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# STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN

Day: 028

## Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 8C2

TAP:
Analyze and interpret data presented in charts,
graphs, tables, and other displays

ISAT:
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs

Unit Focus
Exploring Equations and Functions
Instructional Focus
Identify the image and pre-image points and the axis of symmetry of a set of ordered pairs.
(Determine the relationship of coordinates of points reflected over the y-axis, the x-axis, and the
line
y = x.)
Materials
Graph paper
Pins
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Discuss symmetry and how to determine a line of symmetry (line of reflection). Have students
look at various patterns and determine their line of symmetry. Have students look for other
objects in the classroom with lines of symmetry. Assign two groups to complete each of three
explorations (1, 2, and 3) as follows:
a.

Plot 4 points A, B, C, and D on a coordinate plane and use a pin to poke a hole
through these points.

b.

Fold the paper along the y-axis (Exploration 1) / the x-axis (Exploration 2) / the
line y = x (Exploration 3) and use the pin to poke the image points through the
holes.

c.

102

## Have each group answer the following questions:

a.

How are the coordinates of the points A, B; C; and D; similar to the coordinates of the
original pre-image points A, B, C, and D? Which coordinates have the same sign?
Which coordinates have opposite signs?

b.

Explain what it means for the image points to be symmetrical to the pre-image points
with respect to the y-axis / the x-axis / the line y = x.

c.

Let F(a, b) be any point on the coordinate plane. What are the coordinates of the image
of F with respect to the y-axis / the x-axis / the line y = x?

One student from each group will present the groups findings to the class.
Discuss the findings with the class.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA:
SC:

## Understand explicit, factual information

Understand the meaning of works in context
Analyze and interpret data
Connections

Enrichment: Have students draw a parallelogram in Quadrant I, reflect that parallelogram over
the line y = x, and determine the coordinates of the vertices of the image parallelogram.
Complete a problem write-up to explain observations. (Students should discover that the line of
symmetry of two points A and A, where A is the image of A, is the perpendicular bisector of
AA .)
Fine Arts: Have students find pictures in newspapers and magazines that show symmetry and
describe the symmetry shown.
Home: Have students keep a record of all assignments. A parent on a weekly basis will sign the
homework record. Have students list the symmetry they have observed in nature.
Remediation: Work with students in small groups on their areas of deficiency.
Technology: Have students use a computer drawing program and explore reflecting polygons
over the x-axis, y-axis and through the origin.

103

Assessment
Teacher observation
Homework
Assign appropriate problems from your text.
Teacher Notes

104

Day: 029

## Correlations (SG, CAS, CFS): 8C2

TAP:
Analyze and interpret data presented in charts,
graphs, tables, and other displays

ISAT:
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs

Unit Focus
Exploring Equations and Functions
Instructional Focus
Defining and Determining the Inverse of a Function (Using the Horizontal Line Test to
Determine Whether the Inverse is also a Function)
Materials
Graph paper
Classroom set of graphing calculators
Blue and red pens
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Review previous days homework and answer students questions.
Have each group answer the following questions:
Write the following chart on the chalkboard or overhead projector:
Pre-image
(4, 3)
(3, 2)
(1, -3)
(5, -7)

Image
(-1, 5)
(-3, 2)

y-axis
x-axis
y=x

(5, 7)

