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Submission of the Yoga Project & Assignments

I hereby submitting my
Yoga Project with Assignments of
"Diploma In Foundation of Yoga"
from Mumbai university for the
Year 2014-2015
to the Department of Philosophy,
Mumbai university

Thanks to all; my Teachers & Colleagues who inspire me to do such a
project. I am thinking that it could not get completed in time. But it is not happened &
now I am going to submit the project in time.
Thanks to my Wife & Son, that they have spare me from taking
study of my son for his SSC exam.






Trends in Yoga



Philosphy of Yoga
Meaning & Defination of Yoga
Yoga as a way to Healthy & Integral Living
Basic Rules for Yoga Practice
Yoga as a way to socio-moral upliftment
Yoga as a Way to Aatmanubhuti



Types of Yoga Systems & Characteristics

Surya Namaskar
Ashtanga Yoga
Karma Yoga The Path of Action
Bhakti Yoga The Path of Devotion
Jnana Yoga The Path of Knowledge
Acro Yoga
Anti Gravity Yoga
Aerial Yoga


Scientific Basis of Yoga

Yoga & Bio Feedback
Stress Chain Reaction
Therapeutic values of Yoga
Food Types in Yoga
Power of The Human Mind


Application Of Yoga Therapy

Yoga & Meditation Alternative Treatment
Yoga & Modern Medicine
Benefits of Yoga & Meditation
Mental Health
Mental Hygine
Yoga Vs. Medical System
Music Therapy & Musical Education
Yoga for Health




Man has made many errors in the past by ignoring the science of

life. He has sponsored political movements, social movements,religious

movements and military movements, but during the past few centuries he has
failed to sponsor a yogic lifestyle movement. The world is changing now and its
destiny is taking a complete turn about.
People have begun to think of the fundamental issue of life. With the
dawn of the Aquarian Age, millions of boys and girls, men and
women, and the collective consciousness will be influenced or are already
being influenced.
It is important to know that yogic training should never be
understood as withdrawal from life. Every aspect of yogic training should
make us more capable of facing and confronting ourselves.
As the twentieth century ends and the new century begins,
we can expect a generation which will have greater understanding of itself
and thereby greater understanding of the whole world.
Yoga is living a natural life, a life in which you are able to
understand yourself. It is the science of life and the art of living. It is the common
sense answer to overall physical and mental fitness.
At present wedo not live that sort of life. If we lived a natural
life, our body would tell us what we needed to do, and we would not
have to ask anybody. This body is a product of nature, of the pancha
mahabhootas, the five essential states of nature, and therefore whatever
kind of life we choose has to complement them.
As the body is a product of nature, any means that we employ to improve
ourself has to be natural, not chemical.
We ingest many things which are not natural and they cause an
imbalance in the body. So when we talk of yoga, it is not just asana and
pranayama that we have to consider, because that is a very small portion of yoga.
Yoga refers to a yogic lifestyle. It is a system of physical and mental self
improvement and final liberation, that people have been using for thousands of years.
Yoga arose in the age of the Vedas and Upanishads. It is India's oldest scientific,
perfect spiritual discipline.
Yoga is a method of training the mind and developing its power of subtle
perceptions so that man may discover for himself the spiritual truths on which
religion, beliefs and moral values finally rest. It is realization of our hidden powers.
Yoga is science of life, it offers us simple, easy remedies and techniques
and methods of health and hygiene to assure physical and mental fitness with a
minimum of time, effort and expense.
Yoga is one of the most ancient metaphysical sciences,
which investigates the nature of soul and, through its discipline, awakens the superconscious mind of the man which unites the moral being with the immortal supreme
spirit. Yoga leads to balance and also provides both a philosophy and a religion. The
real joy of life appears when we can unify nature and culture, wealth and poverty,
movement and stillness, attachment and detachment. Yoga can serve both the

individual and society. Yoga is neither a sect nor an ideology but a practical training of
mind and body.
Broadly speaking, it has three main outcomes :
It makes us more aware of our natural wisdom,
It strengthens the body's ability to recover from illness or injury;
It teaches us how to co-operate with others.
Yoga teaches us truth through mind and body rather than theory, it brings
about deep change of attitude. The entire thrust of our life is to devote total attention to
every action and, at the same time, to trust in the power of sacred.
Yoga is also a technique for achieving purest form of self-awareness,
devoid of all thoughts and sensations. Today some kind of reconstruction of thought is
necessary to understand clearly what the great Yoga teachers of the past have taught.
Patanjali, the systematiser of Yoga, has explained the thoughts through Yogasutra. In
the Gita and Upanishads we find a broader and positive expression of Yoga. Our
ancient masters through Yoga teach us an art of living a life for eternally blissful
experiences of even flow of happiness by removal of miseries and sufferings of our
limited life. The term Yoga means a systematic practice and implementation of mind
and body in the living process of man to keep harmony with in self, within the society
and with nature.
Yoga means union. Etymologically, it is connected to the English word,
yoke. Yoga means union with God, or, union of the little, ego-self with the divine Self,
the infinite Spirit.
Most people in the West, and also many in India, confuse yoga with
Hatha Yoga, the system of bodily postures. But yoga is primarily a spiritual discipline.
Not that theres anything wrong with practicing Hatha Yoga. The body is a part of our
human nature, and must be kept fit so it doesnt obstruct our spiritual efforts.
However, those who are focused on self-realization do not necessarily have to practice
it as much or at all.
Hatha Yoga is the physical branch of Raja Yoga, the true science of yoga.
Raja Yoga is a system of meditation techniques that help to harmonize human
consciousness with the divine consciousness.
Yoga is an art as well as a science. It is a science, because it offers
practical methods for controlling body and mind, thereby making deep meditation
possible. And it is an art, for unless it is practiced intuitively and sensitively it will
yield only superficial results.
Yoga is not a system of beliefs. It takes into account the influence on each
other of body and mind, and brings them into mutual harmony. So often, for instance,
the mind cannot concentrate simply because of tension or illness in the body, which
prevent the energy from flowing to the brain. So often, too, the energy in the body is
weakened because the will is dispirited, or paralyzed by harmful emotions.
Yoga works primarily with the energy in the body, through the science of
pranayama, or energy-control. Prana means also breath. Yoga teaches how, through
breath-control, to still the mind and attain higher states of awareness.

The higher teachings of yoga take one beyond techniques, and show the
yogi, or yoga practitioner, how to direct his energy in such a way as not only to
harmonize human with divine consciousness, but to merge his consciousness in the
The ordinary persons energy is locked in his body. The lack of
availability of that energy to his will prevents him from loving the Lord one-pointedly
with any of the three other aspects of his nature: heart, mind, or soul. Only when the
energy can be withdrawn from the body and directed upward in deep meditation is
true inner communion possible Yoga works primarily with the energy in the body,
through the science of pranayama, or energy-control. Prana means also breath. Yoga
teaches how, through breath-control, to still the mind and attain higher states of
The higher teachings of yoga take one beyond techniques, and show the
yogi, or yoga practitioner, how to direct his energy in such a way as not only to
harmonize human with divine consciousness, but to merge his consciousness in the
The ordinary persons energy is locked in his body. The lack of
availability of that energy to his will prevents him from loving the Lord one-pointedly
with any of the three other aspects of his nature: heart, mind, or soul. Only when the
energy can be withdrawn from the body and directed upward in deep meditation is
true inner communion possible.
Yoga is a very ancient science; it is thousands of years old. The
perceptions derived from its practice form the backbone of the greatness of India,
which for centuries has been legendary. The truths espoused in the yoga teachings,
however, are not limited to India, nor to those who consciously practice yoga
techniques. Many saints of other religions also, including many Christian saints, have
discovered aspects of the spiritual path that are intrinsic to the teachings of yoga.


Trends in yoga
Nowadays many trends in Yoga developing in the World. Some of them
are given below

1. Tantra
It is believed by both Tantric and Taoist study that our sexual energy is
the most powerful source of energy in existence. By harnessing this power, we may
have the ability to clear blockages within our body and psyche, potentially ridding
ourselves of disease and anguish. And though the form has been practiced for
centuries, it's becoming more of a buzzword in yoga circles among practitioners, with
myriad workshop offerings around the world, and renowned teachers like Keith
Mitchell advocating its benefits.

2. AcroYoga
A true exercise in trust, AcroYoga is more about letting go of inhibitions
than it is circus acrobatics. More yogis everywhere are experimenting with this form
of "divine play," building trust between strangers and partners alike.
Until recently, yoga was traditionally a solo practice of self-study just
you and your mat. But AcroYoga goes deeper, encouraging participants to embrace
vulnerability and curiosity, with emphasis on having complete faith in another person
to support their body. This form of "therapeutic flying" uses the force of gravity and
bodyweight to enhance the stretching and strengthening of many familiar yoga poses.
Each partner takes on the role of either "flyer" or "base." It's also feasible for all
shapes and sizes of yogis.

3. Live Music Yoga

Whether it's a live DJ like MC Yogi spinning Beastie Boys tracks, or
traditional Sanskrit mantras harmonized with the Rabab and harmonium, live
music can help deepen your practice. Many studios now incorporate live music, DJs
and, of course, Kirtan into their regular schedule rotation, offering a more spiritually
uplifting experience for students.

4. Hot Barre Yoga

A hot topic last year, barre classes were a were a hit with those tired of
yoga now, Hot Barre Yoga classes are offered at many studios across the country.
It's a combination of hot yoga with ballet, Pilates, and weight and interval
training with room temperatures averaging around 95 degrees Fahrenheit.

