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Medical Sensors

Basic Instrumentation System


BioSystem
Diagnostic Instrument
measurand

Analog signal
processing

Sensor

target

Other types
of Energy

Data Input

Electrical Energy

Calibration
Actuator

A/D conversion

Feedback
Control

Processor
/Algorithm

Therapeutic Instrument

Main Control Unit


Digital Signal Processing

User Interface
Display Storage Xmission

Sensors & Transducers


Transducer : A converter of one type of energy
into another

(1)

(Transducer)

(2)

Example) Actuator : energy1 = electrical / energy 2 = mechanical

Sensor : A transducer providing an electrical output


(1)

(Sensor)

()

Direct, indirect, & inferential


measurements
Direct : measurement made of the
parameter itself, no interpretation,
calculation, interpolation (ex : force
& pressure measurement)
Indirect : SpO2, NIBP
Inferential : cardiac output
(indicator-dilution measurement)

Medical Sensors -structures


SENSOR
Measurand

Stimulus

Example :
EtCO2

Transducible
Property

Detection Means

Principle of
Transduction

Electrical
Output

Conversion Phenomenon

IR absorption LED + photodetector


(2.7/4.3/14.7)

Sensor classification
SENSOR
Stimulus

Measurand

Transducible
Property

Detection Means
Physical
Chemical
Biological
ECG, EEG, EMG
Pressure
Flow
Temperature
pO2
spO2
Glucose
DNA/RNA
protein

Conversion
Phenomenon

Physical
Chemical
Biological

Principle of Electrical
Transduction Output

Physical
Chemical
Biological

Biological
Chemical
Electric, magnetic
EM wave
Heat, temperature
Displacement, wave
Radiation
Radioactivity

Stimulus
Stimulus
Specification
Detection Means
Conversion
Phenomenon
Material
Field
physical sensor
chemical sensor
biosensor

Thermoelectric Chemical transformation


Physical transformation
Photoelectric
Electrochemical process
Photomagnetic
Magnetoelectric Spectroscopy
Electromagnetic Biochemical transformation
Physical transformation
Thermoelastic
Effect on test organism
Electroelastic
ThermomagneticSpetroscopy
Thermooptic
Photoelastic

Pressure Sensors

Medical Pressure
Measurement Systems
Blood pressure : arterial BP, CVP,
intracardiac BP, PAP, spinal fluid pressure,
intraventricular brain pressure
Flow measurement : venturi tube, orifice
Different range of measurements
Need to be least invasive, sterile,
electrical isolation from ac power mains

Calibration
2-point calibration sequences
ZERO/OFFSET
SPAN/GAIN

Instructions for Operator


Prevent contamination of the patients line
Prevent air embolism due to complicated
stopcock arrangements

Units of Pressure
kPa

mmHg

mBar

inH2O

PSI

1 atm

101.3

760

1013

406.8

14.70

1 kPa

7.5001

10

4.015

0.1450

1 mmHg

0.1333 1

1.333

0.5352 0.01934

1 mBar

0.1

0.4015 0.01450

1 inH2O

0.2491 1.868

2.491

0.0361

1 PSI

6.8947 51.71

68.95

27.68

1 cmH2O

0.0981 0.7355

9.810-7

0.3937 0.01422

0.75001

Types of Pressure Sensors


P1

P2

Differential
pressure

P1

P1

P1

Reference
pressure

Reference
pressure
(Vacuum)

Reference
pressure
(1 atm)

Vented to
atmosphere

Port blocked

Gauge
pressure

Absolute
pressure

Port blocked

Sealed Gauge
pressure

Methods to Measure Pressure


1.
2.