105

## Have the students complete the chart.

Have students work in groups of four to complete the following exploration to determine the
inverse of a function. Distribute a different set of numbers to each group, as shown below. The
points should be plotted in red, the reflection points in blue.
Group A: f = {(-3, 3), (-2, 2), (1, 1), (-4, -2)}
Group B: f = {(5, -2), (-4, 1), (-1, 2), (3, 3)}
Group C: f = {(-2, 4), (3, -2), (-1, 1), (3, 2)}
Group D: f = {(4, -2), (-3, 2), (-1, -2), (2, 3)}
Group E: f = {(-3, 1), (4, -2), (-3, -3), (1, 4)}
Group F: f = {(-2, 3), (4, -2), (-2, -1), (3, 1)}
Have each group complete an x, y table for the given function in blue and a corresponding x, y
table for the set of reflection points in red. (Students should discover that the coordinates of the
red points are the reverse of the coordinates of the blue points.)
Define and discuss the inverse of a function f 1.
Write the following instructions on the overhead.
f = {(-2, -4), (-1, 0), (1, 2), (2, 4)}
g = {(3, 4), (2, 1), (4, 0), (1, 4)}
Have the students find the inverse of each function and determine whether the inverse is also a
function.
Given f(x) = 2x + 3, students will:
a. Find f 1.
b. Graph f and f 1 on the same coordinate plane, as well as the line Y1 = x.
c. Use TRACE to find f (-1) and f 1 (b) = a.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA:
SC:

## Understand explicit, factual information

Understand the meaning of words in context
Analyze and interpret data
Connections

Enrichment: Challenge students to identify the equation of an absolute value function from its
graph, which is translated.

106

Fine Arts:
Home: Have students keep a record of all assignments. A parent on a weekly basis will sign the
homework record.
Remediation: Work with students in small groups on their areas of deficiency.
Technology:
Assessment
Evaluate the groups paragraphs using the Structured Curriculum Scoring Rubric.
Homework
Assign appropriate problems from your text.
Teacher Notes
Suggested activity: Class discussion about the horizontal line test on graphing calculators.
Solutions to problems in Educational Strategies:
Pre-image
(4, 3)
(-1, -5)
(3, 2)
(1, -3)
(5, -7)

Image
(-4, 3)
(-1, 5)
(-2, 3)
(3, 1)
(5, 7)

Reflections:
Group A: f = {(3, 3), (2, -2), (1, 1), (-2, -4)}
Group B: f = {(-2, 5), (1, -4), (2, -1), (3, 3)}
Group C: f = {(4, -2), (-2, 3), (1, -1), (2, 3)}
Group D: f = {(-2, 4), (2, -3), (-2, -1), (3, 2)}
Group E: f = {(1, -3), (-1, 4), (-3, -3), (4, 1)}
Group F: f = {(3, -2), (-2, 4), (-1, -2), (1, 3)}

107

y-axis
x-axis
origin
y=x
x-axis

## f = {(-4, -2), (0, 1), (2, 1), (4, 2)} function

g = {(4, 3), (1, 2), (0, 4), (4, 1)} not a function
f (x) = 2x+3
a) f -1y =

x 3
2

b)

c) f (-1) = 1
f 1 (1) = -2

108

Day: 030

## Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 8C1

TAP:
Analyze and interpret data presented in charts,
graphs, tables, and other displays

ISAT:
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs

Unit Focus
Exploring Equations and Functions
Instructional Focus
Defining and Describing the Relationship Between Dependent and Independent Variables
(The Composition of Functions)
Materials
SoakEm Company Project
Graph paper
Classroom set of graphing calculators
Handout 3.3
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Have the students complete the following:
Evaluate each function for x = 2, x = 1, and x = 0
g (x) = x3 3x
x +1
h (x) =
3
Review previous days homework and answer students questions.
Develop the idea of composition of two functions by placing one function into the other. Use the
same f (x) and g (x) for x = 4, 2, 0, 3 to find f (g (x)) and g (f (x)).
Have the students work in groups of four. Assign Exploration 1 on the commutativity of
compositions to one-half of the groups; assign Exploration 2 on inverses of functions (Hand-out

109

3-3 to the other half of the groups. Selected students from each group will present the groups
findings to the whole class.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA:
SC:

## Understand explicit, factual information

Understand the meaning of words in context
Analyze and interpret data
Connections

Enrichment:
Fine Arts:
Home: Have students keep a record of all assignments. (The homework record will be signed
by a parent on a weekly basis.)
Remediation: Work with students in small groups on their areas of deficiency.
Technology:
Assessment
Find the inverse of each function:
1. f(x) = {(2, 2), (1, 4), (2, 18), (3, 2)}
1
1+ x2
3
3. h (x) = ( x + 2)
4

2. g (x) =

Solutions:
1. f 1 ( x ) = {( 2,2),(4,1),(18, 2),( 2, 3)}
1 x
x
4x 6
h 1 ( x ) =
3

2. g 1 ( x ) =
3.

