizolv n solveni nepolari precum
tetraclorura de carbon CCl4, eteri, benzen C6H6 , benzin etc.
13. simple as that
14. Gay Lussacs law : V/T = const.
the temperature effect on a sample gas maintained at a constant pressure
Pi/Ti = Pf/Tf
where
Pi = initial pressure
Ti = initial absolute temperature
Pf = final pressure
Tf = final absolute temperature
15.Intrinsic semiconductors: Those semi conductors in which impurities are missing
are known as intrinsic semiconductors. The electrical conductivity of the
semiconductor depends upon the total no of electrons shifted to the conduction band
from the valence band. This phenomenon is called as intrinsic conductivity. Example:
germanium, silicon
16. ----

17. which species is oxidized in the reaction? TiCl4 + O2 = TiO2 + 2Cl2; TiCl4 is
oxidized (este ars)
18. 0,01 = 10^(-2); pH= -Log(10^(-2))= 2 => pH acid;
19. Which types of reactions are displayed in the ionosphere?
Ionisation reactions
O2 + h (- this is how light is represented in chemistry) 2O
M + O + O2 O3 + M* (exothermal process)
O3+ h O2 + O
O + O3 2O2
( M- stable molecule; M* -activated molecule)
20.In case of nikel coating, at cathode, the reactions can display:
Ni -> Ni2- + 2e; 2H2O->O2+2H-; no idea;
21. Polymers general properties: Polymers can be very resistant to chemicals; Polymers
can be both thermal and electrical insulators; Generally, polymers are very light in weight
with significant degrees of strength. Polymers can be processed in various ways.
Polymers are materials with a seemingly limitless range of characteristics and
colors. Polymers are usually made of petroleum, but not always. Polymers can be used to
make items that have no alternatives from other materials.
22-23 Establish the highest/lowest melting points... Periodic table

24. In what fields are mixtures of Ag with Cu, Zn and Ni used?


Engineering, robotics, circuits etc.
25. What is the half time for the decomposition of CaCO3, if the rate law is v=kc?
t = ln2/k

26. For the kinetic law v=k[A][B], k is expressed in...


27. The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted
for thermodynamic systems. The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of
an isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but cannot
be created or destroyed.
It can be enunciated as the law of energy conservation in thermodynamic processes which are
accompanied by heat transfer, due to evolution, absorbtion and transfer of
thermal energy. The first law is based on the following postulate: energy
of an isolated system is constant.In the case of cyclic processes, in which the initial state is one
and
the same with the final state, mathematical formulation of the first law is:
Q+W=0
28. What characterizes the amorphous (are shapeless substances; solid in which there
is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms; formed by particles with very
high dimensions) substances?
Amorphous materials are ubiquitous in natural and engineered
systems. Granular fault gouge in earthquakes faults, thin film lubricants, and
bulk metallic glasses are seemingly disparate systems which are similar in that
they possess an amorphous structure. Colloids, emulsions, window glass, dense
polymers, and even biological tissues are other examples.
29. We have the equilibrium reaction: Na2O2+ C = 2Na + CO2; in what direction does
the equilibrium move?
--30. Indicate the conditions when the relation pV= const. Is valid.
Inside any closed, isolated system, with no temperature or number of substance
molecules; pressure is equal to V-1;
31. Knowing that enthalpy for standard formation of CO2 is H0=-393.129kJ/mol; and
for H20 H1=-285.5776kJ/mol, which is the enthalpy for the standard formation of
acetylene ( C2H2 + 2,5 O2 -> 2CO2 +H2O) DH=-2598.8kJ/mol

Example:
Variation of internal energy at transformation of 1 mole CaCO3 from calcite form into
aragonite form is 0.21 kJ. Calculate the difference between the enthalpy variation and
internal energy variation at pressure of 1 bar, if solids densities are 2.71 and 2.93gcm-3.
There are known: MCa = 40; MC = 12; MO = 16.
Method: The calculus relation between enthalpy and internal energy
(5.44) is used. Their molar volumes are calculated from molar masses and
densities: Vm = M.
Solution: enthalpy variation is:
H = H(aragonite)-H(calcite) = (U(a)+pV(a))-(U(c)+pV(c)) = U +
p(V(a)-V(c)) = U + pV. Therefore, H = U + pM H U = pM = -0.3 J; U =
210 J H = 209.7 J.

32. What is the acceptance of electrons?


An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another
compound. It is an oxidizing agent that, by virtue of its accepting electrons, is itself reduced in the
process.
33. What is the oxidation number of Cl in the combination KClO3?

34. The earths area made of sulfides and oxides of heavy metals is... calcosphere
(1200-2900 km);
Zones of the Earth:
Siderosphere or magmasphere (2900-6370km) melt of iron and nickel
Calcosphere (1200-2900km) slufides and oxides of heavy metals
Lithosphere (0-1200km) 2 layers: inferior layer (120-1200km)- silicates rich in
magnesium and an exterior layer (0-120km) oxigenated compounds, silicates,
aluminum silicates etc.
35. Identify the reducing agent in the following reaction...

Oxidation Involves Loss of electrons


Reduction Involves Gain of electrons.
36. --37. Which of the chemical compounds presented below are intermetallic compounds?
Materials composed of two or more types of metal atoms, which exist as
homogeneous, composite substances and differ discontinuously in structure from
that of the constituent metals; lower thermal conductibility and mechanic resistance
and higher melting point in comparison to the initial metals;
Ex. Al2/3O7/5 etc.