Liquid column + level detection


Elastic element
2.1 Bourdon tube, Bellows + displacement measurement : potentiometer
LVDT
Inductive sensor
digital encoder
2.2 Diaphragm + deformation measurement
2.2.1 Central deformation :potentiometer
LVDT
Inductive sensor
unbonded strain gauge
cantilever and strain gauge
vibrating wire
2.2.2 Global deformation : variable reluctance
capacitive sensor
optical sensor
piezoelectric sensor
2.2.3 Local deformation : strain gauges : bonded foil
bonded semiconductor
deposited
sputtered(thin film)
diffused/implanted semiconductor

Torricelli Manometer

Evangelista Torricelli
(1608-1647)
In 1643, realized that
the atmosphere exerts
pressure on earth

Blaise Pascal
(1624-1673)
In 1647, observed that
pressure exerted on the
column of mercury
depends on elevation,
named barometer

U-tube Manometer
The U Tube contains water or mercury in a U-shaped tube, and is usually used
to measure gas pressure. One end of the U tube is exposed to the unknown
pressure field and the other end is connected to a reference pressure source
(usually atmospheric pressure), shown in the schematic below.

Typical U Tube

U Tube Pressure Sensor

Sphygmomanometry
Korotkoff sound

(1905 by Nicolas Korotkoff)

Phase I: First appearance of clear, repetitive,


tapping sounds. This coincides approximately
with the reappearance of a palpable pulse.
Phase II: Sounds are softer and longer, with
the quality of an intermittent murmur.
Phase III: Sounds again become crisper and
louder.
Phase IV: Sounds are muffled, less distinct,
and softer.
Phase V: Sounds disappear completely.

Bourdon Tube Gauge

In 1849 the Bourdon tube pressure gauge was patented


in France by Eugene Bourdon.

C-shaped Bourdon Tube

Simplex Bourdon-tube pressure gauge

Bourdon-tube differential pressure gauge

Spiral Bourdon tube

Helical Bourdon tube

Bellows Elastic Elements

Simple bellows gauge

Differential pressure sensor dual bellows

Diaphragm Designs

Potentiometer Sensor
- Potentiometer : convert
translational/rotation displacement into
resistance change
- Error : mechanical linkages, differences
in thermal expansion coefficients of the
metallic components, mechanical wear
of the contact
- small size, output without additional
amplification, low power applications
- inexpensive
- pressure range : between 5 and 10,000
psig (35 KPa to 70 MPa)
- accuracy : 0.5% and 1% of full scale,
- not including drift and the effects of
temperature.

Strain Gage Sensor


Strain Gage : a fine wire strained within its elastic limit
converts extremely small displacement into resistance
change due to changes in D, L, and
R=

dR =

dL

A2 LdA + L

d
A

A
R L A
=

+
R
L
A

R
L
= (1 + 2 )
+
where Poissons ratio: D/D = - L/L
R
L

dimensional effect Piezoresistive effect


R R

where gage factor G is useful in comparing
G=
= (1 + 2 ) +
L L
L L various strain-gage materials

(a)

- Pressure ranges :3 inH2O to


200,000 psig (1400 MPa)
- Inaccuracy ranges : 0.1% of span
to 0.25% of full scale
- Additional error sources : 0.25%
of full scale drift over six months

(b)

Unbonded strain-gage
pressure sensor

(a) with increase pressure, the strain on


gage pair B & C is increased, while that
on gage pair A & D is decreased,
(b) Statham Pressure Transducer

P23XL

0.25% full scale temperature


effect per 1000 F

Statham Pressure Transducer P23XL


Pressure range

50 to +300 mmHg

Maximum over-pressure

10,000 mmHg

Sensitivity

5V/V/mmHg 1%

Volume displacement

0.04 mm/100 mmHg pressure

Bridge resistance

350 ohms, nominal

Non-linearity

1.5 mmHg over 0 to 300 mmHg

hysteresis

0.1 mmHg over 0 to 10 mmHg

Zero balance

25 mmHg

Thermal coefficient of sensitivity


(typical)

0.1%/C

Thermal coefficient of zero (typical)

0.3 mmHg/C

Electrical leakage:

AC 2A maximum at 115 V rms 60 Hz


DC 100 megohms minimum at 50 V DC

Insulation

Withstands 10,000 V DC

Rated excitation voltage

7.5 V DC or AC up to 5 kHz

Maximum excitation voltage

10 V DC or AC

Capacitance Sensor
d

C1 =

0 r A
dx

, C2 =

0 r A x
,

d+x d

C1 C2
C1 + C2

- Wide rangeability, from high


vacuums in the micron range to
10,000 psig (70 MPa). Differential
pressures as low as 0.01 inches of
water can readily be measured
- Compared with strain gage
transducers, they do not drift much
- Better designs are available that are
accurate to within 0.1% of reading
or 0.01% of full scale
- Temperature effect is 0.25% of full
scale per 1000 F

Resonant Wire Sensor


- Inherently digital signal output
- Sensitivity to temperature variation, a
nonlinear output signal, and some
sensitivity to shock and vibration
- Microprocessor-based compensation
for nonlinearities as well as ambient
and process temperature variations.
- Pressure range : absolute pressures
from 10 mmHg, differential pressures
up to 750 inH2O, and gauge pressures
up to 6,000 psig (42 MPa).
- typical accuracy: 0.1% of calibrated
span
- six-month drift : 0.1%
- temperature effect : 0.2% per 1000 F

Piezoelectric Sensor

- Charge developed across the crystal is proportional to the applied force


- Useful for dynamic measurement, relative pressure (such as psir
instead of psig) referencing to the initial condition of the crystal
- Electrostatic/Piezoresistive/Resonant : 3 types
- Rugged construction, small size, high speed, self-generated signal
- Sensitive to temperature variation
- Require special cabling & amplification

Piezoelectric Sensor
Electrostatic
- small and rugged
- self-generated voltage
- high speed response (30 100 kHz), ideal for transient phenomena
- dynamic pressure : explosion, pulsation, dynamic conditions in motors,
rocket engines, compressors, etc.
- range : 0.1 10,000 psig (0.7 kPa 70MPa)
- accuracy : 1% FSO
- temperature effect : 1% FSO / 1000F
Piezoresistive
- Resistivity dependence on silicon under stress
- Silicon diaphragm with 4 pairs diffused silicon resistors
- Sensitive to temperature changes
- Must be temperature compensated
- Range : 3 psi 14,000 psi (21 kPa 100 MPa)
Resonant
- Variation in resonant frequency of quartz crystals under an applied
force
- Suspended beam oscillation at its resonant frequency
- Range : 015 psia ~ 0-900 psia / 0-6 psid ~ 0-40 psid

Semiconductor silicon sensor

Bridge circuits are widely used for the measurement of resistance, capacitance, and
inductance. The resistive bridge, also known as Wheatstone bridge.

Basic Wheatstone Bridge Circuit

A basic Wheatstone bridge circuit contains four resistances, a constant voltage


input, and a voltage gage, as illustrated below.
The voltage gage reading Vg can then be obtained from,

Now suppose that all resistances can change during the measurement. The
corresponding change in voltage reading will be,

Balanced Wheatstone Bridge Circuit


If the bridge is initially balanced, the initial voltage reading Vg should be zero. This
yields the following relationship between the four resistances,

where is defined by,

Moreover, when the resistance changes are small (< 5%), the second order term is
approximately zero and can be ignored. We then have,

which is the basic equation governing the Wheatstone bridge voltage in strain
measurement. The coefficient
is called the circuit efficiency.

Equal-Resistance Wheatstone Bridge Circuit


In practice, one often uses the same resistance value for all four resistors, R1
= R2 = R3 = R4 = R. Noting that r = 1 in this case, the change in voltage can
be further simplified to,

Vg = ? Iin

Iin

Inductance/Reluctance Sensor

- Based on magnetic phenomena : inductance, reluctance, eddy currents


- Changes in pressure movement changes in inductance &
reluctance of an electric circuit
- LVDT-type: 0.5% FSO accuracy, 0-30 psig to 0-10,000 psig range
- Susceptible to mechanical wear, sensitive to vibration & magnetic
interference
- Reluctance-based : high output, must be excited by ac voltage
- Susceptible to stray magnetic field, 2%/1000F temperature effect
- Range : 1 inH2O ~ 10,000 psi, with 0.5% FSO accuracy

