Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

SPE 62893

Cementation of Horizontal Wellbores


S. A. McPherson, SPE, BJ Services Co. Ltd

Copyright 2000, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.


This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2000 SPE Annual Technical Conference and
Exhibition held in Dallas, Texas, 14 October 2000.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of
information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as
presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to
correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any
position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at
SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of
Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper
for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is
prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300
words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous
acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.
Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

Abstract
This paper outlines the cement slurry design methodology
used to cement one of the worlds longest horizontal well
bores. The work detailed has been carried out on M-Site of
BP Amocos Wytch Farm Development on the south coast of
Dorset, England, over the past 4-5 years. Of the 17 wells, so
far completed on M-Site, none have required remedial
cementing work and all reservoir sections exhibit satisfactory
zonal isolation, as confirmed by bond log results. The
formations to be drilled exhibit very low fracture gradients,
with the possibility of losses during the cement job constantly
present.
The discussion compares and contrasts cementing techniques
between vertical and horizontal casings. It looks at procedures
and concerns common to both, then describes how downhole
temperature calculation and some lab testing techniques, were
modified to account for the nature of the horizontal well bore.
Output from the computer temperature simulator confirmed
assumptions made earlier in the project. Details of the slurry
design criteria and testing procedures are discussed. The slurry
properties included zero free water and low fluid loss, along
with considerable thickening times, to allow for correct
placement.
The discussion includes hole cleaning measures, and the
influences of mechanical contribution, such as centralisers and
pipe movement. Spacers and flushes with controlled flow
regimes have been used to provide optimum mud and solids
removal. In addition, an outline of the computer simulation
programme used for well bore analysis is shown to be
invaluable to the design engineer, by allowing modification of
many inputs very quickly.
Introduction
As exploitable petroleum deposits are found in increasingly
harsh environments so, the technical limits of each discipline
are stretched to meet this demand. This paper aims to

demonstrate how horizontal casings and liners can be


cemented with equal success to vertical ones. Cementing
practices and procedures used successfully to cement
horizontal zones in the North Sea will be reviewed and
discussed. In addition, data from a number of BP Amocos
Wytch Farm wells will be presented.
Since BP Amocos extended reach drilling work started at
Wytch Farm in 1993, they have continually increased the
boundaries of horizontal drilling, most recently completing
well number 1M-18-SP. The longest well drilled from M-Site
was 1M-16-SP. An outline of the well bore follows:
vertical pre-set 26inch conductor at 25m
18-5/8inch casing set at 260m within the Top Chalk
13-3/8inch casing set within the Oxford Clay at 1009m
measured depth and 764m vertical depth.
9-5/8inch casing being set in the Top Sherwood reservoir
at 7451m measured depth and 1590m vertical depth.
8-1/2-inch section to a total depth of 11,278m making
this the worlds longest horizontal section to date.
7inch liner set at vertical depth of 1610m and a total
depth of 10,210m.
At the time of writing, 4 wells in excess of 9,000m MD have
been drilled and cemented at BP Wytch Farm.
As with any project of this size and duration, changes have
been introduced to the procedures and recommendations, to
allow improvements in job performance, cost efficiency,
safety and environmental issues. To account for this evolution
process, the discussion will focus on the cementation of the
liner sections of the last 4 or 5 wells.
The 12 and 8 open hole sections were drilled with
low toxicity oil based mud having the properties detailed in
Table 1.
Spacers and Pre-flushes
It is accepted throughout the industry, that increased
displacement and circulation rates offer direct improvements
in mud removal, allowing better bonding to pipe and
formation and improved zonal isolation. All the liner cement
jobs in the Wytch Farm development have used large volumes
of spacers and pre-flushes. At the start of the extended reach
work liner well bores were prepared for cementing using a
base oil pre-flush followed by a weighted water based spacer,
at about half way between the mud and cement densities. This
system had repeatedly provided the cement slurry with a
substantial base for good bonding to the pipe and formation, as
borne out by the cement bond logs run on wells M08 and
M10, and that no remedial work has ever been required. At