38. Establish for the species below, which is the most polar molecule
39. Measurements of electromotive force are made by using direct or indirect
methods. These use:
40. Which is the half time corresponding to CaCO3 decomposition, if the rate law is
v=kc?
Half time is obtained from equation, t = ln2/k putting cA = cA0/2:
t = ln2/k
41. Indicate the conditions in which the relation DSt= Ds298 is valid:
42. Which type of reactions take place in the ionosphere? (done previously)
43. Establish the electronic structure of the element B with Z=56
44. Alpha radiations are: nuclides of helium, positively charged, moving with very high
speeds, which pass the thin walls of a metallic pot, accumulating inside;
45. Equation Ps=[H+][OH-] represents:
46. The oxidation state of selenium in NaSeO3 is (table) or Ose =-( 3*(-2) + 1) = +5
47. Which one of the following statements related to the number Z is true:
Number of electrons;
48. The zone of Earth formed by oxygenated compounds, silicates, aluminosilicates
is
49. The second principle of thermodynamics can be formulated:
The second principle a process of which the unique result is the
absorption of heat from a tank and its complete transformation in
mechanical work isnt possible.
50. Write the K constant for HF
51. Alkaline solutions have the pH in the range: (7,14]
52. Which is the half line of HI decomposition, if the rate law is v=kc^2?
53. What type of reaction, from the kinetic point of view is:
Cu2+ + S2O32- = CuS2O3 -> Cu+ + S4O6254. Which is the reaction order for photochemical formation of HI, if the rate law is
v=k?
55. Superconductor metals at high temperature are:
Many elements are superconductors: Nb (9.2 K), Tc (8.2 K), Pb
(7.21 K), La (6.1 K), V (5.2 K), Ta (4.4 K), Hg (4.15 K), Sn (3.72 K), In
(3.40 K).
56. A zone of an intrinsic semiconductor, from the following figure, represents: A&C

57. In which domain are ferrites and ferromagnetic materials being used?
58. Which is the definition equation of Charles law, in conditions of constant
composition?
p/T = const.
the temperature effect on a sample gas maintained at a constant volume
59. The chemical potential at cons. S and V is:
60. For the reaction:
3 Sn4+ + 2Cr 3 Sn2+ + 2Cr3+
Which half-reaction represents the reduction?
61. The oxidation number of chromium in K2Cr2O7 is: Ocr= -(7*(-2) + 2*1)/2=+6
62. The factors that influence the corrosion processes are:
Corrosion is a complex phenomenon which depends on the
composition and structure of metallic material, nature and composition of
corrosive environment as well as the conditions for reactions realization.
The value of corrosion rate is dependent on anodic and cathodic
reactions and is controlled by the process which is realized with the
smallest rate. The value of potential difference from which the
electrochemical corrosion is produced can be generated and influenced by
a variety of reasons which produce the heterogeneity of metallic material
or of the electrolyte.
Humidity, exposure, if the metal is treated or not against corrosion; etc.
63. Calculate the mass of HBr included in a liter of solution with pH=1. Knowing that
Mh=1; Mbr=80;
pH=1; => C=0,1M; 1l0,1mHBr=> mass of HBr= 0,1 * 81=8,1g HBr
64. Which statement is true in case of electrolytic nikel coating?

65. In which case dG=dH-TdS has positive value?

In usual way, A is called Helmholtz free energy and G is called free enthalpy or Gibbs
potential, both being state functions. [5]
At constant temperature:
dAT = dUT - TdST
(15.23)
dGT = dHT - TdST
(15.24)
66. A closed system which doesnt exchange mechanical work and heat with the
environment will evaluate spontaneously in the sense of: isolated system?? Dont
really get whats asking for
67. Write the electronic structure of . Element with Z= (table);
68. Acid solutions have the pH in the range [1-7) ;
69. What are complex reactions?
complex reactions or reactions networks include more elementary reactions.
70. Which is the state equation of perfect gases, for a constant composition?
p = (n/V)* RT = cmRT (4.1)
where: R is a common constant for all gases, called the universal constant
of perfect gases, T is the absolute temperature, n is the amount of gas
(moles), V is the volume and p is the absolute pressure of the gas.
71. It is given the redox reaction Mg + CuSO4 MgSO4 + Cu; which of the following
species play the role of the oxidant? A: CuSO4 is the oxidant;
72. In which of the following substances, nitrogen has the oxidation state of +4? Just
do the math;
73. A redox reaction demonstrates the conservation of energy;
74. Allotropy is a phenomenon characteristic to simple substances where an element
can exist in different crystalline forms (allotrope form) or in different molecular forms
(structures) (position allotropy). Allotropy is determined by the type of chemical
bonds and molecular crystalline structures which can be formed by atoms of an
element. (Sn, S, O, P etc. )
75. Establish from the presented species which is the most polar molecule
76. Which are, in order, the right coefficients of the redox reaction exercise
77. Equation, Kb= [B+][OH-]/[BOH] represents: Equilibrium constant K for an isotopic
exchange reaction; B+ + OH- BOH
78. The earth zone formed by melt of Fe and Ni is: done previously