Optical Sensor
- Moving vane blocks some of the LED
light
- Must compensate for aging of the
LED light source, dirt or coating
material on the optical surface by a
reference diode
- Immune to temperature effect
- Zero hysteresis & repeatability error
- Do not require much maintenance
- Excellent stability, long-duration
measurement
- Range : 5 60,000 psig
- Accuracy : 0.1% FSO

Practical Consideration
Good repeatability vs absolute accuracy
Good linearity & low hysteresis for wide range
Ambient & process temperature variation in
low pressure & small differential pressures :
temperature compensation
Power supply variations :
- Vo = S Vs [ Pm/Pr ]
- Output voltage = sensitivity supply voltage
measured pressure rated pressure(constant)

Total error = root-sum-square method

Selection Criteria
Output : low voltage(100mV 250mV),
amplified voltage (1 5 V), converted to
current loop (4-20 mA)
Housing : electrical area classification and
corrosion requirement
Installation : explosive environment
Range : should be low for accuracy, high for
protection from overpressure
Temperature protection : cooling or heating

Flow Sensors

Flow : the motion of a fluid

(1) Blood flowmeters :


- ultrasonic (doppler, transit time)
- electromagnetic
(2) Gas flowmeters :
- pneumotachometer
- spirometer
- Wright's respirometer
- rotameter
- ball float meter

Flow rate :

(1) mass flow rate : mass transferred per unit of


time (ex:[kg/sec])
(2) volumetric flow rate : volume of material
transferred per unit of time(ex:[cc/sec])
(3) Total flow or flow volume : integration of flowrate

Electromagnetic Blood Flowmeter :Faraday's


principle of electromagnetic induction can be applied
to any electrical conductor (including blood) which
moves through a magnetic field. This probe applies
an alternating magnetic field (typically at 400 Hz)
across the vessel and detects the voltage induced by
the flow via small electrodes (microvolt region) in
contact with the vessel.
L1

e = u B dL
0

where
B = magnetic flux density, T
L = length between electrodes, m
u = instantaneous velocity of blood, m/s

Ultrasonic Blood Flowmeter :


(1) transit time methods in which the blood velocity
is calculated from the time taken to cross the
vessel oblique to the direction of flow.
(2) The most practical form of ultrasonic blood
flowmeter is the continuous wave doppler system
with the doppler-shifted components being fed to
a zero-crossing detector. Forward and reverse
flow is represented by the doppler- shifted
components above and below the ultrasonic
frequency.

Transit Time

D
D
, tu =
td =
vs + V cos
vs V cos
tu t d =

2 DV cos
2
vs V 2 cos 2

vs (tu td )
V
2 D cos
2

Doppler Effect
1
f
Vs
(1 )
v
1
f '=
f
Vs
(1 + )
v
V
f ' = (1 + o ) f
v
Vo
f ' = (1 ) f
v
f '=

Observer : stationary
Source : approaching
Observer : stationary
Source : going away
Observer : approaching
Source : stationary
Observer : going away
Source : stationary

f '=

'

wavelength is modified

f '=

v'

velocity is modified

Vo
1
(1 + ) f
f '' =
Vo
v
Target : approaching
(1 )
Source/Observer : stationary
v
2Vo
2Vo
2Vo
f '' f =
f
f
f cos
v Vo
v
v

Pneumotachometer : This measures the flow rate


of gases during breathing. The breath is passed
through a short tube (Fleisch tube) in which there is
a fine mesh which presents a small resistance to the
flow. The resulting pressure drop across the mesh is
in proportion to the flow rate. The pressure drop is
very small (e.g. 2 mmHg) and so the measuring
circuit must be of high quality and produce very little
drift with time.
Fleisch tube : It consists of a wide bore tube in
which there is a mesh or screen which slightly
restricts the airflow through it. The resistance to flow
presented by the screen produces a differential
pressure which is proportional to the airflow through
the device.
Spirometer : These measure the volumes of gases
breathed in or out. They are usually displacement
(bell) devices, a bellows, or a small turbine device
with gears to drive a pointer.