110

Homework
Assign from your text appropriate problems on the composition of functions.
Groups will complete the Soak Em Company project, due the day of the End-of-Unit
Assessment (approximately one week). One write-up is required per group. Allow some time
each day for students to work on this project.
Teacher Notes
Remind students they have one week to complete the Soak Em activity.
Solutions to Educational Strategies problems:
g ( x ) = x 3 3x
g ( 2) = ( 2) 3 3( 2) = 2
g (1) = (1) 3 3(1) = 2
g (0) = (0) 3 3(0) = 0
x +1
h ( x) =
3
2 + 1
1
h ( 2 ) =
=
3
3
1+1 2
h (1) =
=
3
3
0 +1 1
h (0) =
=
3
3
Solutions to Explorations 1:
1. f (g (x)) = -0.5x + 1
g (f (x)) = 0.5 (-x + 1)=-0.5x + 0.5
See student response for comparison
2. g (h(x)) =
0.5 x 1
x 1
=
2
4

h ( g ( x )) =

0.5x 1

2
See student response for comparison

111

3. See student responses for problem #3. Students should come to the conclusion that the
functions are not commutative.
Solutions to Exploration 2:

bg

1. f (x) = 3x+ 1; f 1 x =

x 1
3
h ( x) =

x + 2 1
; h ( x ) = 3x 2
3

2. a.

## b. Axis of symmetry is the line y = x.

c. f (f 1 (x)) = x ; f 1 (f (x)) =x
d. The graphs are the same.
3.

## b. The equation of the line of symmetry is y = x.

c. h (h 1 (x)) = x; h 1 (h (x)) = x
d. The graphs are the same.
4. They are all the same.
5. x

112

## Solutions to Soak Em Project:

1. y = -2x + 4010

or

## y = -2x + 30 if you use only the last digit in the year.

2.
3. The percentage in 1992 is 26%
Part II
4. y = 4x-7972
5. See graph above.
Part III
6. y = 2x + 3 or f (x) = 2x + 3
7. The compostion of y and y

; f (x) = 2x + 3

Part IV
8. a. Park A
b. Park B
c. Park C
9.

y = -4 x+ 8029.5
y = 6.5x 12942
y = -2.5x + 5012.5
10.

113

(x ) =

x 3
.
2

Handout 3.3
Given: f(x) = x + 1; g(x) = 0.5x; h(x) =

x 1
2

Exploration 1:
1) Find the compositions f (g(x)) and g(f(x))
Compare these compositions. How are they alike? How are they different?
2) Find the compositions g (h (x)) and h (g (x))
Compare these compositions. How are they alike? How are they different?
3) Do you think the composition of functions is commutative? Why or why not?

bg

f x = 3x + 1; h( x ) =

x+2
3

Exploration 2:
1) Find the inverse functions for f and h.
2) Graph f and f -1 on the same coordinate plane. What is the equation of the axis of symmetry
of these two graphs?
Find f (f -1(x)) and f -1(f (x).
How do f (f -1(x)) and f -1(f (x)) compare with the equation of their axis of symmetry?
3) Graph h and h -1 on the same coordinate plane. What is the equation of the axis of
symmetry of these two graphs?
Find h (h -1(x)) and h 1 (h (x))
How do h (h -1(x)) and h -1(h (x)) compare with the equation of their axis of symmetry?
4) Graph the line y = x. How does this graph compare with the graphs of the axes of
symmetry you found in Steps 2 and 3?
5)

What do you think is the composition of any function and its inverse?