S.A. MCPHERSON

this time the average displacement rate for liner jobs was in
the region of 6-8bpm. During planning for well M11 (the first
well with a liner set at greater than 10,000m MD), it was noted
that the displacement rate would have to be reduced to
approximately 4bpm to ensure the fracture pressure of the
formation was not exceeded during cementing.
Work done previously by Lockyear, Ryan and
Gunningham1 indicated, that as flow rate decreases, so the
degree of channeling increases, except where water is being
displaced. In addition, due to the increased ease of gaining a
turbulent flow regime, less viscous fluids are more effective at
displacing more viscous ones. Based on this work and the
previous successful well cementations, it was decided to
introduce a water only phase to the current spacer system. This
led to the use of a number of fluids with varying densities and
flow regimes. In addition, density differences can help reduce
channelling of the cement during placement 1.
Since well number M11, the following fluids have been
used ahead of the cement on liner cementations. Typically 100
barrels of base oil is pumped first, due to its compatibility with
the low toxicity, solids laden oil based mud used for drilling.
With its viscosity of 1-2cp the base oil is in turbulent flow,
even at very low pump rates. This allows improved mud
removal throughout the annulus, especially below the pipe,
where mud tends to get trapped. The base oil thins and
removes mobile mud ahead of it and contributes greatly to the
breakdown of filter cakes and pockets of immobile mud. The
base oil flush is followed by 75 barrels of sea water. Again the
turbulent flow regime of this fluid promotes the removal of
immobile mud on the low side of the annulus.
Seventy-five barrels of water based spacer containing a
surfactant, is weighted to part way between the density of the
mud and the cement slurry, using barite. Weighting this fluid
ensures the equivalent density of fluids in the annulus does not
fall below the pore pressure of the formation. The surfactant
aids the break down and removal of immobile mud and will
prevent the formation of any incompatibility products at the
spacer/mud interface. As with vertical wells, incompatibility
between oil based mud and water based spacer is usually
manifest as the generation of a thick mixture resembling
putty. Depending on severity, these incompatibility products
can be of great detriment to hole cleaning by changing the
calculated flow regime to something less effective, or by
creating a blockage. In addition, the spacer yield point is kept
low to promote turbulent flow and cuttings removal.
A second sea water flush of 75 barrels follows the
weighted spacer to reduce the ECD and therefore the pressure
on the formation. The sea water contains the same surfactant
as the weighted spacer, which in conjunction with the
turbulent flow regime of this fluid, continues the attack on
immobile mud pockets in the annulus.
The final fluid ahead of the cement slurry is a further 75
barrels of water based spacer. Mixed to the same design as the
previous weighted spacer pill, it has mutual solvent added at
the same loading as the surfactant. The density of the fluid and
the surfactant content work in the same way as before. The
mutual solvent dramatically improves the water wetting of the

SPE 62893

annular surfaces, offering improved bonding to both pipe and


formation. In addition, the density and rheological properties
of the spacer help prevent channelling of the cement through
the previous fluids.
A summary of the spacer properties is shown in
Table 2.
Slurry Design
Cement Type and Slurry Density. The extended reach work
at Wytch Farm has all been done at vertical depths of less than
1800m, for which the drilling programme states a reservoir
temperature of 150-165degF. The slurries are mixed with neat
Class G cement and sea water to 1.92S.G. (16ppg).
(Although land based, Wytch Farm does not have a ready
supply of fresh water.) The 16ppg slurry density ensures the
generation of a sheath of cement with competent compressive
strength development to properly support the casing.
Test Temperature. In order for the laboratory testing to
closely simulate circulation along the extended horizontal
section, the API temperature tables detailed in Spec. 10a2 are
only used to determine the bottom hole static temperature
(BHST). The calculation of the bottom hole circulating
temperature is based on the assumption, that at some
horizontal distance from a vertical well bore, cold fluids
pumped from surface will have been exposed to the well
temperature for sufficient time to warm up to BHST
conditions. As a result of this, it is assumed all fluids will
reach the bottom hole static temperature by the time they are
displaced to the total measured depth of the well. To simulate
this all laboratory work is carried out at ambient (surface
conditions) and bottom hole static temperatures. This
assumption has been verified using a computer based well
temperature simulator.
Graph 1 details the well temperature simulator output for
well number 1M-16-SP, over the duration of the 7 liner
cementation. At the start of the simulation, it is assumed the
well is in (worst case) static conditions. In this case the bottom
hole static temperature taken from the Drilling Programme,
165degF, is used. The computer programme accounts for the
pumping of all the fluids detailed in the spacer section, along
with the required amount of cement slurry. As the job
progresses the cold fluids pumped from surface force the well
temperature to decrease. At the end of the simulation the
temperature at the toe of the liner is approximately 164degF,
showing that in this case the bottom hole circulating
temperature is not measurably different from the bottom hole
static temperature. Laboratory testing was therefore carried
out at 165degF, bottom hole static temperature.
Thickening Time. Inherent with the extended length of both 9
5/8 casing strings and the liners, is the requirement for
extended slurry thickening times to compensate for the large
displacement volumes. In addition, real well situations can be
different from the simulated ones and a long thickening time
allows the displacement rate to be reduced, if required, during
the job. Building-in safety margins to slurry thickening times