Temperature Sensors

Temperature measurement in
Biomedicine


Calorimetric Biosensor

Tympanic thermometer

Respiration Detector

Human life is only compatible with


a narrow range of temperatures:

Temperature
(C)
28

muscle failure

30

loss of body temp. control

33

loss of consciousness

37

normal

42

central nervous system breakdown

44

death*

Symptoms

Various modes of heat transfer

Basal Body Temperature For Pregnancy Achievement

Overview

Thermocouple

The Thermocouple is a thermoelectric temperature sensor which consists


of two dissimilar metallic wires, e.g., one chromel and one constantan.
These two wires are connected at two different junctions, one for
temperature measurement and the other for reference. The temperature
difference between the two junctions is detected by measuring the change
in voltage (electromotive force, EMF) across the dissimilar metals at the
temperature measurement junction.

Typical Thermocouples

Common Specifications
Common commercially available thermocouples are specified by ISA (Instrument
Society of America) types. Type E, J, K, and T are base-metal thermocouples and can
be used up to about 1000C (1832F). Type S, R, and B are noble-metal thermocouples
and can be used up to about 2000C (3632F).
The following table provides a summary of basic thermocouple properties. For more
detailed specifications of individual thermocouples, please consult the sensor
manufacturer.
ISA

Material
(+ & -)

Temperature Range
C (F)

Sensitivity@
25C (77F)
V/C (V/F)

Error*

App.**

Chromel & Constantan


(Ni-Cr & Cu-Ni)

-270~1000
(-450~1800)

60.9
(38.3)

LT:1.67C(3F)
HT:0.5%

I,O

Iron & Constantan


(Fe & Cu-Ni)

-210~1200
(-350~2200)

51.7
(28.7)

LT:2.2~1.1C(4~2F)
HT:0.375~0.75%

I,O,R,V

Chromel & Alumel


(Ni-Cr & Ni-Al)

-270~1350
(-450~2500)

40.6
(22.6)

LT:2.2~1.1C(4~2F)
HT:0.375~0.75%

I,O

Copper & Constantan


(Cu & Cu-Ni)

-270~400
(-450~750)

40.6
(22.6)

LT:1~2%
HT:1.5% or 0.42C(0.75F)

I,O,R,V

Platinum & 87% Platinum/


13% Rhodium
(Pt & Pt-Rh)

-50~1750
(-60~3200)

6
(3.3)

LT:2.8C(5F)
HT:0.5%

I,O

Platinum & 90% Platinum/


10% Rhodium
(Pt & Pt-Rh)

-50~1750
(-60~3200)

6
(3.3)

LT:2.8C(5F)
HT:0.5%

I,O

70% Platinum/
30% Rhodium &
94% Platinum/
6% Rhodium
(Pt-Rh & Pt-Rh)

-50~1750
(-60~3200)

6
(3.3)

LT:2.8C(5F)
HT:0.5%

I,O

*: LT = Low temperature range, HT = High temperature range


**: I = Inert media, O = Oxidizing media, R = Reducing media, V = Vacuum

Constantan, Alumel, and Chromel are trade names of their respective owners.

Overview

RTD

The Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) or resistance thermometer uses


the fact that the resistance of metals increases with temperature. Examples are
RTD's are shown schematically below.

Resistance Temperature Detectors

Further Information
The resistance of commercially available RTDs ranges from 10 to 25,000 . More
common ones are 100, 200, and 1000 strain-free platinum (>99.999%) probes and
10 copper probes. Generally, the higher the resistance, the less affected the RTD will
be due to small resistance/voltage fluctuations in the lead wires and circuit.
Common metals used in RTDs include platinum, copper, nickel, BalcoTM (70% Ni30% Fe), and tungsten. Their temperature ranges are listed in the following table.

