Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Review of Related Literature

The review of related literature for this study focuses more on the smoking bans
on other countries and its effects on the perceptions and smoking behavior of people.
The review includes both local and international studies. The researchers believe that
the following studies are very much related to the problem; thus providing other possible
additional effects of the smoking ban to the smoking behavior to the target respondents:
UST students.
Household smoking bans and adolescents perceived prevalence of smoking and
social acceptability of smoking
Household smoking bans are recommended to decrease the visibility of cigarette
smoking, and also to initiate nonsmoking social patterns and parental attitudes towards
the sector of youth, which may serve as mediators to reduce smoking initiation.
Measures of tobacco-related social norms such as perceived smoking prevalence [14
23] and the perceived social acceptability of smoking have been shown to be strong
predictors of adolescent smoking or smoking initiation. Furthermore, recent studies also
show that peer and parental smoking as well as parental antismoking patterns and
disapproval of smoking are directly related to adolescent smoking behavior. With those
studies being present as an additional guide to this study, this paper aims to assess the
relationships of household smoking bans on adolescents perceived prevalence of adult
and youth smoking, as well as their perception of adult disapproval of adult and youth
smoking. The method used for this study is a telephone survey. A random sample of
3831 Massachusetts adolescents (between 1217 years old) are being assessed by the

interviewers regarding their perceptions of smoking prevalence and attitudes about the
social acceptability of smoking in their community. The findings show that a household
smoking ban is strongly associated to youths perception of smoking. That is, the fewer
the smokers and the stronger the disapproval of smoking, the lower smoking prevalence
that the youth perceive.
Restaurant owner perceptions of the effects of a smoking ban
This study is directed to restaurant sector business owner and their expectations
regarding revenue changes due to a general smoking ban. A number of studies
conducted in the past show that the economic effects of smoking bans has no clear
evidence as to how the restaurant sector is affected by tighter smoking regulations. But,
there are other studies regarding smoking bans on restaurants and establishments
focused on the revenue and financial capacity. In a study conducted by Dunham and
Marlow, results report that revenues would be expected to decrease by 39% for
restaurants and by 83% for bars and taverns if smoking bans were implemented. This
also directs attention to the fact that the distribution of the effects of a smoking ban is
not uniform among different types of establishments. In this study, the researcher
analyzes business owner expectations regarding revenue effects of a general smoking
ban, using a survey mailed to restaurants, bars, and cafs in Gothenburg, Sweden. The
method being used was a questionnaire, which is being sent out to the owners of each
of the 642 restaurants, bars, cafs, and nightclubs in downtown Gothenburg, Sweden,
in the fall of 2000. The results show that the dependence on smoking customers and
the beliefs regarding how the whole restaurant sector would be affected are, in terms of
size and statistical significance, the most important variables for explaining expectations

of changes in revenues. Establishments that are smoke-free are less likely to expect
negative economic effects from a smoking ban compared to those that currently allow
smoking. The results also show that the larger the share of smoking customers, the
more likely the owner is to expect somewhat lower revenues, and the expected effect in
the category much lower revenues or bankrupt is even stronger. Hence, the general
pattern is that establishments that have smoking bans or have a relatively small
proportion of smoking customers are less likely to expect financial loss from an
introduction of a smoking ban.
One last puff? Public smoking bans and smoking behavior
This study examines the effects of the introduction of smoking ban to individual
smoking behavior in Germany, a country with relatively high smoking rates among
industrialized countries (Tobacco Atlas, 2009). This study is much closely related to the
researchers current study because this study also tackles state-level smoking bans,
much like the Manila Ordinance and the Republic Act 9211. Researchers of this study
used data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), an annual ongoing
household panel of roughly 20,000 individuals in around 11,000 households (Wagner
etal, 2007). Respondents were asked whether they currently smoked, and also how
many cigarettes they are smoking on a daily basis. With the gathered data, results show
that the introduction of smoke-free policies in Germany did not change the respondents
average smoking behavior in the short term; that is, following the introduction of
smoking bans, individuals were neither less likely to smoke on average, nor did they
smoke fewer cigarettes. However, individuals who were reported going to bars and
restaurants regularly did adjust their smoking habits due to higher exposure to public

smoking bans. The findings of this study further suggests that the implementation of
smoking bans can be an effective tobacco control policy that provides health benefits
aside from reducing the exposure of non-smokers to second hand smoke, especially in
a country with a high overall smoking prevalence, like the Philippines.
The effects of a prison smoking ban on smoking behavior and withdrawal
This study examined nicotine dependence as predictors of nicotine withdrawal
symptoms. Nicotine withdrawal has received increased attention over the last several
years, as smoking has come to be recognized as an addictive disorder (Hughes &
Hatsukami, 1986). This study further investigated these effects with participants who
were not seeking to quit smoking but who were being forced to quit due to a strict
implementation of statewide smoking ban. Data used for this study included 188 male
smokers as the respondents during a mandated smoking ban in prison settings.
Participants were assessed at three time periods: baseline (1 week prior to the smoking
ban), Time 2 (4 days after the smoking ban), and Time 3 (1 month after the smoking
ban). Participants were required to answer a smoking history questionnaire and
measures of nicotine dependence, withdrawal, cravings, and distress before the ban
and two follow-up times. Results derived from the study show that 76% of participants
continued to smoke following the implementation of the smoking ban. Smokers after the
ban were more nicotine dependent than were the participants who reported quitting.
Thus, it appears that the smoking ban was not well enforced. One possible implication
would be the depression of the inmates; thus, smoking is one way of them coping with

depression and stress. Thus, it is important to understand the withdrawal effects that
inmates would suffer in response to these smoking bans.
Cross Cultural Attraction and Cigarette Consumption among college students
This study investigates the youth as well as their knowledge, attitude and
experiences about tobacco intakes. Furthermore, the study aims to understand the
cultural elements attached to the country of origin of a product as context or one of the
multiple and interactive factors contributing to the cigarette consumption of the youth
sector. The study used descriptive and correlation method among 1,521 college
students coming from five selected higher education institutions in Metro Manila. Data
gathering is done through pre-tested questionnaires. In turn, results gathered
significantly show that majority of the college students were attracted to American
culture; thus contributing to their habit of smoking. Most of the respondents perceive
that cigarette smoking is an integral part of their American peers way of life. Finally,
based on the statistical test conducted among the variables, it indicates that there is a
significant relationship between the attraction of respondents to American culture and
their cigarette consumption. This validates the findings of earlier foreign studies based
on theories on consumer behavior. Consumption practices play a role in image
experimentation, image management, social affiliation and expression of group and