5. Yoga Pole Dancing

Women everywhere have rewritten their beliefs about pole dancing, as it

becomes a more widely acceptable, and even empowering form of intense exercise.
Yoga Pole focuses on teaching inversions like headstands, handstands and forearm
stands by using the pole to help practitioners hold steady.
While providing support and stability, the pole also allows students to
enter deeper, challenging poses with more ease and less fear. According to Yoga Pole
Studio in Brooklyn, "Yoga Pole does not teach you how to strip. There is no spinning
in this class, no sashaying. No heels. You don't pant maniacally so much as you
breathe, deeply. During class, you don't realize just how much your muscles are
working until you wake up the next day and feel that your body has changed."

6. Kids Yoga
Children can benefit from a regular yoga practice, and even teachers will
agree. Regular yoga and mindfulness practices can help children succeed not just in
school, but also later in life. Many studios and schools now offer yoga programs to
children, but if you're interested and you don't have access to a program, here's a great
sequence you can do with your young yogi right at home.

7. Corporate/Office Yoga
Many large corporations use wellness programs like yoga and meditation
in the workplace, and studies are showing that they really work! We're all aware of the
dangers of our sedentary lifestyle. Whether your company offers a wellness program
or not, there are still plenty of exercises you can do right at your desk, for better
posture and sustaining energy. Taking a break from the grind will help you return to
your work with less stress and more productivity.

8. Restorative Yoga
With self-care on the rise, restorative yoga offers a therapeutic approach
to asana, minus the rigorous practice of Vinyasa. Restorative yoga invites us to stay in
restful poses longer, by using props like blankets, blocks and eye pillows. When we
allow ourselves to completely relax, let go and invite in healing, total restoration of
our bodies on a cellular level can take place.
While it may seem like you're lying around doing nothing, something is
happening deep within you as you hit the reset button on your nervous system and
allow yourself the opportunity for mental and physical repair. Even endurance athletes
are starting to use restorative yoga as a means of recovery.

9. Underwater Yoga Diving

If you ever have the opportunity to travel somewhere exotic like Belize,
the Great Barrier Reef or Bali, you're probably keen on giving scuba diving a
try. Underwater yoga diving gives the feeling of weightlessness in Lotus and Savasana
a whole new depth of meaning.


Meditation Apps

Technology might be the source of many of our distractions,

but meditation apps like Headspace make it easy to cultivate a daily meditation
practice. There's a revolution happening in terms of ways to live more mindfully, and
it's no secret that adaily meditation practice is highly beneficial to our overall health
and mental well-being.



Reiki was developed in the Japanese Buddhist tradition in the early 20th
century as an energy healing modality. The Reiki practitioner acts as a conduit for
universal energy, to rebalance and clear blockages in the chakras, or energy centers of
the body.
Now, more certification programs are becoming available for practitioner
and master-level status. Many Western healers like acupuncturists also offer hands-on
Reiki treatment to their patients as part of their therapy. Reiki circles also serve as an
opportunity for practitioners to come together as a community, and offer healing to
participants or distance healing to those in need.


Full Moon/Women's Circles

Full moon and women's circles can provide participants with a safe
haven, so they can be truly heard as they bring forth their highest self, surrounded by a
group of empowering individuals. Under the powerful energy of a full moon, we can
use its energy to manifest our intentions to work for our greatest good. Women who
come together in a group can feel a strong sense of camaraderie and trust that they
might not get from other relationships. While full moon and women's circles are
typically for, well, women, they can be co-ed, too.


Sound Healing

Many yogis are discovering the life-changing benefits of sound healing.

Sound vibrations can have profound, lasting effects on our psyche. Bowls made of
crystal or brass are placed next to each other and played by circling the outside rim,
giving off a vibration. Sound healing workshops can be offered at yoga studios, and
you'll probably notice your teacher playing the bowl at the end of class.


Temazcal Sweat Lodge

These can be hard to come by, but if you have the chance to attend a
traditional Mayan sweat lodge, you must not pass it up! Outside of retreat destinations
like Tulum or Nosara, most of these are typically word-of-mouth, and can take place
anywhere from the desert in Arizona, to a community park in the Bronx.
Safely led by a Shaman, a Temazcal sweat lodge is a highly spiritual
purification ceremony. But it is not for the faint of heart. Seated crosslegged on the dirt

floor of a small, pitch-dark hut with a dozen other people for two hours can be
claustrophobic for some. There's also the blazing fire pit that's filled with scalding hot
stones, dusted with aromatic Copal smudge to help you purge your inner demons,
of course. Aho!


Ayahuasca Ceremonies

From Marie Claire to The New York Times, it is well documented that
Ayahuasca ceremonies are becoming increasingly popular. But you no longer have to
travel to the Peruvian Amazon to partake New York and Los Angeles are known
hubs for underground Ayahuasca ceremonies. A typical ceremony involves drinking a
hallucinatory plant/vine tea blend under the guidance of a respected Shaman, for a
long night spent in deep connection to a higher intelligence and a better understanding
of one's true self. Ayahuasca is indigenous to the Amazon and is legal there, where
retreats and ceremonies are held and authorized, but not in the U.S., where the scene is
still quite secretive.



Meaning And Definition Of Yoga

The word "yoga" arrives from the Sanskrit root yuj, which means "to
join" or "to yoke".Yoga is a practical assist, not a religion. Yoga is an antique skill
based on a harmonizing system of development for the body, mind, and spirit. The
continued practice of yoga will lead you to a sense of calm and well-being, and also a
feeling of being at one with their environment. The practice of yoga formulates the
body strong and flexible, it also improves the functioning of the respiratory,
circulatory, digestive, and hormonal systems. Yoga brings about emotional firmness
and clarity of mind. In the practice of Yoga the ultimate aim is one of selfdevelopment and selfrealization. Yoga are the physical, mental, and spiritual
disciplines that aim to transform body and mind. The term indicates a variety of
schools, practices and goals in Hinduism, Buddhism (counting Vajrayana and Tibetan
Buddhism) and Jainism, the best-known being Hatha yoga and Raja yoga. The term
yoga is Yoga Education Dr. Tapas Pal, Dr. Sanat Kumar Rath, Prof. SambhuCharan
Roy 21 Theory of representative knowledge was accepted by Yoga, Advaita Vedanta
and Samkhya. Founder of Yoga : Patanjali Orthodox system of philosophy: yoga,
samkhya, nyaya Orthodox: ortho means true, dox means belief According to Jainism
knowledge is obtained through meditation and senses derivative from the literal
meaning of "yoking together" a span of horses or oxes, but came to be applied to the
"yoking" of mind and body.(White,2011) The origins of Yoga may date back to prevedic Indian traditions. The first accounts of yoga-practices are to be found in the
Buddhist Nikayas (Werner,1998). Similar developments were witnessed around 400
CE in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, (Whicher,1998) which united pre-philosophical
speculations and different ascetic practices of the first millennium BCE with
Samkhya-philosophy. Hatha yoga emerged from tantra by the turn of the first
millennium. Yoga means union or connection.
Day-to-day meaning of yoga
At its mainly practical level yoga is a process of becoming more
conscious of who we are. Yoga techniques make easy balance and health, and unfold
our dormant potential. Yoga allows us to be more alert of ourselves and feel
connected. As such, yoga is a process of self-discovery. This leads us to self-mastery
and self-realization.

Yoga as a science

Yoga is a science, that is, it is a body of techniques that direct us to

consciously connect with ourselves and with life, the knowledge of yoga. As yoga is a
science, there is no dogma or belief system attached to it. Yoga merely tells us to do a
sure practice and then to feel the upshot of that practice, e.g. if we breath slowly in a
relaxed manner we will slow our heart rate; if we focus the mind we will enlarge
mental peace and deep insight.
Highest philosophical definition of yoga
In Sanskrit, the word yoga is used to signify any shape of connection. In
a philosophical sense, however, yoga means the aware connection of the limited little
egoic self with the unlimited, eternal, higher Self.
Patanjalis definition of yoga
The grandwise Patanjali, in the system of Raja Yoga, gave one of the best
definitions of yoga. He said, Yoga is the blocking (nirodha) of mental modifications
(chitta vritti) so that the seer (drashta) re-identifies with the (higher) Self. Patanjalis
system has come to be the essence of Classical Yoga Philosophy and is one of the 6 or
7 major philosophies of India.
Hatha yoga definition
Hatha yoga comprises postures (asana), breathing techniques
(pranayama), purification techniques (shat karmas) energy regulation techniques
(mudra and bandha). The description of yoga in the Hatha Yoga texts is the union of
the upward force (prana) and the downward force (apana) at the navel center
(manipura chakra). Hatha yoga educates us to master the entirety of our life force,
which is also called prana. By learning how to feel and manipulate the life force, we
right of entry the source of our being.
Kundalini yoga definition
Kundalini yoga is the science of healing the dormant possible energy in
the bottom of the spine (kundalini). The meaning of yoga in kundalini yoga is the
union of the mental current (ida) and the pranic current (pingala) in the third eye (ajna
chakra) or at the base chakra (muladhara chakra). This merges duality in us by
connecting body and mind and guides to the awakening of spiritual consciousness.
Yoga Definition In Shaivism
In Shaivism, yoga is used to unite kundalini with Shiva. Mahabharata
defines the purpose of yoga as the experience of uniting the individual tman with the
universal Brahman that pervades all things.