Material

Temperature
Range

Note

Platinum (Pt)

-260~1000 C
(-440~1800 F)

< 550 C (1022 F)


in most applications

Copper (Cu)

-200~260 C
(-330~500 F)

Nickel (Ni)

-200~430 C
(-330~800 F)

Linearity is not good

Balco
(70% Ni-30% Fe)

-100~230 C
(-150~450 F)

Tungsten (W)

-100~1200 C
(-150~2200 F)

Linearity is not
good; cheap to
fabricate; high
resistance

Overview

Thermistor

Similar to Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD), the Thermistor (Bulk


Semiconductor Sensor) uses resistance to detect temperature. However, unlike
an RTD's metal probe where the resistance increases with temperature, the
thermistor uses ceramic semiconducting materials which respond inversely with
temperature. Examples of thermistors are shown in the following schematic.

Typical Thermistors

Typical thermistor sensors can measure temperatures across the range of -40 ~ 150
0.35 C (-40 ~ 302 0.63 F). The shape of the thermistor probe can take the form
of a bead, washer, disk, or rod as illustrated in the above figure. Typical operation
resistances are in the k range, although the actual resistance may range from
several M to several .

Overview

Pyrometer

A Pyrometer, or radiation thermometer, is a non-contact instrument that


detects an object's surface temperature by measuring the temperature of the
electromagnetic radiation (infrared or visible) emitted from the object.

Typical Broadband Pyrometer

Thermopile Infrared Sensors


Thermopiles are particularly suited for simple
fabrication of IR sensors that are generally used
for noncontact measurement of surface
temperature by monitoring heat radiated from the
surface.
Applications : pyrometry, gas analysis in medical
and automotive equipment, temperaturecontrolled microwave cooking and toaster controls.
Recent advances in the production of
thermopiles include introduction of silicon(Si)
micromachining technology.
Unlike the classical thermoelectric sensor
materials - bismuth(Bi) and antimony(Sb) - siliconbased devices offer compatibility with standard
semiconductor integrated-circuit(IC) fabrication
processes and consequent cost-effective volume
production.

Other Physical
Sensors

Other Physical Sensors


LVDT
Tilt/Inclination sensors
Accelerometer
Hall Effect Sensor

LVDT(Linear Variable Differential Transformer)


- a series of inductors in a hollow cylindrical shaft
and a solid cylindrical core.
- produce a electrical output proportional to the
position of the core.
- convert changes in physical position to an
electrical output
- lack of friction(long life), very good resolution,
good sensitivity in dynamic tests(small mass of core).

Principle of Operation of LVDT

Electrolytic Tilt Sensor

Figure 1. This single-axis view of a five-pin, fluid-filled tilt


sensor in the upright position shows the physical relationship
among the vial, pins, and fluid when the sensor is slightly
tilted.

Accelerometer
Accelerometers can be described as two transducers -- the primary
transducer, typically a single-degree-of-freedom vibrating mass which
converts the acceleration into a displacement, and a secondary
transducer which converts the displacement of the seismic mass into
an electric signal.
Types of primary transducers, which describe the internal mechanism
of the accelerometer, include:
Spring-Retained Seismic Mass
Double-Cantilever Beam

Types of secondary transducers, which describe how the electric


signal is generated from mechanical displacement, include:

Piezoelectric
Potentiometric
Reluctive
Servo
Strain Gauge
Capacitive
Vibrating Element

A 3-Axis Silicon
Piezoresistive Accelerometer

Photo 1. Fujikura's 3-axis silicon


piezoresistive accelearometer
was fabricated using
semiconductor planar
processing and silicon
micromachining technology. The
sensors package itself is a 32pin LCC ceramic 11.4 mm wide
by 14.0 mm deep by 5.3 mm
high. It is optimized for size,
cost, manufacturability, and
customer usability.

Figure 1. The 3-axis silicon


piezoresistive accelerometer
is shown from the top (A)
and in a cross-sectional view
(B).

Figure 4. Acceleration applied


along the X- or Y-axis causes
the proof mass to incline (A),
while acceleration along the Zaxis causes the mass to move
in a downward direction (B).