SPE 62893

CEMENTATION OF HORIZONTAL WELLBORES

allows the cementer and rig site personnel to deviate from the
simulated programme, if well conditions dictate. This
flexibility can be used, for example, to heal a fracture created
during cementing in a previously unseen weak spot, by
reducing pump rate and therefore ECD.
On average, liner slurry designs have a thickening time of
10 hours, with the cement job taking in the region of 5-7
hours. The cement slurry used on the liner for well 1M-16-SPz
had a thickening time of 15 hours, with the job taking 81/2
hours to complete.

slurry to the permeable reservoir section, liner slurries for use


at Wytch Farm, must have an API fluid loss of less than 80mls
in 30min, tested with a differential pressure of 1000psi and at
bottom hole static temperature. This level of fluid loss from
the slurry generates a thin sacrificial filter cake, which
prevents further loss of fluid from the slurry during
displacement.
The Wytch Farm development is oil producing and does
not have a requirement for gas migration control within
cement slurries.

Free Water. Cement slurries with long thickening times,


tested at BHST inherently take a long time to set when in the
annulus. This has an effect on more than just the drill out time
of the shoetrack or when the liner lap can be pressure tested.
Having the slurry in a liquid state for extended periods
downhole can lead to increased free water generation and
solids segregation. Free water generation by cement slurries in
horizontal sections can be more detrimental to the overall
annular isolation than the same percentage loss from slurries
in vertical wells. In vertical wells, any free water released by
the cement will migrate to the top of the cement column,
resulting in the potential formation of fluid channels and poor
well bore isolation. Unless the free water generation is very
high this effect does not greatly influence vertical work. In
horizontal wells the top of the cement column runs the full
length of the well bore and any free water generated will result
in poor bonding and possible communication along the high
side of the well bore.
To guard against this, laboratory testing involves two
stability tests. The first is based around the API free water test.
Initially, it is carried out with the test cylinder vertical using
the procedure described in Spec. 10a.2. When the slurry design
has passed this test it is re-tested with the test cylinder set at
45degrees inclination. For work at Wytch Farm the results for
both these tests must be zero free water at bottom hole static
temperature.
The second stability test, The Segregation Tube Test3
allows empirical measurement of the density of the set slurry
over the height of the tube. The variation in density from the
top to the bottom of the tube gives a clear indication of the
amount of settlement experienced during the setting of a
specific slurry design. For a Wytch Farm liner slurry to pass
the test, this variation must be less than 1.5% of the design
density.

Rheology. API rheology measurements are taken, using a


standard Fann 35 rheometer, at ambient and bottom hole static
temperatures. These readings are used to determine a number
of characteristics about the fluid. Its ease of mixing at the
cement unit is of paramount importance as stoppages during
mixing and pumping will interrupt the planned flow regimes
of fluids already in the pipe and annulus. The fluid model
which best represents the slurry can also be calculated and
used to predict, among other things, expected pressures during
the job and hole cleaning abilities. This information can then
be used to determine optimum pump rates and spacer designs.
For speed, the figures can be incorporated into computer based
job simulation programmes, which generate information on
more than just the critical factors stated above.