Yoga definition in Raja Yoga


The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali are frequently labelled as Rja yoga

(Bhaskarananda,2001) It defines yoga as citta-vr tti-nirodhah (the cessation of the
perturbations of the mind). The aim is to still the mind in order to reach Kaivalya, the
"isolation" of purusha (the motionless consciousness "essence") from prakriti (the
primal matter from which everything is made, including mind and emotions)
(Edwin,2009). In Hinduism, Raja yoga is considered as one of the six stika schools
(those which accept the authority of the Vedas)(Flood,1996) of Hindu philosophy.3
Meditation is one of the keys for Raja Yoga.
Yoga definition in Tantra
Tantra is the name given by scholars to a style of meditation and ritual
which arose in India no later than the 5th century CE.(Einoo,2009) The earliest
documented use of the word "Tantra" is in the Rigveda (X.71.9).[37] Tantra has
influenced the Hindu, Bon, Buddhist, and Jain traditions and Silk Road transmission
of Buddhism that spread Buddhism to East and Southeast Asia.
Yoga definition in Jainism
Jain meditation has been the central practice of spirituality in Jainism
along with the Three Jewels. Meditation in Jainism aims at realizing the self, attain
salvation, take the soul to complete freedom5 .It aims to reach and to remain in the
pure state of soul which is believed to be pure conscious, beyond any attachment or
aversion. The practitioner strives to be just a knower-seer (Gyata-Drashta). Jain
meditation can be broadly categorized to the auspicious Dharmya Dhyana and Shukla
Dhyana and inauspicious Artta and Raudra Dhyana.
Yoga Definition in Buddhism
Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that
aim to develop mindfulness, concentration, supramundane powers, tranquility, and
insight. Core techniques have been preserved in ancient Buddhist texts and have
proliferated and diversified through teacher-student transmissions. Buddhists pursue
meditation as part of the path toward Enlightenment and Nirvana. The closest words
for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism are bhvan and jhna/dhyna.
Buddhist meditation techniques have become ever more popular in the wider world,
with many non Buddhists taking them up for a diversity of reasons.

II. Yoga as a way to healthy and integrated living


The current age of speed and competition has increased the stresses and
strains resulting in an increasing occurrence of lifestyle-related health problems and
purposely managers lives have become a neverending race against time, technology,
and targets. This race creates tension, which leads to dissatisfaction and irritation and
finally manifests itself as psychological and physiological stress with mental and
emotional drain. This contemporary lifestyle intensifies the stress leading to
Excessive Tension and consequent worsening in Executive Efficiency. One of the
gradually more popular tools to overcome this original challenge is physical activity.
There is growing proof that has established the payback of physical exercises in
preventing lifestyle-related diseases such as main prevention of diabetes, avoidance of
cardiac diseases through control over major risk factors such as smoking, lipids,
obesity, and stress, better quality of life of cancer patients, positive health in normal
persons through better physical fitness, and stress reduction. Yoga, which is measured
to be a tool for both physical and mental development of an individual, is being
documented around the globe only in the last century although it has been practiced in
India over several centuries to promote positive health and well-being. It gives solace
for the restless mind and can give great relief to the sick. It has become quite
fashionable even for the common man to keep fit. With rising scientific evidence, yoga
is emerging as ansignificant health behavior-modifying practice to achieve states of
health, both at physical and mental levels. Several studies have demonstrated the
beneficial effects of yoga on health behavior in many lifestyle-related somatic
problems such as hypertension, bronchial asthma, diabetes including some psychiatric
conditions such as anxiety neurosisand depressive illness.
The perform of yoga can educate us to access the state of completeness
and integration constantly and in all circumstances - not when it happens accidentally,
not just on vacation, not just when we are doing what we like, but under all conditions.
Whether cleaning a toilet or watching a sunset, we have equal potential to experience
addition. Formal yoga practice is a laboratory for learning how to create such an
experience of life. Incorporation is experienced when we are completely present in any
moment without needing to establish anything, or make anything happen differently.
We permit it to be as it is.
In yoga practice, this means accepting your body precisely as it is. It means
being in the pretense in a way that is apt for your body - not according to what
your ego is telling you, but according to what your body is telling you. This
receiving helps silence divisive thoughts and emotions that are caused by selfcriticism, comparison and competition.
During yoga practice, fears, resistances and insecurities will arise. Fighting
these will only cause more internal disturbance. Instead, when you notice these
thoughts arise, disengage from them, see that they are not you - but
purelyregular comments of the mind. You do not need to act on them or do
anything with them. Bring your focus back to breath and association as an
anchor for Yoga Education Dr. Tapas Pal, Dr. Sanat Kumar Rath, Prof.

SambhuCharan Roy 24 your mind. If you note that you have been "hooked" by
a particular thought and are performing the asanas from ego, basically bring
yourself (without judgment or comment) back to your meaning to practice from
Work at your periphery, where you are enthusiastically active, but are not
inducing fight or struggle in the body.
Working within your body's capacity, allow all feelings that arise to be felt
without labeling, judging or predilection for one sensation over another.
Discern the tendency of the mind to try to carve out some experiences from
others and brand them "uncomfortable" or "unpleasant." Timepiece the habit of
the body and mind to try to get absent from that which it has labeled as
"unwanted." This is what we do in life. Instead, experiment with allowing those
sensations that have been carved out by mind as "uncomfortable" to dissolve
back into pure sensation-felt no more, no less than any other feeling in your
field of awareness.

III. Basic Rules for Yoga Practice

Yoga postures exercises is a mistake even to call, in the usual sense
of the word. Their purpose is not to strengthen the muscles. They emphasize
relaxation quite as much as they do tension. Unlike most physical exercise, they
do not excite; rather, they eliminate excitement from the system.
With these thoughts in mind, the practitioner will understand that
he has not done a posture once he has succeeded in assuming it. It is only at
this point that he can begin truly to derive the benefits of that pose.
An important thing about these postures is that in yoga practice one
must never strain. Relax, never force yourself, into the prescribed
positions. Stretch only slightly, if at all, beyond the point of comfort. You will
be astonished to see how many poses you can accomplish by progressively
deeper relaxation.
Yogis illustrate their teaching of relaxation by the example of the
cat. Observe this self-contained creature. It never uses more of its body at any
given moment than it needs. Lift it up when it is resting, and observe how it
hangs, limp, in your hands. Yet, so poised is it that, from a position of complete
repose, it can leap to its feet in an instant, ready to defend itself against sudden
The yogi, similarly, should act always from a center of poise and
calmness, of mental and physical relaxation. Between poses, he should calmly
withdraw his energy from the periphery of his body; he should rest within
himself. Savasana, the Corpse Pose, is particularly recommended for these
peaceful relaxation.


The yogi is enjoined to practice moderation in everything. He

should avoid eating too much, or too little. He should not sleep too much, nor
too little. (More than seven hours sleep in a night only drugs the nervous
system.) He should be especially moderate in his sex life. Sexual overindulgence causes a tremendous drain on a persons natural vitality. Continence,
by contrast, provided it has the full consent of the mind, can be a tremendous
factor in helping one to achieve full vigor, mentally and physically, and to attain
deep spiritual insight.
Yoga practices help one to live in harmony with the forces of
nature. The yoga practitioner should assist this harmonizing process by living as
much as possible close to nature. He should get out into the countryside
whenever he can, there to enjoy the sunshine, to breathe the fresh air. Yoga
breathing exercises will help him to gain the greatest possible benefit from
natures free gift of oxygen.
In fact, the yoga postures should always, if possible, be practiced
out-of-doors, or by an open window. They should be practiced on an empty
stomach or at least three hours after eating. It is preferable that the body be
warm when performing them. But dont practice immediately after strenuous
activity. Dont practice so long, moreover, that the postures themselves result in
over-exertion and fatigue.
Women should use caution if they wish to do yoga postures during
the first day or two of the menstrual period. Pregnant women who want to
continue their practice of the postures are advised to find one of the growing
number of people who are specially trained in pre- and postnatal yoga.
The postures should not be practiced, save with the greatest of
caution, when the body is unwell. Any posture that gives rise to a feeling of pain
(other than muscular) in the chest, abdomen, or brain should be abandoned until
the cause of pain has been ascertained. People with high blood pressure should
avoid all but the most gentle poses
The duration of each posture must be increased gradually. People
beginning these postures after middle age should be particularly careful to start
slowly, with the easier poses, only bit by bit working up to the more difficult

IV. Yoga as a way to socio-moral upliftment of man

The yoga contains two necessary actions. First, by assembly of energies,
a attentiveness, purification, and ambition, the individual seeks to become
aware of his own factual self or being deep within his own heart, the soul or the
heavenly spark in man. At the same time he opens himself to the Divine
Consciousness-Force above and permits it to pour down into him and plug him
with its Presence. Once this contact has been established he learns to reinforce
the friendship between this inmost being and his outer personality, to make the

latter more and more expressive of the knowledge, love, delight and power
secret within and above him. By this movement his personality grows in
perfection and he gains the capacity to concretely and fruitfully influence other
people and conditions in the external world. In practice the discipline
emphasizes not only concentration and meditation but aeffusivelively physical,
emotional and mental life whereby each of these elements can produce and
become open to the Divine pressure. Of the Buddhas dignified instance in this
matter, Swami Vivekananda says in his lectures on karma yoga: The entire
human race has produced but one such person, such high philosophy, such wide
sympathy. The immense philosopher, preaching the highest philosophy, yet has
the deepest compassion for the lowest animals, and never lays forward a claim
for himself. He is the ideal Karma Yogi, acting completely without motive, and
the history of humanity shows him to have been the greatest man ever born,
beyond contrast, the greatest mixture of heart and brain that ever existed.