Hall Effect Sensors


The function of a Hall sensor is based on the physical principle of the Hall effect
named after its discoverer E. H. Hall: It means that a voltage is generated
transversely to the current flow direction in an electric conductor (the Hall
voltage), if a magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the conductor. As the
Hall effect is most pronounced in semiconductors, the most suitable Hall
element is a small platelet made of semiconductive material.

The Hall effect: In a semiconductive


platelet, the Hall voltage is generated
by the effect of an external magnetic
field acting perpendicularly to the
direction of the current.

CMOS Hall sensors made by Micronas in


leaded and SMD package. The magnetic flux
component perpendicular to the chip
surface is measured (arrows).

Hall Sensor Applications


- Industrial Applications -

Applications with linear Hall switches


commutation of brushless DC motors
cooling fans
RPM measurement
wheel speed sensors
revolution counting
final position switch
contactless switch
liquid level
liquid flow
pressure switch
rotary switch

Applications with linear Hall sensors


angle sensor
current measurement
position measurement
distance measurement
pressure sensor
force sensor
magnetic field sensor
torque sensor

Position Measurement

Flow meter

Current Measurement

commutation of brushless DC motors

Chemical Sensors

Introductions
Chemical sensors
For recognition of presence of specific
substances and their concentration
Sensitive to stimuli produced by various
chemical compound or elements
High selectivity
Very small output electrical signal : need
high quality interface electronic devices
Gas/liquid phase sensor : ex, O2 in air/
dissolved oxygen

Oxygen Sensors
Oxygen content of gases and liquid
Partial pressure : pressure exerted by one gas in a
mixture of gases.
The dissolving process for gases is an equilibrium. The
solubility of a gas depends directly on the gas pressure.
If the temperature stays constant increasing the
pressure will increase the amount of dissolved gas.
O2(g) <--->O2(aq)

Sensor methods

Paramagnetic properties of oxygen


Clark electrode
Fuel cell, galvanic cell type

pO2 (CLARK) ELECTRODE

pO2 is measured
amperometrically; the pO2
electrode produces a current
at a constant polarizing
voltage (0.6 V) which is
directly proportional to the
partial pressure of oxygen
diffusing to the reactive
surface of the electrode.

pH Electrodes
To measure the acidity or alkalinity of
solutions determined by activities of
[OH-] and [H+]
pH electrode : Ag-AgCl metallic
electrode immersed in a chloride buffer
with a very thin permeable glass
membrane that allows hydrogen ions to
diffuse into the buffer

23
+

kT
(1.38

10
)
(270
+
25)
log[
H
]
+
Vm =
ln[ H ] =
q
(1.602 1019 )
log e

= 58.5 103 log[ H + ]


60(mV ) pH

The Combination pH Electrode


Modern pH electrodes are usually of
the "combination" type, meaning that a
single cylinder contains both the
reference electrode, and a glass
membrane electrode. The potential of a
combination pH electrode is due to the
difference in activities of H+ between the
test solution and reference solution sides
of the glass membrane.

CO2 Sensors
In liquid solutions : pCO2 with a
selective pH electrode
In air or other gases : absorption of
infrared by CO2

H 2O + CO2 H 2CO3 H + + HCO3

Biosensors

Biosensor
Substances Detection Transduction
analyte
(substrate)

transducer

Output

impurity

electronic signal
biological
detection
element

Signal
Conditioning

electronics
biolayer Biocatalysts
Biocatalysts

High Selectivity & Sensitivity

sample

Bioreceptors
Bioreceptors
Enzymes
Antibodies/Antigens
Enzymes
Antibodies/Antigens
Microorganisms
Cell membrane receptors
Microorganisms
Cell membrane receptors
Plant & animal cells
Specific binding agents
Plant & animal cells
Specific binding agents
Subcellularorganelles DNA
Subcellularorganelles DNA

nerve cell
olfactory membrane

brain

Analyte/Substrate
Any substance that is consumed or
produced in a biochemical process
and exists inside human body
Diverse examples
Ions