114

Soak Em Project
Unit 3 Project
The SoakEm Company operates three water parks in the Midwest. Over the last three years, the
company has noticed a number of trends concerning its business. You have been hired as a
consultant to analyze these trends and to devise the best way to increase the companys revenues.
To do this, you will use various types of functions and their graphs.
Part I:
Overall, the percentage of the entertainment dollar spent on participant sports in the Midwest is
on steady decline. Table 1 summarizes this trend.
Year
1994
1995
1996
1997

Table 1
% of entertainment dollar
spent on participant sports
22
20
18
16

## 1. Express these percentages as a function of time. ______________________________

2. Use the coordinate grid to graph this function.
Use 1990 as the 0 point on the x-axis.

3. If the percentage is symmetrical about the year 1994, what was the percentage in 1992?
_________________________________________

115

Part II:
Suppose participant sports regain their popularity during the next three years and raise their share
of the entertainment dollar to 28%.
4. Express this percentage as a function of time for the years 1997-2000.
______________________________________________________
5. Graph this function on the same grid you used in Part I.
______________________________________________________
Part III:
Another trend in the participant sports industry is the loss of percentage of young female
participants. At this time, the percentage of young male participants is three more than twice the
percentage of young female participants.
6. Express the percentage of young male participants as a function of young female participants.
_________________________________________________________
7. What corrective function will equalize these percentages?
_________________________________________________________
Part IV:
The SoakEm Company operates three parks in the Midwest. Table 2 shows the admissions year
by year to each park as a percentage of the companys total admissions.

Park A
Park B
Park C

Table 1
1994
1995
50
55
20
25
30
20

1996
45
30
25

1997
40
40
20

8. Express each parks share of the companys total admissions as a function of time.
a. Park A___________________
b. Park B___________________
c. Park C___________________

116

9. Use the coordinate grid to graph each function, each in a different color.
Again, use 1990 as the 0 point on the x-axis.

Part V:
Soak Em charged \$15 per person for admission in 1994. Every year after that, through 1997, the
price increased by \$3. From 1998 through 2002, the price will remain constant.
10. Use the coordinate grid to graph this step function for t = 0 to t = 8, with 1994 as t = 0.

117

Day: 031

## Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 8C1

TAP:
Analyze and interpret data presented in charts,
graphs, tables, and other displays

ISAT:
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs

Unit Focus
Exploring Equations and Functions
Instructional Focus
Defining and Describing the Relationship Between Dependent and Independent Variables
(The Composition of Functions)
Materials
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Review previous days homework and answer the questions.
Present the following problem:
Bargain Town is offering a cash rebate of \$15 with a 10% discount of its best-selling
compact disc player. If you were planning to buy this CD player, which option would
result in the lower price, taking the \$15 rebate first and then the 10% discount or taking
the 10% discount first and then the \$15 rebate?
Let x = price of CD player
Let D(x) = discount function
10% discount is the same as paying 90% of the price, so R(x) = 0.9x
Let R(x) = rebate function (price less \$15), so R(x) = x-15
a. find R(D(x))
b. find D(R(x))
Which results in a lower selling price?

118

## Discuss the solution with students.

Solution:
R(D(x)) = .9x-15
D(R(x)) = .9x-13.5
R(D(x)) gives a better price.
Have the students begin their homework and monitor their progress.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA:
SC:

## Understand explicit, factual information

Understand the meaning of words in context
Analyze and interpret data
Connections

Enrichment: Have students find a sale item from the newspaper and try the class example to see
if it works. If class time permits have students present their findings.
Fine Arts:
Home: Have students keep a record of all assignments. (The homework record will be signed
by a parent on a weekly basis.)
Remediation: Work with students in small groups on their areas of deficiency.
Technology:
Assessment
Teacher observation
Homework
Assign appropriate problems from your text.
Teacher Notes

119

## STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN

Day: 032

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS):
TAP:
Analyze and interpret data presented in charts,
graphs tables, and other displays