Atmanubhuti Yoga is the science pedestaled on natural principles for
beginning of soul energy within. Awakening of soul energy brings a whole
physical, mental health, inner peace and purity in thoughts. It includes of five
main organs Yoga Education Dr. Tapas Pal, Dr. Sanat Kumar Rath, Prof.
SambhuCharan Roy 29 i.e. Asanas(Body posture), Pranayama(Breathing
technique), Meditation, Kirtan (Singing devotional chants) and Satsang
(Spiritual discussion and discourses). Yoga means to manage and think the body
and mind. The word yoga factually means union and therefore the basic aim of
all kinds of yoga is the understanding of the divine and the realization of unity.
The restoration of the original unity or atmanubhuti is the aim of yoga. Sri
Aurobindo stated that Yoga implies not only the realization of God but
ancomplete concentration and change of the inner and outer life till it is fit to
obvious a divine awareness and become part of a divine work.Human mind
incessantly works for the whole day and it is one of the most stressed functions.
Mind has direct force on the general health of body as well. Therefore, it is
enormouslysignificant that you need to give a pause to mental workouts. At
least 10 minutes throughout the day should be allocated and securedentirely for
giving total or 100% rest to your mind. This is unerringly what meditation does.
It is said that you can grasp your inner self (atmanubhuti), also called the final
objective of human life, only when you can attain a 'thoughtless' situation which
can be achieved by standard practice of meditation. Thus meditation refreshes
or rejuvinates your brain meaning and is awfullychief for the happiness on an
individual. In a very easy term the Self-Realization is like returning of man to
his actual Home establishing of oneself in ones true nature, which is not
outside but inside the man. The self-realization is nothing but return to ones

own true Home, home which is full of harmony, balance, equanimity,

Peacefulness. It is a state of ones being without reference to the other. It is a
state of Freedom (liberation) a freedom from hurt and suffering, fears,
dualitys, tensions of life. It is a freedom not just to do but to be free from ego
and attachments to baser things. It is a calm, stressfree, silence and impartial
mental state. This Self-Realization is our second birth, and it frees us from the
supremacy of our minds and our emotions. The Self-Realization called by many
names: Second Birth, Enlightenment, Liberation, Moksha and it is the eventual
goal of all religions and spiritual traditions of the world. Self-Realized person
possesses body and lives in the world itself. He uses material world legitimately,
for console and expediency not for ego satisfaction but for self-enrichment and
realization. He lives in the world but he is above it, he is not of it. Now he is
free from fear of loss and anxiety, from attachments and hatredness and he
becomes very merry and loving personality. Self-Realized person completely
enjoys the state of connection with the divine. After Self-Realization where
he/she put his/her attention, the divine removes obstructions and creates
miracles. There is much more. You also develop "collective consciousness". You
can feel everything about another human being, and about yourself. Your
compassion is awakened, and you understand others at a basic level. The results
are apparent in beautiful, loving people with alert minds and open, loving
hearts. The possible to attain this state is built into every human being in the
form of Kundalini. Yoga is termination of movements in consciousness.
Consciousness consists of mind,intellect and ego. Intellect (Buddhi) is
individual selective intelligence. It has been tough to manage this consciousness
or Chitta because it is self-contradictory. Let us study the human body. Eyes see
the objects and send signal to occipital cortex in the brain. Then brain has to
scrutinize this information and sends a respond. This interpretation is accepted
by the mind, which finally decides whether this image is good or bad. Even
though the image is wicked, mind still wants to see this. It goes through
conflict, starts reasoning so that it can obtain some kind of satisfaction or
pleasure from this. Your mind will it self understand that this is not good for
your conscience. We need mind for every thing, either good or bad. This makes
it so tricky to check the mind from peripatetic. A need will arise in the mind,
and then craving instigates the intellect. Intellect gives its blessing to organs of
action. So this cycle puts the mind in divergence and gives all kinds of
reasoning, so that mind can sway it self and justifies its own actions. Then mind
familiarity either Yoga Education Dr. Tapas Pal, Dr. Sanat Kumar Rath, Prof.
SambhuCharan Roy 30 pain or pleasure. This happens physically and
physiologically. Then Ego expands, thinking that and making you believe that
you are responsible for all these reactions. The mind is addicted to these highs
and lows. Sometimes this mind plays the role of a victim. At times the mind
takes you to the other great, which is called Inaction. You do not feel like doing
any thing. The mind will say that nothing matters; what ever you do, result will

be the same so become Tamasic. The mind will say, dont do it and keep quiet.
Mind always wants to center on outside and this is where the entire problem is.
When you put your mind in to a task intensely, you will mechanicallydo well.
The reason this happens is because of deep effort and concentration on the task
you attended. This is also a sort of yoga. The union took place with the task at
hand, which you really targeted and assimilated in to you. Same thing happens
in yoga. Only difference is, your focus is internal rather than external. This
practice of yoga incorporates a person through the journey of this realization
from the finite external world to never-ending internal world. This is called self,
which at last will understand the universal self. So when we still the mind with
out any currents, it travels through silence, which we call meditation. This also
demands strong will power from you. Here the mind has to be your friend, not
an enemy. When meditation is blooming, concentration flows in to
motionlessness which in turn will lead you in to your "Self". This self then will
put together in to the Universal self. This will occur only when the Ego is
dissoluted. The self and ego are two opposite poles in the spiritual life of a
seeker. The Ego has to be a non factor, then only the Self will be in
amalgamation with the universal self (Paramatman). While it is true that there
are lots of paths up the spiritual mountain to Self-Realization, the thing they all
have in common is that one must climb, and that the direction to climb is up, not
across. There actually is a shortcut to Self-Realization, and that is to chase the
straight route inward, through the layers, to the self realization. There are many
paths up the spiritual mountain to SelfRealization. Many of those paths
emphasize the view at one or more of the lower levels along the journey The
shortcut is to climb directly through the levels of the mountain. It means
systematically dealing with our relationships with the world, and our senses,
body, breath, and mind.




I. Surya Namaskar
Surya Namaskar means to stoop down to the sun in the morning.
Why is this traditional sequence of postures practiced? The sun is the life source
for this planet. In everything that you eat, drink and breathe, there is an element
of the sun. Only if you learn how to better digest the sun, internalize it, and
make it a part of your system, do you truly benefit from this process. It is
measured as the finest exercise for human body. Surya Namaskar consists of
imperative Yogasanas and Pranayama. The Pranayama and thus its rewards are
adroitly incorporated in Surya Namaskar.

Surya Namaskar :Step by Step

Hasta Uttanasana
Adho Mukha Svanasana / parvatasana
Ashtanga Namaskara
Adho Mukha Svanasana
Ashwa Sanchalanasana
Hasta Uttanasana

Aditya Hridayamis another ancient practice which involves a

variation of Srya Namaskra. It is a procedure of saluting The Sun, taught to
Sri Rama by Sage Agastya, before his fight with Ravana. It is described in the
"Yuddha Kaanda" Canto 107 of Ramayana.


II. Ashtanga Yoga

Patanjali wrote the YogaSutras around 400 BC, even if this date is
much discussed. In the Sutras Patanjali sketchs the ''Eight limbs'' of Raja yoga.
The first five are Exoteric, dealing with the objects exterior, in relation to the
body, in relation to the society and so on. These are Yama, Niyama, Asana,
Pranayama and Pratyahara. The next three are esoteric yoga : Dharana, Dhyana
and Samadhi. These eight branchs are interdependant and of parallel
value.Patanjali's Raja Yoga is usually termed the Ashtanga Yoga or the Yoga of
Eight Limbs, during the practice of which choice is attained. These eight limbs
have been technicallygiven and dealt with. They are the natural steps in the
stepladder which takes man from his human to the genuineheavenly nature.
From the gross to the pale, all the chords that bind the Purusha to Prakriti are
cut asunder. This snapping of the bindsliberates the Purusha to benefit from his
Independence, Kaivalya Moksha. This is the purpose of Raja Yoga. Yama and
Niyama distil the individual's actions and make them more Sattvic. Tamas and
Rajas which are the pillars of Samsara are draged down through the practice of
the Ten Canons of Yama and Niyama. Inner purity is amplified. The individual's
nature itself is made Sattvic. Asana gives the individual manage over the
Rajasic impulses; and at the identical time it forms the foundation of the
impressivearrangement of Antaranga Sadhana, or the Inner Yoga-process.
Pranayama brings the hopefulfeatures to face with the Life-Principle. Manage
of this Life-Principle gives him an insight into its motive force. He is
completedconscious of the fact that it is desire that sustains the life-force.
Aspiration is the cause of externalization of the mind. Desire is the bed of
Vrittis. Vrittis jointly form the mind, and it is the mind that links Purusha with
Prakriti. The mind or the Chitta is the subtlest form of Prakriti's demonstrations.
If mind is to be shattered, Vrittis are to be eradicated. If Vrittis are to be
eradicated, desire is to be rooted out. The Yogi than speedily withdraws all the
rays of the mind from their outsideforce (Pratyahara). To discover the basis of
the mind, the Seed-Desire, he wants the light of the whole mind. At the same
time, obstacle of the externalization of the mind breaks the ferocious circle, as
need is dispossessed of its Yoga Education Dr. Tapas Pal, Dr. Sanat Kumar
Rath, Prof. SambhuCharan Roy 34 livelyappearance. This concentrated beam of
light is then directed towards the root of the mind itself (Dharana); and the mind
is held in confirm. Now the realization which had so long been flowing outward
collects itself and flows back into its source - the Purusha within, which is
Dhyana. The association with Prakriti is gone. The Purusha practices the
transcendental state of independence - Kaivalya - in Nirvikalpa Samadhi. Now
unawareness is destroyed. The Purusha understands that it was only His
realization that gave Prakriti its power to please Him, to give Him joy, to
deceive Him, and to bind Him. He likes the bliss of His own nature and

remnants for ever independent and heavenly. All thought ceases once for all in
Nirvikalpa Samadhi. The beginnings of Desire and Vasanas and Samskaras are
fried in toto; this is Nirbija Samadhi. The Yogi in this superlative state loses all
outer consciousness, all consciousness of duality and multiplicity; he loses even
the Asmita(I-idea) in Asamprajnata Samadhi. That is the Supreme State where
the Purusha is recognized in His own Svarupa.