Gases

Drugs

Substrates

Enzymes

Microbiology

Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
pH

Oxygen
Ammonia
CO2

Paracetamol
Slaicylate
Amphetamine
Barbiturates
Cocaine
Morphine

Glucose
Cholesterol
Creatinine

Creatine kinase
Amylase
Aspartate
Aminotransferase

Chlamydia
Strep A
Strep B
H. Pylori
I.M.
Malaria
Tuberculosis

Hormones

Cardiac
Markers

Proteins

Allergy

Renal
Dysfunction

Tumor Markers

Viruses

hCG
FSH
LH
Prolactin
TSH

CK-MB
Myoglobin
TroponinI

CRP

IgE

MicroAlbumin

PSA
Hemoglobin
AFP
Ferritin

Adenovirus
HBsAg
HBsAb
Rotavirus
R.S.V.

Biological Components
Can attach/combine to one particular
substrate but not to others
High selectivity & sensitivity
Examples
9 Enzyme
9 Antibodies
9 Nucleic acids
9 Receptors
9 Microorganisms
9 Cell/Tissue/Organ materials

Immobilization
Adsorption

B B B

Microencapsulation

B B B

Entrapment

B B B
B B B

Cross-linking
B B B

Covalent bonding

Transducers
Electrochemical
9potentiometric, amperometric,
voltammetric, conductometric
9electrode, FET-based
Optical
9absorption, fluorescence,
luminescence, IRS(ATR, TIRF, SPR),
light scattering
Piezoelectric : QCM, EQCM
Surface Acoustic Waves
Thermal

-
(Thermometric Indication with Thermistor)
 (Enzyme)
H : the change of enthalpy,
T = nH / cP
cP : the heat capacity of the device,
n : number of moles of the analyte
 ,
 : , ,
 : , ,
Bridge/amplifier

thermal enzyme probe(TEP)

recorder

sample
Buffer
stream
thermistor
Heat exchanger
thermistor

enzyme

Simple calorimetric biosensor

Enzyme reactor

Polyurethane
insulation
Aluminium block

Scheme of an Enzyme thermistor

-
(Optoelectronic Sensors)
 : + spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, reflectometry
()
()
()
 : , ,
 :

illuminating fiber
detector fiber

analyte

color changing
membrane

LED
photodiode

R
window R
reagent

flow through cell


R
Types of optoelectronic biosensors based on fiber opticsScheme of a spectrophotomteric
biosensor
R - chemically sensitive reagent

-
(Optoelectronic Sensors)
 Ellipsometry : TE TM 2 polarized light
reflectivity phase shift absorbed layer

 Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) : thin metal film electron
plasmon evanescent wave

 Resonant Mirror(RM) :
()

laser

cuvet

photo diode

Scheme of an Reflectometric Biosensors

-

(Piezoelectric Sensors/Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM))
 :
 : ammonia, Nox, CO, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, methane, sulfur
dioxide, organophosphate compounds
 : ,
 : aqueous system

TM

Mark 21 Miniature QCM


http://www.qcmresearch.com/

-
(Electrochemical Sensors)
 Potentiometric Electrodes : ion selective electrodes(ISE),

ion selective field effect transistor


(ISFET)
 Amperometric Electrodes :
 Conductometric Measurements :
Potentiometric (ISE) Conductometric
charge accumulation;
potential

ion migration;
resistance

Amperometric
heterogeneous e- transfer;
current

Calomel electrode

K+

K+
A-

K+
A-

A- A- A- AK+

K+

Mox

Mred

Electrochemical transducers of biosensors

ISFET
drain current(ID) is determined by the gate potential(VG) and
the potential difference(VD) between drain and the source
 semiconductor fabrication technology
 difficulties in reducing the reference electrode


VG

VD
reference
gate

insulator

SiO2

n
source

p-silicon

drain

I
D

Construction of an ion sensitive field effect transistor


(Glucose Sensors)
- (blood glucose) (glucoseoxydase, GOD)

- test Strip & Glucometer


LED

Blood with Glucose

Reflectance-based
Methods
Photodiode

strip

Electrochemical
Methods

Enzyme+Reagents
Generic structure of a Glucose Sensor