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1. Discuss 5 principles of quality assessment.

You may criticize your points to give

weigh to your explanation.
Assessment is an integral part of the learning process. It is most adequate,
comprehensive, and authentic when it occurs close to the learning environment. A quality
assessment provides results that demonstrate and improve targeted student learning.
Here are the five principles of quality assessment.
1. Clarity and Appropriateness of learning targets
Assessment can be made precise, accurate and dependable only if what are to be
achieved are clearly stated and feasible. The learning targets, involving knowledge,
reasoning, skills, products and effects, need to be stated in behavioral terms which denote
something which can be observed through the behavior of the students.
It should be clearly stated and specified and centered on what is truly important. It
should be based on clearly articulated criteria and standards of achievement which arise
from syllabuses, inform programs of teaching and learning, and shape assessment
To be adequate, comprehensive and authentic, assessment should consist of tasks
which are representative of the knowledge, skills and strategies needed for the activity or
domain being tested. Adequate assessment will provide evidence that student
performances are consistently judged in accordance with prescribed outcomes.
Comprehensive assessment encompasses the range of knowledge, skills and strategies
across the domain being tested, and this should be reflected in a range and balance of
assessment methods, instruments and conditions. Authentic assessment involves students
in using relevant and useful knowledge, thinking and practical skills. Teaching emphasis
should parallel testing emphasis.
2. Appropriateness of assessment methods
Teachers follow a number of procedures in order to ensure that an entire
assessment is valid or reliable. The purpose of an assessment is to identify areas of
difficulty for individual students, to gather data for instructional planning, to assign
grades, or to evaluate a program--should dictate the kinds of questions asked, the

methods employed, and the uses of the resulting information. When one type of measure
is used in lieu of another, the information obtained is often invalid or useless. In addition,
the methods used to gather information should be appropriate to the developmental level
and maturity of the students.
2. Fairness
An assessment system must be fair to all students. Fairness involves providing
information to students that allows them to be aware of the consequences of assessment.
It should also include ongoing analysis to identify and avoid systematic bias against
groups of students. System-related barriers to student achievement can be removed by
making alternative arrangements based on special consideration of individual
3. Balance
Assessment methods should be able to assess all domains of learning and
hierarchy of objectives. The decision-making processes of an assessment system should
be transparent to students, teachers and the broader school community. Assessment
procedures should involve consultation with stakeholders and opportunities for
disputation, negotiation and resolution of differences.
4. Validity
Educational assessment should always have a clear purpose. Nothing will be
gained from assessment unless the assessment has some validity for the purpose. For that
reason, validity is the most important single attribute of a good test.
The validity of an assessment tool is the extent to which it measures what it was
designed to measure, without contamination from other characteristics. For example, a
test of reading comprehension should not require mathematical ability.
5. Reliability
Assessment should show consistent and stable results. There are methods which
can be used to measure and establish reliability. It means consistency, dependability,
stability which can be estimated by.

2. Mention two types of assessment. Differentiate one from the other. Which do you
prefer? Why? Give examples.
The assessment of learning and teaching can be viewed as two complementary
and overlapping activities that aim to benefit both the quality of student learning and the
professional development of the instructor.
There are two major types of assessment, formative and summative, that can be
similar in structure but have different goals.
Point of Comparison


Formative Assessment
help students identify their

Summative Assessment

strengths and weaknesses

The goal of summative

and target areas that need

assessment is to evaluate student

help faculty recognize where

learning at the end of an

instructional unit by comparing it

students are struggling and

against some standard or

address problems


Formative assessments are
generally low stakes, which
means that they have low or
no point value. Examples of
formative assessments
include asking students to:
draw a concept map in class