III. KARMA YOGA The Path Of Action (Selfless

Karma refers to actexecuted for the sake of the body and its senses.
The effort we do to build a living is karma. The work we put into having a highquality time is karma too. When we eat, that's karma. When we sleep, that's
karma. When we timepiece TV, listen to Beethoven, or Ravi Shankar, or
Madonna, when we have kids, or impel our carwhen we do just about
anythingthat's karma. Karma can be "extended" too. It's not lone what we do
straight for ourselves but also what we do for others, in relative to the body and
senses. When we help out a friend, give food to the poor, serve in the Army, or
show our uncle how to cheat on his tax returnsagain, it's all karma Karma
may be "good" or "bad". So karma may bring good or bad results. These results
are also sometimes called karma. Karma Yoga is the path of action, service to
others, mindfulness, and remembering the levels of our being while fulfilling
our actions or karma in the world. As renowned by a variety of observered, the
Bhagavad Gita presents a sensible advance to release in the form of Karma
yoga. The path of Karma yoga upholds the necessity of accomplishment.
However, this deed is to be undertaken without any accessory to the work or
desire for results. Bhagavad Gita terms this "inaction in action and action in
inaction. The impression of such detached action is also called Nishkam Karma,
a term not used in the Gita. Lord Krishna, in the following verses, elaborates on
the role actions, performed without desire and attachment, play in attaining
freedom from material bondage and transmigration: To actonly hast thou a right
and never at all to its fruits; let not the fruits of deed be thy motive; neither let
there be in thee any accessory to in force Fixed in yoga, do thy work, O Winner
of wealth (Arjuna), abandoning attachment, with an even mind in achievement
and failure, for constancy of mind is called yoga. With the body, with the mind,
with the intelligence, even simply with the senses, the Yogis executedeed
toward selfpurification, having abandoned attachment. He who is restricted in
Yoga, having deserted the produce of act, attains fixed peace. Mohandas
Karamchand Gandhi writes, "The object of the Gita appears to me to be that of
showing the most excellent way to attain self-realization", and this can be
achieved by selfless action,"By desireless action; by renouncing fruits of action;
by dedicating all activities to God, i.e., by surrendering oneself to Him body and

soul." Gandhi called the Gita "The Gospel of Selfless Action". To achieve true
liberation, it is important to control all mental desires and tendencies to enjoy
sense pleasures.

IV. BHAKTI YOGA The Path Of Devotion

Bhakti Yoga is the course of attachment, emotion, care for,
sympathy, and examine to God and others. All events are done in the
circumstance of identification the Divine. Bhakti yoga is supported on the
policy Love is God and God is Love. The divinity is the dearly loved and the
fan is the lover. In Bhakti yoga, everything is but a sign of the divine and all
else is valueless, including the Ego. When the Bhakta is sacred by divine
elegance he feels an undivided union and nondual awareness prevails. Bhakti
Yoga is regarded as the the majority straight method to combine in cosmic
awareness. This trail applications chiefly to those of an emotional life. Through
prayer, worship, chanting and ceremony one surrenders himself to God or thing
of faith, directing and transmuting his emotions into unqualified love and
attachment. Continuous meditation of God or object of faith steadily decreases
the ego of the practitioner. Suppressed emotions get unconfined and the
refinement of the internal self takes place. Gradually the practitioner looses the
self individuality and becomes one with God or the item of faith, this is the
condition of self-realization.

V. JNANA YOGA The Path Of Knowledge

Gyana is the chase of knowledge. Jnana yoga is the corridor of
wisdom, knowledge, and nonstop experience of Brahman as the
definitiverealism. The courseleaves both desires and actions, and is therefore
depicted as being steep and very difficult in the Bhagavad Gita. This path is
often associated with the non-dualistic Vedantic belief of the identity of the
tman with the Brahman. For the followers of this path, the realisation of the
identity of tman and Brahman is held as the key to liberation. When a sensible
man ceases to see different identities due to different material bodies and he
sees how beings are expanded everywhere, he attains to the Brahman
conception. Those who see with eyes of knowledge the difference between the
body and the knower of the body, and can also understand the process of
liberation from bondage in material nature, attain to the supreme goal.
Jnana Yoga is a practice of learning to distinguish between what is
factual and what is not, what is everlasting and what is not. Through a
stableprogression in consciousness of the difference between Real and the
Unreal, the everlasting and the chronological, one expands into a Jnani. This is
fundamentally a lane of knowledge and favoritism in observes to the disparity

between the atman and the body. Jnana Yoga is the advance of converting
thinker knowledge into practical wisdom. Jnana factually means knowledge,
but in the circumstance of yoga it means the method of meditative
consciousness which guides to illuminative wisdom. It is not a technique by
which we seek to find balanced answers to eternal questions, rather it is
aelement of meditation leading to self-enquiry and self-realisation. Before
practicing Jnana Yoga, the hopeful needs to have integrated the lessons of the
other yogic paths for without selflessness and love of God, strength of body
and mind, the explore for self-realization can become simpleinactiveconjecture.
Captivating the philosophy of Vedanta the Jnana Yogi uses his mind to query
into its own nature. We distinguish the space within and outside a glass as
different, just as we see ourselves as divide from God. Jnana Yoga guides the
follower to knowledge his harmony with God openly by breaking the glass,
dissolving the maya.




Acro-yoga is a physical practice which combines yoga and acrobatics.

There are two schools of Acroyoga. Acroyoga Montreal, led by Jessie Goldberg and
Eugene Poku, has used the term since 1999 brings together acrobatics, yoga and
dance/performance. Acroyoga Inc., which began in California with Jason Nemer and
Jenny Klein and was labelled as acroyoga in 2006. The latter practices brings together
acrobatics, yoga and Thai massage.[3] Both schools offer teaching certifications,
and despite some differences have many similar poses.
AcroYoga may provide physical and mental health benefits. In addition to the
exercise and strength building aspects of AcroYoga the partner balancing can improve
concentration and the massage elements can provide stress relief. However Acroyoga
is more vigorous than many traditional yoga practices and this may lead to more
There are three primary roles in an Acro-yoga practice: base, flyer,
and spotter.
Base - this is the individual who has the most points of contact with the ground.
Often this person is lying on the ground with the entire back torso in full
contact. This enables both the arms and legs to be "bone-stacked" for maximum
stability and support of the Flyer. Main points of contact with the flyer are the
feet (generally placed on the Flyer's hips) and the hands (which either form
handholds or grasp the shoulders).


Flyer - this is the individual who is elevated off the ground by the Base. The
Flyer can move into a series of dynamic positions, and generally lets gravity do
the work for them. A Flyer needs balance, confidence, and core strength.
Spotter - this is the individual who has an objective view of the partners, and
whose entire focus is on making sure that the Flyer lands safely in case of any
slips. The spotter can also makerecommendations to the Base and Flyer to
improve their form.
Acrobatics is the physical part of Acroyoga that uses gymnastics
techniques to build strength, flexibility, trust and teamwork between partners.
This is called Solar Acrobatic Practice by the California school. Front plank is a
basic Acroyoga pose where one partner (base) supports the flying partner above
them with their hands and feet.
Yoga reflects the physical, mental, and spiritual disciplines of
traditional Yoga. This is called Yoga Practice by the California school
Therapeutics includes massage, therapeutic flying and partner yoga. The
California school teaches Thai massage and inversion massage with their Lunar
Healing Arts Practice. The Montreal school differs from the California school in
this area as they teach restorative and yin yoga.[9] A basic therapeutic pose
is Folded Leaf in which one partner is inverted and supported on the vertical
legs of the other partner whose hands are then free for back massage.
Learning Acroyoga requires strength training, flexibility training and
technique training. Strength training is accomplished through repetition of
exercises likepush-ups and hand walking. Flexibility training is best done at the
end of a session with a partner. Learning good Acroyoga technique takes time
and effort and is best learned with an expert teacher. One important Acroyoga
technique is called stacking the bones. This involves the base partner keeping
arms and legs straight to mazimize the weight load on bones rather than muscles
to support the flyer.
A typical Acroyoga session may include:
Circle ceremony promotes communication and openness
Warm-up to gradually get your muscles ready for more strenuous exercise
Partner flow - continue warming up with asanas and stretching with a
Inversions help build trust between the partners
Flying and acrobatics
Thai Massage provides a chance for the flyer to become the giver and repay the
base for their work
Some communities have regular AcroYoga Jams to provide a place for
interested people to come together and practice. There are also larger AcroYoga
events such as the annual Divine Play in Portland, Oregon that draw
practitioners from a regional or national area.