Fluid Loss Control. Loss of mix water from the slurry, during
displacement, will reduce the slurrys thickening time and
increase its viscosity4. As the slurry loses water it will lay
down a filter cake, against the permeable formation wall.
Uncontrolled, this will change the flow regime of the slurry
from the calculated one to some unpredictable alternative and
may result in excessive ECD being experienced during
displacement. The filter cake will continue to grow over the
whole length of the permeable zone, and in extreme cases may
result in a total blockage of the annulus, preventing further
displacement. To reduce the amount of fluid lost from the

Other Testing. Inherent with the long open hole sections are
large annular volumes and consequently large amounts of
cement are required to fully isolate the annulus. To ensure that
cement used at the end of the job performs to the same
standard as that used at the start, the API thickening time of
the final slurry is re-tested with a second sample of cement
taken from a different sample point to the first. Only when
these two samples are within experimental error limits, is
testing complete.
Table 3 details the cement slurry lab results for 3 recent
liners.
Well bore considerations During Displacement
The ECD values seen while cementing horizontal wells vary
greatly from those experienced with vertical wells. Graph 2
compares ECD values calculated during the displacement of a
horizontal well (demarked by squares) with those for a vertical
well of the same length (demarked by triangles) using the
same fluids and displacement rates. As can be seen the vertical
well exhibits lower ECDs for the majority of the job but these
rise by the end of the displacement to almost 0.7ppg higher
than those seen in the horizontal well. This is due to the
hydrostatic weight of the fluids having greater influence in the
vertical instance.
However, in a horizontal well, the weight of the fluids in
the liner or casing, are spread along the length of the hole.
Centralisers applied using spacing that will support the casing
off the bottom of the hole would have to be increased in
number to support the extra weight of the cement in the
casing. At Wytch Farm the number of centralisers used over
the length of the liner section has fallen as later wells are

S.A. MCPHERSON

drilled, see discussion in Centraliser section. This allows the


extra weight of the casing string to force the casing into
eccentricity. This change in well bore profile and narrowing of
the low side of the annulus can lead to decreased solids
removal efficiency, pockets of trapped dehydrated mud and
will alter the planned flow regimes of the hole cleaning
spacers ahead of the cement. To overcome this effect the
spacer system described earlier has been designed so that it
will provide effective annulus cleaning, before casing standoff reduction becomes significant, and will be easily removed
by cement slurry when required. When the leading edge of the
cement leaves the shoe and enters the annulus, it initially
passes along the high side of the hole. As more cement enters
the annulus, so the weight of the liner decreases allowing
access to the low side. At this time any spacer previously
trapped below the casing, is swiftly removed by the cement
slurry. Due to the minimal effect upon ECD while cementing
shallow horizontal casings and liners, relatively high density,
cement slurries can be passed through low fracture gradient
formations in controlled conditions.
Centralisation
Regardless of well geometry, a minimum API stand-off of
67% is recommended to obtain a sound cement job. This
amount of clearance from the well bore allows sufficient
access around the casing for good mud removal and correct
cement placement. When cementing liners, many operators
and service companies recommend a higher stand-off, in the
region of 80%, to ensure high quality cement job. As the
deviation angle increases, the number of centralisers required,
to achieve these stand-off figures also increases. In addition,
compressible (bow type) centralisers have to overcome the
weight of the pipe as it lies along the low side of the well. This
extra strain on the restoring force results in each centraliser
contributing less to the lift of the casing or liner from the
low side of the well bore. In extreme cases the stand-off
achieved will be lower than the minimum API
recommendation, perhaps only 60%. In response to this solid
centralisers, that are not be limited by restoring forces, are
used in highly deviated and horizontal well bores.
Liner jobs for the Wytch Farm project have used solid
centralisers from the outset of the extended reach programme.
They were applied at 2 per joint over the whole length of the
liner and generated up to 90% stand-off. As the horizontal
sections extended the forces required to run all these
centralisers became too great and latterly they were only used
over intervals which required a particularly high degree of
zonal isolation. When the liner on 1M-10-SP was cemented
centralisers were used every 6m, over the required intervals,
this was stretched to every 24.4m for the liners on M-11 and
M-12 and has remained between these values for the
remainder of the project. This change was mainly due to the
increased running forces experienced with the extremely long
liners. In addition, it has been found that, an excessive number
of centralisers would increase the rotational friction forces of
the centraliser/well bore interface beyond manageable limits.
The centralisers used have a spiral blade design, which