Summative assessments are

often high stakes, which means
that they have a high point value.
Examples of summative

to represent their
understanding of a topic
submit two sentences
identifying the main point

of a lecture
turn in a research proposal
for early feedback

assessments include:
a midterm exam
a final project
a paper
a senior recital

According to Lang (2008), the formative assessment process came from educators
working on ways to accelerate student achievement and help predict how students will
perform on standards-based statewide tests.
I believe formative assessment can be of great help if the objective is to have a
guided instruction and determine mastery. Through formative assessment teachers can
adjust quickly while learning is in progress. Also, students can use the results to adjust
and improve their won learning.
In very simple terms, formative assessments, unlike summative assessments,
allow the student and educator to form a more detailed understanding of the students
abilities, which can be used to inform remediation, re-teaching, and instructional strategy.
With formative assessment, we work with students, we dont do something to
students. We seek to use the data from formative assessments to help the student master
the curriculum and help the student identify his/her strengths and weaknesses.
This is a shift in the classic educational paradigm. Formative assessment allows
students to concentrate their efforts on specific areas and hence improve overall
3. Enumerate at least five qualities of a supervisor. Why do you like those qualities?
From Mahatma Gandhi and Winston Churchill to Martin Luther King and Steve
Jobs, there can seem to be as many ways to lead people as there are leaders. The absence
of leadership is equally dramatic in its effects. Without leadership, organizations move
too slowly, stagnate, and lose their way. Leadership in schools plays a crucial part in
managing the school effectively thus supervisors must possess the essential knowledge,
skills, abilities, values and attitudes in order to accomplish their goals for their respective
Since educational leaders are tasked with establishing a collective vision for
school improvement and initiating change to spur innovation, ensure student learning,
and increase achievement, I believe the following qualities must be possessed by every
Responsibility. Supervisors need to be responsible enough in order to have focus on
important initiatives and culture characteristics that have an impact on student learning
and achievement.
Inspiring. He inspires all that come in contact with him to excellence.

Purity. He is pure in character. He does not engage in shady deals.

Credible/trustworthy. He must be credible and can be trusted. Trust and credibility are the
foundation for their goals and objectives. These are fuel for their vision.
Patience. A great supervisor must be patient in trying new things and have a mindset to
keep trying until improvement is the end result.
Indeed, the supervisors essential attributes matter. These serve as the foundation
and pillar for good management. As regards to knowledge, it plays a great part in the
totality of the supervisor. Often, supervisors who pursue their professional education are
seen more knowledgeable thus gain more respect from their teaching staff and from the
community. It serves as their advantage and also, their difficulty in dealing with issues
that require basic knowledge in law, DepEd orders and memorandum is minimal. I
believe experience contributes on how comprehensive the supervisors knowledge is.
More so, it is important that the supervisor has the necessary skills and abilities
especially in decision making and in managing the schools. Supervisors with leadership
skills can easily foster school improvement. Since the supervisor remains the central
source of leadership influence, they are able to cultivate leadership in others so that
principals and teachers and other adults assume their parts in realizing the school vision.
Aside from the skills, abilities such as ability to listen and deal with people are also
considered to be a special attribute of a good supervisor. It is significant that the
supervisor has interpersonal skill and must possess the ability to listen to his principals,
teachers, and students and to the community. This creates a secure feeling among all. He
must be ready to listen and share so that there is a sense of belonging and a strong bond is
Finally, the importance of having values and attitudes of a good supervisor has the
biggest effect in becoming an effective and efficient administrator. They must remember
that the job of a supervisor is about making a difference in the lives of children. Leading
and inspiring is a challenging work that requires a high level of understanding and

4. What are some trends in education particularly in the Philippine Educational

System? Discuss at least ten.
Philippine Education is a product of long history of struggle. Its metamorphosis
was a gradual process which was a product of generations of colonialism and
Presently, the Philippine educational system is faced by several issues that need to
be addressed in order to improve the delivery of education to the most number of the
population. One of this is the quality and accessibility of education to its takers.
Undeniably, the Philippines government, in spite of its inadequacy of providing some
basic services to its people, is doing its best to provide the rudiments of basic schooling
to its people for free.
Here are the trends in the Philippine Education System
1. K to 12 Program
This is in response to the alignment of the basic education curriculum to
international standards. The present system of 6 4 4, according to the education
experts lacks the required number of years that our students have to spend in school, from
the elementary, secondary up to the tertiary level.
2. School Based Management
SBM can be viewed as a form of Decentralization - a process of transferring the
decision making from central or higher office to the local government or offices of the
In context of education, the functions that are commonly decentralized to the
local levels- usually to the local government or the school itself are policy making,
revenue generation, curriculum design, school administration, and teacher management.
3. Internalization of Tertiary education
When asked about the most important benefits of internationalization, the top
three reasons at the global level listed in order of relevance were: increasing international
awareness of students; strengthening research and knowledge production; and fostering
international cooperation and solidarity.