One partner (called the base) supports the other (the flyer) in a series of
aerial postures. The necessary personnel is rounded out by a spotter, who makes
sure everyone has good alignment so the flyer doesn't fall. The base most
often lies flat on his or her back and supports most of the flyer's weight with his
or her extended legs. The legs, when properly aligned with the ankles over the
hips, can support a lot of weight, so that a small person is capable of basing a
larger flyer. The base can support the flyer's hips with their feet for backbends
or their shoulders for inversions, among many other possible combinations.
Therapeutic and Acrobatic
A therapeutic approach uses gravity to release the flyer's spine with
supported inversions. An acrobatic approach allows for a dynamic partnership
between flyer and base as they work together to discover creative ways to join
their bodies in supported flight. After coming down, the flyer thanks the base
with some Thai Yoga Massage (passive yoga stretches). While there are a
number of established poses that are taught in AcroYoga classes, enthusiasts
also get together for extracurricular jams, which encourage freeform acrobatic

VII. AntiGravity Yoga

AntiGravity Yoga is the leading proprietorial method in the aerial yoga
trend. Developed by former gymnast and dancer Christopher Harrison,
AntiGravity Yoga provides a workout that allows you to stretch and strengthen
without overstressing your joints or compressing your vertebrae.
The key to AntiGravity Yoga is the hammock, a swath of silky fabric that acts as
your support system. Using the hammock, you learn to invert and hang
suspended in the air. The hammock supports your hips for forward bends and
backbends. It acts as your seat for any number of variations on the ab-tastic
crunch. It can be looped around one foot as you stand on the other for versions
of standing big toe pose and king dancer, applications that are reminiscent of
an Iyengar-style ropes wall. Best of all, the hammock wraps you in your own
little cocoon for a swaying savasana.
Tips and Observations
It is usually advised that you practice yoga on a empty stomach, and that
is especially true of AntiGravity Yoga, what with the inverting, spinning,
and pressure of the hammock on your abdomen.
Long pants and a shirt with sleeves are must-haves, since the hammock
can dig into your arms and legs under the weight of your body.
I felt some pain from the hammock when it was under my hips in forward
folds, though my teacher assured us that this abates with continued

I also suffer from mild arthritis in my finger joints and I found that some
of the poses where you have to grip the hammock strongly were hard on
my hands.
Those with certain medical conditions, such as glaucoma and high blood
pressure, are advised not to undertake this practice, so be sure to check
your medical history againstthis list.
As with any yoga practice, coming prepared with a sense of humor and a
willingness to try new things goes a long way toward making an
AntiGravity Yoga class a fun and relaxed experience.


Aerial Yoga=

Aerial Yoga combines traditional mat yoga with postures suspended in

soft fabric hammocks. With the help of gravity and the hammocks, we can
playfully explore floating, fluid movements and create space in our bodies
without compressing our joints and spine. The feeling in the body is exquisite.
The silky hammocks are a special high-density nylon that can hold over 2000
pounds each.
Aerial Yoga is a wonderful complement to your mat practice. It unwinds
fascial knots and tangles, quiets the mind, builds core-strength, and leaves your
body feeling integrated. The basic yoga principles of ahimsa (non-harm) and
mindfulness are woven throughout the sequences. The hammock, like other
props in yoga, is intended to assist alignment and deepen your awareness. The
fabric becomes a learning tool and students often find "Aha!" moments that
bring new life and understanding to poses they previously feared or fought to
achieve. In our classes we will alternate between practicing with the hammock
and practicing on the mat to play with gravity in different ways and to stay
energetically grounded.
Jasmine Astra-elle Grace and Michele Vinbury, co-owners of Yoga on
High,offer Aerial Yoga in different formats: group classes, semi-private classes
and private sessions.



Yoga and bio-feedback

Biofeedback is the procedure of gaining greater consciousness of a

lot of physiological purposesmainlyby means oftools that give information on
the action of those similar systems, with aaim of being intelligent to influence
them at will. Some of the procedures that can be controlled take in brainwaves,
muscle tone, skin conductance, heart rate and pain perception. Biofeedback may
be used to get better health, presentation, and the physiological changes that
often happen in combination with changes to thoughts, emotions, and behavior.
Finally, these changes may be upholded without the employ of extra equipment,
even though no equipment is essentiallyrequisited to practice biofeedback.
Biofeedback has been found to be effectual for the action of headaches.
Biofeedback is a method by which a person allegedly learns relaxation. Of
course, this relaxation is not resting or taking it simple.It usually, if not
always,needsemploy of visualization, recurrence, and meditation. By joining
oneself to a particularly designed monitor, people are learning to control the
automatic (unconscious) roles of their bodies, including heartrate, skin
temperature, blood pressure, etc.

II. Stress Chain Reaction

A prominent negative experience traced in the brain will change
the mental, emotional and conscious planes, and, depending on the cause, give
the person a headache, depression, anxiety, worry, tension or anger. If the
conditionmaintains, then the collapse in mental and emotional patterns may
even be the reason of psychological.If any of the sensory cells or motor cells are
not stimulated or working properly, then the output of that cell will consist of
sparse and uneven impulses. This will make tension in the central nervous
system, causing a holdup in the normal process and affecting the functions of
the brain, as the input and output of the stimuli will be uneven, and this may
cause different physical, muscular, and mental tensions. If this conditioncarry
on in a man over a period of time, then the state of consciousness will modify,
energy confrontation will be lowered, mental and emotional states will be
uncoordinated, and another stress will be added to this chain reaction process.

Self-awareness is perception or knowledge of one's own conditions or states of

changes in the body or the mind. Because biofeedback indicates the changes of
the body and brain in the appearance of a sound or sketch, one can enlarge the
self-awareness up to a convinced point as a side-effect of the biofeedback
process. A skilled and aware Yogi is fully conscious of the subconscious
activities of his body and brain, and is capable to manage his autonomic nervous
system by attentiveness. Today, anyone with a little practice of the biofeedback
system can achieve a conscious state of relaxation and expansion of mental
ability, plus creativity. A Yogi knows that the autonomic nervous system, which
controls and regulates the involuntary functions of the body, is controlled by the
subconscious mind. Up to a certain point, the subconscious mind can be aimed
at by the conscious mind. Through Yoga nidra, Antar mouna, Mantra yoga,
Nada yoga and Trataka, a Yogi can co-ordinate and enlarge the repose of the
muscular and nervous systems, thus avoiding the stress chain reaction process.
A Yogi can growrelease from low emotional and low energy feelings. He give
confidence the brain to expand its tasks for maintaining the harmony between
the internal and external environments. He can enlarged the openness of
consciousness, permitting it to mix together with the subconscious and
unconscious elements of mind to become aware of those unseen activities that
are constantly changing and forming the human personality. A simple practice
of developing breath awareness, and trying to develop a rhythm in the breath,
will allow one to watch exactly how the muscles and nervous activities are coordinated, how incoming and outgoing impulses are channelized, and how
introversion of mind takes place. The same practice, if developed and practiced
correctly, will allow the aspirant to rise above the sensual states of personality
and accept the attitude of a seer. This opens the insight into the surrounding
atmosphere in society, while taking protective measures to protect the
personality from the arrival of negative reactions.

III. Therapeutic values of yoga

The sensory nervous system is prepared of many receptor nerve
cells situated in different places on the sense organs, i.e. hearing- ears, sighteyes, smell-nose, touch- skin and taste- mouth. These cells are linked with nerve
filaments, which by joining into bundles, enter into the spine to form the spinal
cord and are then spread to different centres and areas of the brain. Information
which arrives in is analysed and categorised in the brain to shape the
experience. The nervous system's majorpurpose is to attach the cells specialised
in receiving stimuli with motor cells which can proceed on that information.
The central nervous system obtains stimuli from the sensory receptors. It studies
them, creates aexactingcondition of attentiveness and memorises them for future
reference. Concurrently, these messages are then send out in the appearance of

orders; through the motor nervous system to different body organs.There is a

fire burning. The eyes transmit colour, shape and forms; the skin absorbs
sensations of heat; the nose, the burning smell; the ears, the sound of burning
and splitting of wood. These perceptions are in the brain, forming the
experience, and at the same time preparing the actions to be taken against it, if
essential. If one walk off near the fire, the brain will routinely send out a
warning signal.

IV. Food types in Yoga:

The Rajasi food comprises a variety of dishes. It derives its name from
the dining manners of Indian kings. It is said that no less than fifty-six dishes
were served at a royal dining table. Naturally, in this type of preparations, dishes
of various kindssome fried, some roasted, and some curried and highly seasoned
-together with various sweets and drinks would be served.
The second category of eatables, that is the tamasi food include those
which are prepared as hot stuffs. When any dishvegetarian or non-vegetarian-is
prepared with too many spices and with excessive uses of salts, pepper, chili
and similar other seasonings, it becomes tamasi.
In this type, the food is cooked with the least amount of spices. and
without much seasoning. The food is fresh, attractive and nutritive, and is
cooked in a simple way. This type of food is desirable and highly recommended
for the yoga practitioners.