SPE 62893

enhances well bore cleanup and cement placement. The blade


design promotes turbulence of fluids in the annulus and
improves the removal of filter cake solids. The reduced standoff achieved by this centraliser programme is compensated for
in the spacers and pre-flushes described earlier.
The centralisation of the 7inch liner for well number 1M16-SPz differs from previous liners by using low torque
centralisers. These units have rollers mounted on the outside
and inside of the centraliser. The rollers on the outside are
angled long the length of the pipe to reduce the forces seen
while running pipe. They were run at one per joint, over the
length of the whole liner, without stop collars so that at the
end of running each would sit at the high end of the pipe. The
internal rollers allow the pipe to move inside the centraliser.
This reduces friction experienced during rotation, compared to
solid centralisers, as the pipe is only moved against the smooth
rollers, rather than the centralisers scraping against the well
bore. Use of these low torque centraliers allowed the liner to
be rotated for nearly the entire cement job.
Movement of pipe
Movement of the pipe, during pre-job circulation and
cementing, either by reciprocation or rotation has long been
accepted by the industry as beneficial to primary cementing
operations. Moving the pipe has been shown to improve
cuttings and filter cake removal, and help break down mud
gel. These advantages continue to hold true when considering
horizontal or highly deviated wells. However, due to the
nature of the well bore, pipe tends to lie along the bottom
introducing additional torque and drag forces, which must be
overcome.
Reciprocation raises a number of risks including, high
slack-off drag, which may prevent the casing from returning to
bottom, perhaps leading to a liner not being set where
designed. In addition, surge pressures greatly in excess of
those experienced while running casing may be countered and
in long casing strings, movement at the drill floor may not be
transmitted to where it is needed due to pipe stretch5.. These
issues are only exacerbated as longer and longer casings and
liners are run.
For these reasons most liners are now set and released
before pumping cement, and whenever possible, rotated. In
addition, when the casing/bore hole relationship is severely
eccentric rotation appears to be more beneficial than
reciprocation 6. Rotation of the pipe requires sufficient torque
to overcome the down hole forces. These include the weight of
the pipe (which is lying on the low side of the open hole with
little or no buoyancy), the weight of the cement slurry before
it leaves the pipe and the inherent restrictions associated with
(any) centralisers etc. Liners at Wytch Farm have been rotated,
during circulation and cementing, at rates up to 30rpm. Since
well number 1M-10-SP, 7inch liners have been run in 8-inch
open hole, with an average liner length of over 2330m.
Mathematical models can predict these operating forces, and
should be used, to ensure the casing connections, the liner
hanger and the surface equipment are designed with the
required performance.

SPE 62893

CEMENTATION OF HORIZONTAL WELLBORES

Computer Simulations
Calculation of all the varying factors encountered during a
cement job can be very time consuming. It is not practical to
determine all the changes to all the interrelated factors
experienced during the job by hand. Use of a computer
simulation programme gives much more versatility to the
design engineer. Fluid flow regimes and pump rates can be
changed within seconds and the effects of these changes
studied many times over. Many parameters including fluid
type and rheology, pump rates, well trajectory and excess
cement handling, are used by the simulations algorithms to
generate the job.
As mentioned above the anticipated well bore temperature
during the job is also modelled using a computer simulation
programme. Using similar information as above it calculates
the temperature along the well bore during the pumping,
shutdowns and displacement, of the cement job.
The output of the programmes can be shown graphically,
or as text listings, alternatively both can be incorporated in to
a more detailed report.
These computer simulations can also be used for real time
data collection and post-job analysis. In real time mode the
engineer can study the well bore as the job is being pumped,
allowing any necessary adjustments to be made. The post job
analysis mode allows the engineer to review jobs already
pumped, so that authentic job information to be fed back into
the job design process.

pipe to be rotated for the majority of the cement placement


process.
Acknowlegements
The author wishes to thank BJ Services Co. Ltd. and BP
Amoco and partners in the Wytch Farm oilfield for permission
to publish this work. Thanks also to Steve Gill, Dan Daulton
and Graham Want (Snr. Service Supervisor) of BJ Services
Co. Ltd.
References
1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.
7.