ISAT:
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs

Unit Focus
Exploring Equations and Functions
Instructional Focus
Defining and Graphing Translations, Reflections, and Scalar Transformations of the Absolute
Value Function (Solving Equations Involving Absolute Value Symbols by Using Graphing and
Algebraic Methods)
Materials
Graph paper
Classroom set of graphing calculators
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Review previous days homework.
Instruct the students to graph the function y = |x| by first completing an x, y table.
Have students identify characteristics of the graph (Expected responses: Domain = all real
numbers; Range = all real numbers such that y0; the graph is that of a function; axis of
symmetry is the y-axis; minimum point is (0,0), V-shaped).
A: f(x) = |x| + 1
B: f(x) = 2|x|
C: f(x) = 3|x|

g(x) = |x +1|
g(x) = |x|
g(x) = -3|x|

120

Solutions:
3

y = |x|
x y = |x|
-3
3
-1
1
0
0
1
1
3
3

2
1
-3- 2

A: f(x) = |x| + 1

-1

1
-1

g(x) = |x + 1|
10
8
6

f(x) = |x| + 1

4
2

g(x) = |x +1|
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-2
-4
-6
-8
-10

B: f(x) = 2|x|

g(x) = |x|

6
5
4
3
2
1
-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-1
-2 1
-3

-4
-5

121

C: f(x) = 3|x|

g(x) = -3|x|
12
10
8
6
4
2

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

1
-2

-4
-6
-8
-10

LA:
SC:

## Understand explicit, factual information

Understand the meaning of words in context
Analyze and interpret data
Connections

Enrichment:
Fine Arts:
Home: Students will keep a record of all assignments. The homework record will be signed by
a parent on a weekly basis.
Remediation: Work with students in small groups on their areas of deficiency.
Technology:
Assessment
Teacher observation

122

Homework
Assign appropriate problems from your text.
Teacher Notes
Remind students that Chapter Projects are due tomorrow.

123

Day: 033

## Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 8D2; 8A

TAP:
Analyze and interpret data presented in charts,
graphs, tables and other displays

ISAT:
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs

Unit Focus
Exploring Equations and Functions
Instructional Focus
Defining and Graphing the Greatest Integer Function
Materials
Copies of sales tax table
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Review previous days homework and answer students questions.
Distribute copies of a tax table and direct students to create an x, y table and a graph of sales tax
on amounts up to and including \$2.00.
Discuss a step function.
Present and discuss:
greatest-integer function
Examples:

[4]=4

[7.4] = 7

[ 5]=2

[] = 3

=4

2.6 = 3

6.7 = 7

least-integer function
Examples:

4.17 =5

124

LA:
SC:

## Understand explicit, factual information

Understand the meaning of words in context
Analyze and interpret data
Connections

Enrichment: What is the cost of a phone call that lasts 4 minutes 37 seconds from Chicago to
Los Angeles if the charge is 27 cents per minute?
Fine Arts:
Home: Have students keep a record of all assignments. (The homework record will be signed
by a parent on a weekly basis.) Calculate the per minute cost of any long distance calls made by
a family member.
Remediation: Work with students in small groups on their areas of deficiency.
Technology: Have students explore least-integer and greatest-integer functions on a graphing
calculator.
Assessment
Teacher observation
Homework
Assign appropriate problems from your text.
Teacher Notes

125

Day: 034

## Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 8C1

TAP:
Analyze and interpret data presented in charts,
graphs, tables, and other displays

ISAT:
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs

Unit Focus
Exploring Equations and Functions
Instructional Focus
Reviewing Equations and Functions
Materials
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Review previous days homework and answer students questions.
Review Unit Three using a review format from Appendix C.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA:
SC:

## Understand explicit, factual information

Understand the meaning of words in context
Analyze and interpret data
Connections

Enrichment:
Fine Arts:
Home: Have students keep a record of all assignments. (The homework record will be signed
by a parent on a weekly basis.)
Remediation: Assign appropriate review problems from Unit Three
Technology:

126

Assessment
Teacher observation
Homework
Review class notes and homework.
Teacher Notes
Remind students that chapter projects are due tomorrow.
Prepare copies of the Unit Three Assessment.