Power of the Human Mind

With regard to many of the benefits of yoga, the mechanisms are at

very subtle levels. The concepts of treatment in Yoga are different from those of
western medicine. Sometimes, we in the medical profession, having been tuned
to a particular way of approaching the human body, find it difficult to accept
other systems of cure. It is a fact that the human mind is the source of immense
energy. We use only one-tenth of our brain cells, the remainder being inactive.
In a yogi, with accomplished capacity for supernormal healing, it is postulated
that much more of the brain is active. Yogis have demonstrated their healing
powers time and again; but this cannot be as objectively studied as western
medicine would like it to be. There are no medical yardsticks to measure many
of the effects of asanas and pranayama. There is no way of studying the

workings of the mind in the material plane. Mind is energy, and energy can heal
or destroy, depending on the proper balance in and around us.
Life is an offshoot of the basic energy in all living things, and when
this is depleted, there is a state of death. This energy balance is disturbed in
many illnesses. When a drug is administered, it is not that alone which cures;
the inner strength of the body also aids it. If this fails, in spite of the medicine,
the patient can die. The human will has been recognized as a considerable force
in overcoming many illnesses. Beyond this, western medicine refrains from
comment. But, yogic science has explored this and has realised that it is
possible to achieve a state where the mind triumphs over matter.
A simple example is the ability to shut off pain. It is possible to
avoid experiencing severe pain physically by intensely repositioning the mind in
a different direction. In this respect, yogis have always demonstrated the
supreme capacity of mind over matter. A telling example is that of the very
famous sage, Sri Ramana Maharishi of Tamil Nadu in India. When sarcoma was
diagnosed, and an operation was imminent, he refused an anaesthetic and felt no
pain at all.


The Yoga therapy as a form of disease management which creates
physical, mental and emotional balance in the body Populace from all age
groups are becoming more busy to yogic exercises for their option medicinal
value, commonly known as yoga therapy. A number of diseases are being
treated through this therapy, at least to a definite extent. Some of these ailments
are migraine, asthma, anxiety, depression, back pain, neck pain, diabetes,
digestive disorders, obesity, blood pressure, chronic fatigue and many more.
Yoga Therapy hearts on the technical aspects of aasanas to aim particular body
parts to heal disease. There are many mental and physical disorders commonly
seen in youngsters which are being cured by therapeutic yoga exercises problems like thyroid and survical, stiffness, mood swing and hormonal
changes, which are easily being cured with exercises like neck rotation, half fish
pose, sarp asana, bhujang asana, gomukh asana and pranayam. Another major
problem seen in youngsters and early childhood is migraine which is caused due
to emotional stress. It can be cured with pranayams, bhujang asana and camel
The tolerant is asked to practice yoga according to his disease and
his physical conditions. In a mass of the cases, a regular practice of only a few
asanas is enough for curing the diseases. In a few of the diseases the practice of
pranayama together with the asanas becomes essential for good results. In
definite cases, exact kriyas such as bandhas, mudras and certain yogic
techniques are used for the desired result. Besides these, practice of
concentration and meditation is also essential in certain cases. From our reaction
from clients at Gems Of Yoga, we have create that a large number of diseases
are healed within two months of yoga practice. In certain cases, it takes about
four months or even more. Virus that take a longer time are juvenile diabetes,
polio, paralysis, parkinsonism, obesity, ulcer, mental health cases, etc. It is
interesting to note that the same asanas, pranayama, bandhas, mudras, and other
kriyas, which are practiced for creative, preventive and general health reasons,
are practiced also for curing diseases. But there is a difference in the manner of
practice by a patient and by a general practitioner. The patient of aexacting
disease is advised to practice only as much of an asana as is probable for him.
By doing only what is physically performable, the patient gains in strength as
the kriyas begin to condition he body and diminish the disease. While the
disease is cured, physical skillrecovers and the similar asanas are maked better

even by those who were unable to do them at the beginning.The yoga therapy is
a specialised form of yogic culture and various yoga centres have developed
their own systems on the basis of their experience and research.


Yoga and Meditation : Alternative


Yoga and meditation are one of the nearly everyone widespread

alternative treatments. The sense of yoga is harmony or to join to the higher
being. It mostly alarms with holistic purification of mind, body and soul. The
values of yoga is based on three gears meditation, exercising and breathing. In
fundamentalism of yoga, the human body is a sort of an instrument and the
Prana (breath) is the life. It is during meditation that both of these unite. Yoga is
that sort of an train which is indispensable not only for the body but also for the
mind because of its therapeutic properties for mind, body and soul. One can stay
his body toned, flexible and fit and also can offer cure for regular pains or any
chronic illness along with improving the immune system. Yoga and meditation
also build an development in your blood flow while removing any signs of
tiredness. When one works on his breathing patterns in yoga, he is able to
control his breath, thus controlling mind and increasing concentration which
leads to energizing it as well.


Yoga and Modern Medicine

The fact that yoga can prevent and cure many ailments is well
known. Yoga should not be viewed as an alternative system of medicine but as a
primary form of cure in those areas in which yoga alone can cure ill-health.
Yoga can tackle many major illnesses non-invasively; it is not just a stressreliever or a panacea. This places yoga in a different dimension altogether.
Modern medicine uses bio-feedback as a stress-relieving technique, but yoga
works on the inner senses and mind in a conscious process and is more direct in
its approach. It is an automatic feedback system.
Modern medicine undergoes constant change. Theories alter by the
minute. Terminologies are modified in each national or international conference.
Newer drugs are being discovered to tackle old and new illnesses; old illnesses
are vanishing and new ones taking their place.
The science of yoga however, has remained unchanged, as the
yogic procedures have been researched on and determined by our ancient seers.
There are clear-cut guidelines for both prevention and cure. Today when, in
despair at the failure of Western medicine to deliver every time, we are turning
to natural remedies, yoga is coming into its own.

The ancients said that the mind is the cause of all diseases,
physiological or mental. Modern medicine has corroborated this with the word
`psychosomatic'. Now there is clear proof that mental stress produces many
diseases coronary and respiratory illness, peptic ulcers, weak immune systems.
Mental stress is due to disorganised behavior inside the psyche. The soma or
body is influenced by the sense organs (which are the agents of the mind). On
coming into contact with a pleasurable situation or object for example, a
cigarette they give feedback to the mind. The organs of action pursue the same
object to perpetuate the experience.
Thus, the mind and senses are caught in a vicious cycle each
reinforcing the other, being themselves reinforced by the experience. Patanjali
emphasised that the cause of pain lies in the identification of the seer with the
seen, and the remedy lies in the disassociation. If the mind is silenced by the
practice of asanas and pranayama and the senses are quietened, one's perception
is altered, leading to a sense of detachment in observation. The senses are not
stimulated. The person uses innate intelligence to remain unaffected by
pleasurable situations. In other words, realising the transient nature of
everything, he or she is equanimous in all situations.
The relation between the psyche and soma is harmonized by the
practice of yoga. Drugs may cure illnesses, but the basic inner foundation for
achieving health, the harmonization of the inner psyche, is not established. Yoga
is of most value in this.

III. Benefits Of Yoga and Meditation

Trains the brain

Heart patients experience increased exercise tolerance
Reduces Stress
Better oxygen absorption
Improves attention
Decreases respiratory rate
Increased blood flow and slower heart rate
Deeper level of relaxation
Reduced probability of an anxiety attack
Relaxed muscles provide relief from headaches
Builds self-confidence
Higher serotonin production; improvement in behavioural patterns
A support solution for chronic diseases
Brings B.P. Back to normal (in case of High blood pressure)
Diminish Pre- menstrual Syndrome

Development in the immune system.

Reduced possibilities of emotional pain
Helps in post-operative healing
Stress and Depression
Irritability and moodiness
Low Self esteem and Low self confidence
Weakening or Loosening Memory
Angina pains
PMS (pre-menstrual cycle)
Panic attacks
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
High blood pressure
Heart disease


A mentally healthy person is one who has aimpartial
personality, free from schism and inconsistencies, emotional and nervous
tension, discords and conflicts. A healthy adjusted person can pact with
his potentialities as well as he can believe his limitations.Mental health is
more than just being free of a mental illness. It is additional of an optimal
level of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Mentally healthy
individuals be apt to have better medical health, productivity, and social
relationships. Mental illness refers to all of the diagnosable mental
disorders and is described by abnormalities in thinking, feelings, or
behaviors. Several of the most common types of mental illness include
anxiety, depressive, behavioral, and substance-abuse disorders. There is
no single cause for mental illness. Rather, it is the result of a complex
group of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors.


Mental Hygiene


It is a Science which deals with the process of attaining

mental health and preserving mental health in the society. The term
mental health is intimately related with the term mental hygiene as the
main objective of mental hygiene is to attain mental health. In other
words, mental hygiene is a means of mental health.

VI. Yoga Vs. Medical System

In medical system the main trust is on medicine. It is
understood that a particular medicine will heal a exacting disease. The
medical doctor does the diagnosis, identifies the disease and prescribes a
appropriate medicine. The patient in this system has to do extremely little
or nothing at all. The duty of accurating the disease and disorder and
refurbishing health is allocated to the medicine. There is a disparity
between the medical system and yogic system of treatment. While in the
medical system the medicine does the remedial work, in the yogic system
this outside agent is not wanted. It is the patient himself whose personal
understanding, practice and care heals his disease in the yogic system. It
would not be rude to state that we encountered numerous patients paining
from different chronic diseases, who had gone their confidence in the
medical system because inspite of years of treatment they had not
attained permanent and acceptable cure. The medicine offered them
instant relief, but not a permanent cure. On the lopsided, a vast number of
such patients achieved permanent cure from side to side therapeutic yoga
within a period of three to four months. This has specifically been so in
cases of diabetes, arthritis, asthma, gastro-intestinal disorders, nervous
tension and various other cases. This restraint of the medical system
should not mean that it is poorer to the yoga system; rather it is only a
subject of the restraint and range of a given system. There are areas where
only the medical science and not yoga can come to the liberate of the
patient. Equally, there are some diseases, which though observed
incurable through medicinal system, are absolutely cured through yoga.
This demonstrates that every system of treatment has some sole points as
well as limitations. Additional, the medical treatment has now become so
luxurious that millions of people all over the world cannot have enough
money it. It is, therefore, not astonishing that our hospitals now fail to
offer medicines to the patients although they used to do so generously in
the past. Yoga on the other hand does not absorb any expenses. As a
result, it would be wise on the part of the medical men to adopt and use
this tested ancient system of yoga for delighting those diseases and
disorders whose medicinal cure is not certain. Since the system of

therapeutic yoga is now scientifically recognized, it can be used as a selfcure method by people suffering from a variety of disorders in any part of
the world.