Post-Job Data
Due to their inherent cost cement bond logs are not usually run
on every well within a development. At Wytch Farm cement
logs have been taken twice since well number 1M-10-SP, in
both cases to verify cement coverage for dual
producer/injector wells. During the each test the casing was
filled with sea water and there was no pressure applied during
logging. Conclusions from both these tests found that the
required zonal isolation had been achieved and completion
was to continue as planned. In addition, none of the liners
within the development have reported poor zonal isolation or
required remedial work.
Conculsion
Excellent well bore isolation at Wytch Farm has primarily
been successful through the application of the well grounded,
cementing practices. Due to the limitations on reciprocation of
the pipe and the low fracture gradient of the formation,
annular cleaning has been achieved by other techniques.
Implementation of the multiple spacers, each with a different
flow regime, has allowed improved hole cleaning, while
reducing the placement ECD. The thin low fluid loss slurry is
easy to mix and pump, yet provides excellent zonal isolation
and pipe support. The ability to simulate the job on computer
ensured that the fluids rheology and density, were beneficial
to the job objectives and that the effects of any changes were
accounted for. In addition, the novel use of centralisers, with
rollers during well 1M-16-SPz allowed this long section of

Lockyear, C.F., Ryan, D.F., Gunningham, M.M., Cement


Channeling: How to Predict and Prevent, SPE 19865.
Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and
Exhibition held in San Antonio, 8-11 October 1989
American Petroleum Institute, Specification for Well Cements
10a, 21st Edition, 1 September 1991
Greaves, C., Hibbert, A., Test Improves Measurement Of
Cement Slurry Stability, Oil and Gas Journal, 12 February
1990
Cook, C., Cunningham, W., Filtrate Control A Key in
Successful Cementing Practices, SPE 5898. Presented at the
Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting, May 11-12, 1976
Buchan, R., Little, M.T.S., Innovative Techniques Improve
Liner Cementation in North Sea Wells; An Operators
Experience, SPE 15896. Presented at the SPE Conference held
in London, 20-22 October 1986
Haut, R.C., Crook, R.J., Primary Cementing: The Mud
Displacement Process, SPE 8253
BP Amoco Exploration, Wytch Farm Stage 111 Development,
Drilling Programme Revision 1, 3 February 1999

Authors Note
In the text reference is made to API Spec 10a dated 1991.
Please note that this was the most recent issue of the
specification at the start of the project and that test procedures
have been continually compared against more recent issues, as
they have become available.

S.A. MCPHERSON

Table 1
12 Open Hole
10.0 10.4
40 60
28 32
>400
<5
60 / 40
Base Oil

Weight (PPG)
PV (cp)
YP (lb/100ft2)
Stability (volts)
Fluid Loss (mls) @ 200degF
Oil / Water
Fluid Base

Pumping Order
Weight (PPG)
PV (cp)
YP (lb/100ft2)
Surfactant Concentration
(gal/bbl)
Mutual Solvent Concentration
(gal/bbl)
Minimum Rate for Turbulent
Flow (bbls/min)

SPE 62893

1
7.8
1
-

Table 2
2
8.55
1
-

8 Open Hole
9.60 10.0
15 20
10 14
>400
<4
70 / 30
Base Oil

3
11.5
8.5794
3.2612
2

4
8.55
1
2

5
11.5
8.5794
3.2612
2

0.3746

0.34375

3.1327

0.34375

3.1327

Graph 1 Bottom Hole Temperature vs Time @ 1610m TVD

SPE 62893

CEMENTATION OF HORIZONTAL WELLBORES

Table 3
1M-14-SP 1M-15-SP
160
Test Temperature (degF)
9:52
Time to 50Bc (Hrs:Min)
10:02
Time to 70Bc (Hrs:Min)
10:11
Time to 100Bc (Hrs:Min)
0
API Freewater (%)
72
Fluid Loss (mls)
78
Rheology @ Test Temperature
600 rpm
42
300 rpm
30
200 rpm
17
100 rpm
3
6 rpm
2
3 rpm
32 hrs;
Compressive Strength Development @ Test Temperature
2108psi

1M-16-SP
150
13:17
13:27
13:39
0
80
79
44
32
18
4
3
32hrs;
2000psi

165
14:42
14:55
15:10
0
54
68
36
24
14
3
2
32hrs; 3272psi

Graph 2 Comparison of ECD values calculated in Horizontal and Vertical wells


12

1 1 .5

1 0 .5

10

9 .5

8 .5

23

11

99

87

72

35
15

15

15

14

14

14

24

00

73

13

53

48
14

14

14

13

13

93

33

72

V o lu m e o f F lu id P u m p e d ( b b ls )

12

11

11

10

12
10

95

89

83

77

72

68

62

56

50

44

40

36

30

24

18

12

60

ECD at Shoe Depth (ppg)

11