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- Are temporary fasteners, which hold parts together

through medium of a screw thread.
- Ex. nut and bolt.
- Advantage of removing the parts when required
without breaking.


(i) Hexagonal nut.

(ii) Square nut.
(iii) Castle nut.
- Have hexagonal portion with cylindrical
upper part that is slotted.
- It is used where there is a possibility of
getting loose while in use.
- Split pin is passed through the slot in the nut
and hole drilled in bolt.
(iv) Cap nut
- Cylindrical cap is provided at the top .
- Prevents the end of the bolt against corrosion
and prevents leakage

(v) Dome nut

- Same as cap nut just with the change in shape.
(vi) Flanged nut
- Integral circular flange.
- Integral flange acts as a washer which
increases the bearing area.

(vii) Knurled nut

- knurling helps to screw and unscrew the nut.
- Used where the nut is frequently
required to be screwed on and off by hand.
(viii) Wing nut
- Used for light duty.
- It is used where the nut is to be
tightened or untightened by thumb and finger,
without the use of any device.

(ix) Ring collar nut

- Lower part is cylindrical and grooved.
- screw introduced from the side, end
point of which fits in the groove to lock it.
(x) Lock nut
- Height of the lock nut varies from
0.5D to 0.66D.
- Used where there is the possibility of
the main nut to get loose

- Washer is placed below the nut.

- Purpose:
1. To give the smooth bearing area, where the
surface below the nut is uneven.
2. Pressure of tightening the nut spreads over a
larger area of washer.
3. Prevents the nut from cutting into the metal.

Types of washers

(i) Plain and chamfered washers.

- Are simple circular pieces of plates with hole.
- Diameter of washer: 2D + 3 mm. (D is the
nominal dia of bolt)
- Thickness: 0.125D, Chamfer angle: 300.
(ii) Spring washer
used as locking device for nut.
- Its elasticity keeps the nut tight on the bolt and
does not allow it to loose.
- It is mostly used where the nut gets loose due to
vibrations and washer is to be used for some
reason. Mostly used in automobiles
- It is a cylindrical piece of metal having
a head, of some particular shape on one end and
threads to a definite length on other end.
- It is passed through the hole in two or
more aligned parts, that are to be joined.
- Nut is screwed tightly on the threaded
end to hold the parts.


(i) Hexagonal Headed bolt

- Its thickness (0.75D) is less than that of nut as it
is solid as compared to nut which is having a hole.
(ii) Square Headed bolt
- It is mostly used in machines where
the head is to be accommodated in a recess, which
prevents the rotation of head when nut is screwed
on or off.
- As cutting of the square recess is easier
than cutting hexagonal recess.
(iii) Cheese headed bolt

- Head is of cup shaped.

- Used in a limited space and where the
use of spanner is to be avoided.
- Have a snug with the bolt.
- This snug fits in the recess and
prevents the rotation of bolt while nut is screwed
on and off.
(iv) Cup Headed bolt

- Used in a limited space and where the use of

spanner is to be avoided.
- Square neck is sometimes made to prevent the
rotation of bolt in the hole.
(iv) T- headed bolt
- This bolt has the capacity to slide.
- Used in vices which have T-slots.

(v) Hook bolt

- Head is only at one side of the shank.
- it is used where one part to be joined cannot
have a hole.
- That part comes under the head and is supported
by it.
- Used in railway tracks.
(vi) Eye bolt
- Used for lifting the heavy parts.
- The bolt is screwed in the machine part and
(vii) Counter sunk headed bolt.
- Head is fully inside the recess.
- Used where head should not project outside on the
- Mostly used in woodwork where smooth surface
is required.
Locking Arrangements
- Necessary to provide some arrangement for
preventing nut against loosening.
- This loosening can be due to vibration in a
machine or part.
- To check this tendency some devices called
locking devices are used.

(i) Lock nut

(ii) Spring Washer
(iii) Split Pin
- Wire of which split pin is made of semi-
circular section, so that when its two ends
are bend a circular section is obtained.

- Advantages:
i. Easy method for locking.

- Disadvantage:
i. Difficult to align the holes to pass the
split pin.
ii. Holes for pins weakens the part.
(iii) Ring Collar nut
(v) Sawn Nut
- This nut is cut half way.
- When the set screw is tightened, the two
halfs are pulled together to lock it
(vi) Simmond’s Lock nut
- Have a collar with internal diameter smaller
than the threads.
- Collar is made up of soft material like nylon.
- When nut is screwed, threads force their
way through this collar which grips it.
- disadvantage: same nut cannot be used

(vii) Locking Plate

Foundation bolts
- To fix heavy machinery to concrete
foundation, special types of bolts are used.

Types of Foundation bolts

(i) Rag bolt:

i. Used in Stone/Concrete foundation.
ii. Made from rectangular section bar.

(ii) Curved bolt:

i. Made from circular section bar.

(iii) Lewis bolt

- used for temporary foundations.
- The bolt can be removed by taking out the

(iv) Cotter bolt

- Used to fix heavy machines to the brick or
stone foundation.
(iv) Hoop Bolt
- Eye is made of a rod.
- A bar is passed through this eye to hold the

(v) Square headed bolt.


- Rounded bar threaded on both sides.

- It is used where sufficient space for bolt-head is
not available.

- It is a type of small bolt which is to be used

without a nut.
- It is assembled by passing through the clearance
hole in one part and screwed in other part to join
the two.
- The head of the screw have the slot for the tool
to screw and unscrew it.