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LIPIDS

Commonly referred to as FATS


Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents
Transported by lipoprotein in the body
Lipids are not soluble in water and only soluble in organic solvents
because lipids do not have any polar group. Lipids contain several
hydrocarbon atoms that makes them hydrophobic. Only organic
solvents like chloroform, benzene hexane methanol ethanol can
dissolve lipids. In the plasma the major lipids found are cholesterol,
triglycerides, and phospholipids n non-esterified fatty acids since
they are insoluble in water. You wouldnt find large amount of lipids
circulating in the plasma need to be carried by lipoproteins from one
organ to another. When they are found in the plasma, Lipoprotein
acts as transporters or carriers of diff lipids in plasm.

Significant of lipids in the body:

Rich source of energy


o Composed mostly of C-H bonds
In form of TAGS , released large amounts of energy compared to
carbohydrates , they are able to storage energy efficiently and more
compact form compared to carbohydrates, why? because They are not
easily dissolved by water. When are cleave and broken down large amount
of energy generated from them. Unlike carbo
Structural role in cells
o Part of cell membrane
Maintaining structural integrity to the cells by the form of phospholipids,
Thermal insulators
o In subcutaneous
Refer to Triglycerides ,Prevent loss of heat when individual exposed
to very low temperatures
Precursor of other physiologically functional substance

Cholesterol serve as precursor for steroid hormones. Also Acts as activators of


several cellular rxnreferring steroid hormones attached to receptors that re found
in cytoplasm of their target cells.

As hormones
o Prostaglandins are derived from unsaturated fatty acids
Fatty acids are uniquely identifiable because made of single bonds, usually
even #, made up of several hydrocarbon atoms end with single carboxy.l
FA are defined Monocarboxylic acid with even # carbon atoms. Even # ?
because every time they are synthesize in cytoplasm from acetyl COA. 2
carbon mol are incorporated or attached from previous FA mol coming from
acetyl COA. Formation of FA comes from Citrate which the precursor is
Acetyl COA. So, citrate has to cleave the mitochondria finding its way to the

cytoplasm and it is in the cytoplasm where 2 mol of carbon atoms are


attached to form FA.
Linear Chain of C-H bonds
Terminal with carboxyl group(-COOH)

*agentiakfo.wordpress.com (picture, structure)


Depending on where they are located
Esterified fatty acids

Majority of plasma fatty acids are constituents of triglycerides or phospholipids


Covalently attached to backbone of TGL and PPlby an ester bond
That are attached to the other lipid mol like triglycerides and phospholipids.IF FA are
found in lipid mol these are esterified Why esterified ? kayang manner of
attachment is thru the ester linkage .

NEFA (Non-esterified fatty acids)

Considered as the simplest lipids


Only a small amount exist in the body
Common FA as monocarboxylic wityh 3 membered carbon atoms
Known as free FABCOZ not attached to any lipid mol.

CLASSIFICATIONS:

According to length:
o Short chain 4 to 6 carbon atoms
Synthesis occur cytoplasm
o Medium chain 8 to 12 carbon atoms
o Long chain - >12 carbon atoms
Synthesis Occur in smooth ER ,so continuation of adding 2 carbon mol to
short chain length FA in order to them to lengthenoccur Smooth ER . So
the short length FA from the cytoplasm enter in smooth ER and
incorporation of 2 carbon mol from acetyl COA continues in the smooth ER.
Most naturally occurring FA have a chain of 11 carbon atoms and usually
range from 4 to 28 carbon atoms per FA. In the diet usually long chain
length.

According to carbon double bond content


o Saturated no carbo double bonds
Saturated fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen

FA carbon carbon single bond


Unsaturated
Monounsaturated 1 carbon double bond

Polyunsaturated >/= 2 carbon double bonds

FA carbon carbon double bond . Are easier to metabolize compared to


saturated FA. Bcoz when the unsaturated FA folds the double bonds
of the structure it creates a kink or space . The space are areas
where the double bonds are cleaved. That why they are not as
compact compared to saturated fats . They are liquid at room temp.
Unlike saturated FA made of single bonds when they fold are they
more compact. No spaces in the structure .Harder or the single bonds
to be destroyed . Solid at RT. Reason why when you are conscious
about ur diet u rather eat containing unsaturated FA compared to
saturated FA. But then you have to identifydapat unsaturated FA if
its trans or cis . Trans fat, its a unsaturated FA contains double
bonds when folds it folds compact similar to saturated fats . Also ,
solid at RT. Even if it has double bonds they are hard to metabolize
compared to cis unsatfats . The hydrogen atoms attached to the
carboncarbon double bonds of the opposite sides. Since the
hydrogen are attached to the opposite sides when it folds even it
contains double bonds if the folding in the area is not much that
compared to cis unsat fat.
Youll immediately know that its unsat fat becoz there is a kink or
space in the structure so if the structure is linear usualy its a single
single carbon bond its a saturated fat but if there is a kink or may
nakiwisa structure the area that is where nagkiwisastructure usually
the double bond is located at the one you see sa picture sa slide. In
this case, cis unsatfat , hydrogen atoms attached to the double bond
when it folds mas dakoang space niyabcoz the hydrogen bonds are
on the same side. Unlike kung trans, opposite side kung ma fold siya
mas gamayang space. The trans fat are like saturated fatty acids. Food
that are sold that contains trans fat it increases that shelflife of the
food and also the flavor.that why the more mananamang foodthe higher
the trans fat it contains food. If u want to be healthy then the
amount of trans fat that should be taken is 2grams of trans fat per
day . Its the only maximum amount I can metabolize . So if u eat
excess that remaining is u need to exercise.
Sat FA are linear in structure as u can see for steric acid the more
kink in the struc like oleic , linoleic and linolenic the more bent .
Plasma Membrane may head and tail angisatadlongangisagakiwi
meaning ang is aka fatty acid dirasi saturated FA angisa
unsaturated FA.

Unsaturated fatty acids

Cis fatty acids


o Both H atoms on the same side of the C=C double bond
o More fluid compared to trans fatty acids

Triglycerides
3 fatty acids attached to glycerol by ester bond
FA that are attached to glycerol are considered to be esterified FA bcoz they are
FA but they are attached thru ester linkage to glycerol. Perokung ificleavesila
sang lipase sa ester linkage kangmaseparatediri then becomes non esterified FA
or free FA. So there are 3 esterified FA attached to triacylglycerol. If the FA are
saturated then the TAGS are solid at room temp. they are compact but if the FA
that are found in unsaturated FA then the TAGS are liquid at RT. They form oils.
And sometimes there is a mixture of both unsat and sat FA. The formation of
TAGS occur in the liver . When 1 mol of glycerol and when there are 3FA avail

attached to carbon atoms of glycerol. You have Notice releases of H2 .to form
1mol of glycerol attached to FA.

Hydroxyl carboxyl COOH ester... hydrogen OH makakas . Its a


DEHYDATRATIO Rxn.
The triglycerides is formed and the liver is called Endogenous fats bcoz form
within the body.TAGSthat are taken in by the body from food are Exogenous. So
the trig in the slide is what type a fat a oil or mixed fat ?its a mixed triglyceride
bcoz u have 2mol of sat fat and 1mol unsat fat .If u check the structure of
triglyceride none of the structure or any part are not capable of interacting with
water puro hydrocarbons. So TAGS is purely hydrophobic. And when TAGS are
delivered to the adipocytes . They are the storage of lipids. So ,carriers of
triglycerides in the plasma will be dependent on the type of TAGS that are
circulating if that TAGS comes from the foods that we eat then the carrier for
exogenous fats are chylomicrons . But triglycerides that arte from in the liver are
endogenous fats are carried by VLDL( Very Low Density Lipoprotein).

Hydrophobic
Main form of lipid storage in man
o 95% of adipose tissue
Transported mostly by chylomicrons (exogenous) and VLDL (endogenous)

TGL with saturated fatty acids


o Solid at RT
o Animal sources
TGL with unsaturated fatty acids
o Oil at RT
o Plant sources
Corn, sunflower seeds, safflower seeds oils

LDL cholesterol, the bad cholesterol oxidizes in the artery wall. It appears that people
who consumed 23ml about 2 tablespoons of virgin olive oil daily showed less oxidation of
LDL cholesterol

Phospholipids

Two fatty acids attached to glycerol


o One is saturated and one is unsaturated
3rd position of glycerol contains a phospholipid head group

Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules


Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes
as they can form lipid bilayers

Cholesterol

Unsaturated steroid alcohol containing


o Four rings:
A
Contains a hydroxyl (-OH) group
Only hydrophilic part of cholesterol
B
C
D
o C-H side chain tail

Cholesterol could either be:


o Unesterified
30-40%
Amphipathic
o Esterified
60-70%
COOH group conjugated by an ester bond to a fatty acid
Hydrophobic

Transported in the body by:


o LDL (60-70%)
o HDL(20-35%)
o VLDL (5-12%)
Almost exclusively synthesized by animals
Not a source of fuel
o Not readily metabolized by cells
Functions:
o Can be converted in the liver to bile acids
Fat absorption in the intestines
o Precursors substance of steroid hormones
Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and estrogen
o Can be transformed to vit D3 after irradiation of skin to sunlight