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Energy Harvesting Estimates

TEG produces an electric power from heat flows across a temperature gradient. As the heat flows
from hot to clod side free charge carriers in the material are also driven to the cold end. The resulting
voltage is proportional to the temperature difference (T) via the Seebeck co-efficient (V = T). A
good thermoelectric material has a Seebeck co-efficient between 100V/K to 300V/K. Thus in order to
achieve a few volts at the load many thermo electric couples need to be connected in series to make the
thermo electric device. Series connection of TEGs increases the output resistance of the generator.
Photovoltaic cells, TEGs (thermoelectric generators) and fuel cells are high impedance alternative
power sources.
Output resistance of the TEG (Thermo Electric Generator) is very high (more than 10K).
The key feature that you need to look for in the power converter that you will be using the charge
the super cap is soft start as this will manage the inrush current.
Calculating the watt hour of a capacitor
To begin, what is measured in Farads is capacitance C. What is measured in Ah is the charge that
can be stored in a battery or a capacitor.
From the definition of capacitance, the charge on the walls of a capacitor with capacitance C and
potential difference V is

Q = CV
So you obtain the value you're interested in. However, if C is in Farad and V is in volts, q will be
measured in Coulombs.
Ampere = Coulomb / Second
So
1 Ampere hour = 1X (Coulomb/Second) X hour = 3600 Coulombs
Ampere hour to watt hour conversion
1 watt hour = 1 Ampere hour X Voltage

Requirements
1) What should be the output voltage of the harvester?
18V to 3.3V
2) What is the peak current requirement? (Under Pulsed Load)
50mA
3) What is the average current requirement?
1uA
4) Where the module will be used? (Available energy sources)
Automobiles, Human wearables.
5) Optimal size.
6.25 Cm2
6) Is there any Weight Constraint?
7) What is the cost constraint?
Duty Cycle of operation is given as 2%.
Consider period as one day. Then the system is in active mode for 28.8 minutes, in sleep mode for
1411.2 minutes.
System operates in 5 operating modes.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Deep sleep mode


Hibernate mode
Dormant mode
Idle mode
Active mode

(5uA)
(2uA)
(900nA)
(1mA)
(16mA)

It is given that while sending the data module consumes a current of 50mA and in idle mode
consumes 1mA @3.3V.

Super Capacitor Selection.


Current = 50mA
Voltage = 3.3V

1
CV2
2

Energy Stored in a capacitor

(Ampere x hour) x Voltage

= (Watt x hour) = Joules X 60

(50mA x 28.8/ 60) x 3.3V

---- Joules or Watt Seconds

1
( C V 2 ) x 60
2

1
2
C x 3.3 x 60
2

C = 0.8727 Farads.
Alternatively
An approximate time can be calculated from the following expression:

T=

[ C x ( V o V minV Drop ) ]
I

Seconds

C : Double layer capacitor capacitance (Farad)


Vo : Voltage charged in double layer capacitor (VDC)
VDrop : Voltage drop by DC resistance with double layer capacitor (VDC)
Vmin : Minimum required voltage for backup circuit (VDC)
I : Backup current (Amp)
The voltage drop is determined by the DC resistance of the capacitor and backup current V Drop
(VDC) = DCR * I DCR = & I = A
Example #1: 1.0F 3.3VDC, DCR = 40m, DMF4B5R5G105M3DTA0

Circuit Back-up Current; I = 50mA


VDrop = DCR * I = 40m * 50mA = 0.002
Vo= 3.3V
Vmin = 1.8V
Back-up Time (T) = 30 seconds (0.5 minutes)
In our case:
Back up time required (T) is 28.8 seconds.

Surveyed super capacitor


http://www.mouser.com/ds/2/315/ABC0000CE8-462878.pdf
EECHW0D226

22F/2.3V

EECHW0D306

30F/2.3V

EECHW0D506

50F/2.3V

EECHW0D706

70F/2.3V

http://www.mouser.com/catalog/specsheets/Maxwell_Technologies_k2_2_85v_ds_3000619en_1.pdf
http://www.yuden.co.jp/productdata/catalog/en/capacitor02_e.pdf

Surveyed regulators/Harvester
TPS61291 DRVT/TPS DRVR

(2.25 $ USD)

LTC 3330/LTC3331

(5.78 $ USD)

LTC3107

(6.28 to 7.41 $ USD)

LTC3105

(5.78 $ USD)

LTC3107

Block Diagram

LTC3330

Features:
Dual Input, Single Output DC/DCs with Input Prioritizer
Energy Harvesting Input: 3.0V to 19V Buck DC/DC
Primary Cell Input: 1.8V to 5.5V Buck-Boost DC/DC
Zero Battery IQ When Energy Harvesting Source is Available
Ultralow Quiescent Current: 750nA at No-Load
Low Noise LDO Post Regulator
Integrated Super capacitor Balancer
Up to 50mA of Output Current
Programmable DC/DC and LDO Output Voltages,
Buck UVLO, and Buck-Boost Peak Input Current
Integrated Low Loss Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier
Typical Application

Block Diagram

LTC 3105

Features:
High efficiency step-up DC/DC converter
Low Start-Up Voltage: 250mV
Maximum Power Point Control
Wide VIN Range: 225mV to 5V
Auxiliary 6mA LDO Regulator
Burst Mode Operation: I= 24A
Typical Application Diagram.

Block Diagram

LTC3108
Operates from Inputs of 20mV
Selectable output voltage of 2.35V, 3.3V, 4.1V or 5V
LDO: 2.2V at 3mA

SPV1050
Transformer less thermoelectric generators and PV modules energy harvester
High efficiency for any harvesting source
Up to 70 mA maximum battery charging current
Fully integrated buck-boost DC-DC converter
Programmable MPPT by external resistors
2.6 V to 5.3 V trimmable battery charge voltage level ( 1% accuracy)
2.2 V to 3.6 V trimmable battery.

BQ25504
Ultra Low-Power With High-Efficiency DC-DC Boost Converter/Charger
Continuous Energy Harvesting From Low-Input Sources: VIN 80 mV (Typical)
Ultra-Low Quiescent Current: I Q < 330 nA (Typical)
Cold-Start Voltage: VIN 330 mV (Typical)
Programmable Dynamic Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
Integrated Dynamic Maximum Power Point Tracking for Optimal Energy Extraction from Variety
of Energy Generation Sources
Input Voltage Regulation Prevents Collapsing input source.

Functional Block Diagram.

Typical application.

Coil craft : LPR6235-752SML (1:100 Ratio) LPR6235-253PML (1:20 Ratio) LPR6235-123QML (1:50
Ratio)
Wrth www.we-online 74488540070 (1:100 Ratio) 74488540120 (1:50 Ratio) 74488540250 (1:20 Ratio)