Aside from giving computers to all secondary schools, the DepEd

Computerization Program is now expanding its scope which includes elementary schools
which passed the minimum requirement set by the department.
5. Abot Alam DepEd-NYC program goes nationwide, aims for zero out-of-school youths
A program headed by the Department of Education and National Youth
Commission hopes to go one step further in "eradicating" out-of-school youths (OSYs)
by 2016, with the launching of its nationwide implementation.
6. Digital Learning Resources
A program of the Department of Education that aims to help the teachers in
transferring learning through the use of technologies. It covers all learning materials
produced through the use of digital applications and processes
7. Bright Minds Read (BMR) Program
A regional initiative funded by Mc Donalds House of Charities focused on
teaching Beginning Reading in consonance with ECARP
8. Seminar Gender and Development (GAD) Seminar on the Prevention of Violence
against Women and Children (VAW-C)
Raise awareness among DepEd-NCR employees enabling them to be more
committed and responsive to eliminate the gender biases
9. Organization and activation of: KATTAP-NCR Chapter (Katipunan ng mga Tagamasid
at Tagapagtaguyod ng Araling Panlipunan)/Preschool Association
This provides technical assistance to teachers to improve instructional
10. Project toward Excellence for Mentors of English (Project TexT for ME)
This enhances language and reading skills of mentors for Grades I-VI.
5. What can you say about k to 12? Are the secondary schools prepared? What do
you recommend?
The K-12 Basic Education Program aims to provide every Filipino child with the
education s/he needs to compete in a global context.

President Benigno Aquino of the Philippines signed into law a basic education
curriculum that will see a mandatory kindergarten year and two additional senior high
school years added to what was a 10-year education curriculum to make basic education
12 years. The programme has been adopted not only in schools in the Philippines, but
also in Filipino schools abroad that follow the departments curriculum.
According to Aquino, the K-12 program will pave the way for an ever brighter
future for young Filipinos by equipping them with basic education up to international
Candidly speaking, I strongly support the idea of producing Filipino graduates
who can compete in the international world. However, this requires a comprehensive
preparation and planning. Based from the comments of the teachers in many schools who
have attended the seminar on K+12, they themselves are questioning one of the features
of K+12 which is the mother tongue based instruction. They are cynical of the relevance
of this instruction in the teaching-learning process. Most of them specially the grade III
teachers are also facing some issues with the curriculum of the primary grade level. Some
of them are vocal on saying that they do not follow the approved learning areas in the
curriculum. Aside from these concerns, here are the other problems the teachers face in
implementing the k+12 program:
a. Lack of references such as mother tongue based activity book
b. Students misperception with the use of language
c. Insufficient trainings for the K+12 implementers
d. Insufficient equipment, chemicals, laboratory apparatuses specifically in Science
This problem is being faced specially by the high school teachers. Grade 7
teachers do need this equipment and learning materials since Science is an experimentoriented subject.
e. Assessment, grading system, components in the computation of grades were not clearly
I believe to ensure that this enhanced curriculum will be successful, proactive
solutions must be done. For instance, in the problem of lack of modules and other
learning materials, the Department of Education must produce them right away so that
even before the implementation of K to 12 in a certain grade level, teachers are already

well-equipped with what they are going to teach. Comprehensive trainings and seminar
workshops must also be given to teachers. DepEd should not let teachers have half-baked
trainings. All things about the implementation of K to 12 must be clearly discussed to
them so there will be no confusions about its implementation. If this is done successfully,
no doubt that there will lesser constraints on its execution.
Also, all these issues, problems and difficulties have solutions. What is needed is
a sufficient support from the local and national government. The Department of
Education must provide adequate and relevant solutions and must provide more
opportunities for the teachers to be more prepared in implementing the program since the
major role is played by the classroom teachers.