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Machine Drawing (ME005) 1 2 2 3.0

(a) Machine components: Screw fasteners, Riveted joints, welded joints, keys
cotter joints, shaft couplings, pipe joints and fittings.

(b) Assemblies: Bearings (Plumber Block, Footstep, Swivel), Hangers and


Brackets, steam and IC engine parts, machine components, valves.

Marks distribution

MST: 15
Quiz (two): 10
MST (Lab): 08
EST (Lab): 12
Internal assess.(Tutorial): 15
Internal assess.(Lab): 15
EST: 25

TOTAL: 100
FASTENERS

These are the devices used for holding together two parts of a machine.
Ex. Nut bolts, rivets, keys.

CLASSIFICATION

1. Permanent or semi-permanent fasteners ex. Rivets, welding


The joint cannot be removed without breaking the joining element

2. Temporary fasteners, ex. Nut and bolts


The joint can be removed without injuring the joining element

RIVETS

• These are short cylindrical pieces of ductile metal with head at one
end and tail at other end.
• The tail is converted to a second head after it is fixed inside a hole
with the help of force applied either with hand or with machine
hammering.
• Mostly used in the case of sheet metal, i.e boilers or ship buildings.
• Used where the structure have vibrational loads and metal elements
have poor weld-ability.
• Rivet is usually designated by : type of head, shank diameter x length
i.e snap head rivet 10 x 50

The diameter D of the rivet is given by unwin formula

D= 6 t where, t is the thickness of plate and is in mm.

PROCESS OF MAKING A SECOND HEAD

SHAPES OF RIVET HEADS


- Snap head are usually used in riveting as they are easily shaped
- Counter surfaces are used where rivets are not required above the
surface
- Conoidal head are used where space is less for machine hammering so
there only hand hammering can be used
BASIC DEFINATIONS

- Pitch (P=3D): centre to centre distance between two adjacent rivets in the same
row parallel to the seam or edge.
- Back Pitch: distance between rows of rivets, perpendicular to seam.
- Margin (1.5D): least distance between first row from the edge.
- Diagonal Pitch (Diagonal distance between rivets of adjacent rows)

TYPES OF RIVETED JOINTS


Lap Joints Butt joints

Single riveted multiple riveted Single strap double strap

Chain Zig-Zag Single riveted multiple riveted

Chain Zig Zag

LAP JOINTS
- Edges overlap each other and rivet passes through both the plates.
• In chain riveting distance between rows (Back Pitch) is 2D+6 mm.

• In Zig Zag riveting distance between rows (Back Pitch) is 2D mm.

BUTT JOINT

- When the edges to be joined lie against each other in same plane and
the line of joining is covered by cover plate.
- In single strap only one plate is used, in double strap two plates on
each side of the main plate.
- In single strap thickness of the cover plate is t1=1.125t
- In double strap t1=0.625t
Double strap multiple riveted zig zag butt joint