VII. Music Therapy& Musical Education in

Music therapy is one of the alternative forms of therapeutic
treatments. The 21st century regulation of music therapy began after
World War I and II in USA when community musicians of all types, both
part time and professional, went to hospitals around the country to
participate for the thousands of war veterans suffering both physical and
emotional trauma from the wars. The patients' notable physical and
emotional retorts to music guided the doctors and nurses to appeal the
hiring of musicians by the hospitals. It is distincted as the planned and
original utilize of music to achieve and preserve health and happiness.
Individuals of any age and aptitude may advantage from a music therapy
program, despite of their musical ability. Music therapy can address
physical, psychological, emotional, cognitive and social needs, with
therapeutic relationships. It spotlights on meeting therapeutic aims, which
differentiates it from musical Entertainment or musical education. Music
therapy is the therapeutic application of music with proper methodologies
and procedure, by a trained music-therapist, to restore, maintain or
enhance the cognitive, socio-emotional and physical functioning of
normal/ disabled persons of all ages. The lively form of music therapy is
being used in many areas of paediatrics, and in geriatrics, to get back the
memory of aged people having neurological disorders. In paediatrics,
hyperactive children's over action has been abridged by frequently
revealing the children to one or two sessions of energetic form of music
therapy in a week. In a group of 40 children, diagnosed as hyperactive, on
medication to reduce their hyperactivity, music therapy was used
successfully to overcome their problems. Since the medicine in children
is effective only for four to six hours after this to control their over
activity, music therapy was used for a stipulated period for the group as a
whole, every day at a given time. This group therapy of music focussed
on a number of actions of each child, and worked as a diversion for them.
Over a period of eight to twelve weeks, the children were observed and to
everybody's surprise the over-activity levels were reduced. Almost all the
children in the group were benefitted by this therapy.Music therapists
may be common in western countries, but the field is being taken

seriously in India in recent years. Apollo offers an advanced medical

music therapy course, which is open to postgraduate students of
psychology and music Dr Thirumalachari Mythily is Cognitive Neuro
Psychologist and Music Therapist at Apollo Hospitals, Chennai. For
patients interested in alternative therapies, Apollo Chennai offers a
comprehensive, hospital-based Wellness Center, occupying a full floor of
the hospital. Holistic healing therapies, such as Ayurvedic medicine,
aromatherapy, pranic healing, yoga, meditation, and music therapy, are
offered to international patients as part of the hospitals complimentary
recovery package. The Mumbai Educational Trust Institute of Alternate
Careers (METIAC) recently introduced a certificate course in music
therapy. The S.H Centre for Music Therapy and Mental Health, Amritsar,
also offers a distance education course in music therapy.


Yoga for Health

1. Most of the diseases take their origin in over-eating,

sexual excess and outbursts of anger and hatred. If the
mind is kept cool and calm at all times, you will have
wonderful health, strength and vitality. Energy is depleted
by fits of anger. The cells and tissues are filled with
morbid, poisonous materials, when one loses his temper
and entertains deep hatred. Various sorts of physical
ailments crop up. The blood becomes hot and thin and
consequently night pollution results. Various kinds of
nervous diseases are attributable to excessive loss of the
seminal energy and frequent fits of explosive anger or
2. Let any disease remain in your body. Do not bother too
much. Do not fret and fume. Develop the powers of
endurance and resistance. Strengthen your body, mind
and nerves. Take plenty of open-air exercises, substantial
nutritious food, medicated oil bath and plenty of rest.
Have mental and physical recreation. Lead a wellregulated life. Be moderate in food, drink and
enjoyments. Lead a spiritual life. All diseases will leave
your body by themselves. All microbes will die, when
your vitality, vigour and strength are at a flood tide. This
is the secret of health and happiness.
3. Do not be carried away by the pompous advertisements
made by quacks and charlatans. Lead a simple natural
life. You will become all right soon. Do not spend any






money in purchasing the so-called patent medicines and

specifics. They are worthless. Quacks try to exploit the
credulous and the ignorant. Beware. Do not go to the
doctors very often. Endeavour to qualify yourself as your
own doctor. Understand the laws of nature and the
principles of hygiene and health. Do not trespass against
the laws of health.
Bask in the sun. Expose your body to the rays of the sun
for a short time daily. This is heliotherapy or suntreatment. Sun is the source of energy and power. You
will derive energy and power from the sun.
Soak 12 almonds at night. Remove the skin and take the
almonds with some sugarcandy in the early morning. Or
you can make a refreshing beverage by grinding these
almonds with a little black pepper and sugarcandy. This is
called thandai by the Punjabis. This is a fine, cooling
and strength-giving tonic.
Rest in bed is necessary. Adjust your diet. Take simple,
wholesome, easily digestible, bland and non-irritating
food. Give up hot, pungent curries, chutneys and chilliest
Rest the stomach and the small bowels by taking recourse
to partial fasts. If you can fast for a whole day, it is all the
better. Fasting eliminates poisons and overhauls the
system thoroughly. You can take sago and milk barley
water and fruits like sweet oranges, grapes, etc. If you are
thirsty, you can take lemon or orange juice with
Observe Brahmacharya. Get up at 4 a.m. and practice
Japa of Hari Om or any other Mantra and also
meditation for one hour. The Name of the Lord is the best
medicine or tonic in the world. You should have intense
faith in the power of the Names of the Lord. Incurable
diseases are cured by Japa or singing Haris Name.
Meditation creates new, healthy vibrations in all the cells
of the body and removes any kind of disease. All the
tissues are bathed in the nectar that flows during
meditation. All germs that cause diseases are destroyed.
The rationale of this kind of Yogic or spiritual treatment
is yet unknown to the medical profession.
Why do you unnecessarily introduce foreign drugs into
the system? Resort to Nature Cure and Yogic Chikitsa.
Practise regularly Pranayama, breathing exercises,
Asanas, concentration and meditation. This is the ideal

treatment. Do not think too much of the disease and too

much of the body. Too much thinking of the disease will
intensify the malady. Keep the mind fully occupied in
some way or the other. This is very important. Take away
the mind from the body and think of the diseaseless Atma
or Soul within, the bed-rock or substratum for the body
and mind. Friend, cultivate this kind of Atma-chintana
and attain the Anamayapada or the Painless State Param
Dhama or Immortal Brahman. Cheer yourself up. Have a
cheerful countenance always. Meditate on Om. Think of
Om. Sing Om. Om is thy real name. Om is the best tonic,
specific or sheet anchor, panacea or cure-all, pick-meup or sovereign remedy for all diseases. Smile and laugh.
Thou art bodiless, undying Soul. Never, never forget this.


The Salt of life is selfless service. The bread of life is
universal love. The water of life is purity.
The sweetness of life is devotion. The fragrance of life is
generosity. The pivot of life is meditation. The goal of life is Selfrealisation. Therefore, serve. Love. Be pure and generous. Meditate and
If one can always remember that God is watching all his
thoughts, he will do very few evil actions. He will realise God quickly.
But he forgets this point owing to force of Maya or Avidya.
But a Viveki who has got the power of discrimination
remembers this on account of the descent of Gods grace (Anugraha) and
marches on the spiritual path with bold, steady and quick steps. The
descent of the Divine grace is due to countless virtuous actions done by
him with Nishkama Bhava
during several births.
This world is as unreal as a shadow, bubble or froth. Why do
you run after wealth, woman and the toys of name and fame?
Some Bhaktas think that they have made a complete selfsurrender. But they have their own ways sometimes and cherish some
desires. They walk in their own egoistic ways. This surrender is insincere.
They are not entitled to the descent of Divine Grace. No one is always
praised. No one is also always censured. Also there is no one on earth
who is not blamed. Therefore, do not bother about praise or censure. Rise
above censure and praise and identify yourself with the Absolute, the
Glory of glories, the Holy of holies, the Light of lights, the
Sun of suns, Atman or Supreme Self. The body is the source of all pains.
Hunger is the worst of all diseases. There is no fire like
lust. Santosha (contentment) is the best of all virtues.


Books and Website -


Yoga Education
By - Dr. Tapas Pal, Dr. Sanat Kumar Rath, Prof. SambhuCharan Roy

2) Scientific Aspects of Yoga PPT

By - Dr. Ishwar V. Basavaraddi, Director, Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga, New Delhi

3) Ayurved - The Science Of Sel Healing

By - Dr. Vasant Lad
4) Easy Steps to YOGA
5) Essence Of Yoga
6) Practical Lessons in Yoga
7) Hatha Yoga
By Yogi Ramcharaka
8) Yoga and Ayurved
By Dr. Marc Halpern
9) Wikipedia Website
10) Acroyoga Website