127

Day: 035

## Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 8C1

TAP:
Analyze and interpret data presented in charts,
graphs, tables, and other displays

ISAT:
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs

Unit Focus
Exploring Equations and Functions
Instructional Focus
Assessing Equations and Functions
Materials
Copies of the Unit Three Assessment
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Collect chapter project (Soak Em Company).
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA:
SC:

## Understand explicit, factual information

Understand the meaning of words in context
Analyze and interpret data
Connections

Enrichment:
Fine Arts:
Home:
Remediation:

128

Technology:
Assessment
Evaluate the Unit Three Assessment and Soak Em Company activity using the Structured
Curriculum Scoring Rubric.
Homework
Teacher Notes
Solutions to Unit 3 Assessment:
1. f ( g ( x)) = 2( x 2 3) + 1
= 2x 2 6 + 1
= 2x 2 5

2. g ( f ( x)) = (2 x + 1) 2 3
= 4x 2 + 4x + 1
(No; f(g(x)) and g(f(x)) do not have the same
solutions.)

3. y = 2 x

4. x 1

## 6. See students solutions.

7. f ( g ( x)) = 3( x 1) 2

8. g( f (x)) = 4(6x 2)
x = 4 = 24x 8
f (g(4)) = 24(4) 8
= 96 8
= 88

= 3( x 2 x + 1)
2

= 3x 2 6 x + 3
x = 1 3(1) 6(1) + 3
= 36+3
f ( g (1) = 0
9. (1,0) 2,3) (5,4) (9,6) (10,-1)
function
11. yes
3
13. y = x
2

6 1
10. (3,2) (-3,-3) (3,4) (9,8) ( , )
7 2
not a function
12. yes
14. y = x 1

15. y = -2x + 6
slope = -2

129

Unit 3 Assessment
1. Find f (g(x) ) when f (x) =2x +1 and g(x) = x 2 3 .

2. Is the solution from problem #1 the same as g (f (x))? What is the solution of
g (f (x))?

## Write an equation to match the following graphs:

3.

4.

5. Graph each pair of equations on the same coordinate plane. Discuss the similarities in the
two graphs:
y = 2[x ]
y = 2[x ]

6. Give a real - world example where the step function would apply.

130

## Find the inverse of each relation and determine if it is a function.

9. (0,1) (3,2) (4,5) (6,9) (-1,10)

1 6
10. (2,3) (-3,3) (4,3) (8,9) ( , )
2 7

f ( x) = 2 x + 1
11.
x +1
g ( x) =
2

f ( x) = 6 x + 1
12.
4x 1
g ( x) =
6

## Find the inverse of each function.

2
13. f ( x) = x
3

14. y=x+1

15. Graph the equation 2x+y=6. What is the slope of this graph?

131

Day: 036

## Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A1; 8C1

TAP:
Analyze and interpret data presented in charts,
graphs, tables, and other displays

ISAT:
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs

Unit Focus
Exploring Equations and Functions
Instructional Focus
Assessing Equations and Functions
Materials
Copies of the Unit Three Assessment
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Return the Unit Three Assessment and review the solution with the students.
Have the students write an essay in which they reflect upon Unit Three. Invite the students to use
the following questions as guidelines for writing their essays:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Did I do my best?
What gave me the most difficulty?
Where do I need the most help?
What methods or recourse did I use to improve myself?
What would I do differently next time?
What activities did I enjoy the most?

Remind students that an essay has a minimum of three paragraphs: introduction, body, and
conclusion.

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LA:
SC:

## Understand explicit, factual information

Understand the meaning of words in context
Analyze and interpret data
Connections

Enrichment:
Fine Arts:
Home:
Remediation:
Technology:
Assessment
Teacher observation
Homework
Have students select three samples of their work to place in their portfolio, then write an
explanation as to why each piece was selected.
Teacher Notes