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Chapter 18 Human Resource Policies and Practices

MULTIPLE CHOICE
Selection Practices
1.

Which of the following is not a typical written test used in organizations?


a. intelligence
b. integrity
c. personality
d. aptitude
e. work sample
(e; Easy; Written Tests; p. 587) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
2.

Between the late 1960s and the mid-1980s, the use of written tests declined because they were
characterized as _____.
a. unprofessional
b. discriminatory
c. unreliable
d. invalid
e. mathematically flawed
(b; Moderate; Written Tests; p. 587)
3.

Which of the following has proven to be a particularly good predictor for jobs that require
cognitive complexity?
a. intelligence tests
b. integrity evaluations
c. work sampling
d. aptitude tests
e. behavioral assessment
(a; Moderate; Intelligence Tests; p. 587)
4.

The best way for an employer to find out if a potential employee can do a job is by _____.
a. using the interview process
b. using a written test
c. having them spend a day in the office
d. administering an IQ test
e. using a performance simulation test
(e; Easy; Performance-Simulation Tests; p. 588)
5.

Having individuals actually do the job they are applying for as a test to see if they can do it is
_____.
a. an approach with low reliability
b. an approach with high face validity
c. an informal means of screening candidates
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
(b; Moderate; Performance-Simulation Tests; p. 588) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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6.

Hands-on simulation of part of a job is known as a _____.


a. practical assessment
b. performance-simulation interview
c. job simulation assessment
d. work sample
e. behavioral role exposition
(d; Moderate; Work Sample Tests; p. 588)
7.

Work sample tests are widely used in hiring _____.


a. unskilled labor
b. skilled workers
c. professional workers
d. managers
e. knowledge workers
(b; Moderate; Work Sample Tests; p. 588)
8.

_____ yield validities superior to written aptitude and personality tests.


a. Work samples
b. Behavioral structured interviews
c. Integrity tests
d. Interest tests
e. Ethics tests
(a; Moderate; Work Sample Tests; p. 588)
9.

Elaborate sets of performance simulation tests, specifically designed to evaluate a candidates


managerial potential, are _____.
a. more effective than work sampling
b. administered in assessment centers
c. similar to personality tests
d. considered drawbacks of some management development programs
e. likely to skew the results of behavioral samples
(b; Moderate; Assessment Centers; p. 588) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
10.

Assessment centers are used specifically to evaluate what level of job candidate?
a. unskilled laborers
b. skilled workers
c. professional workers
d. supervisors
e. knowledge workers
(d; Easy; Assessment Centers; p. 588)
11.

The results of which of the following tend to have a disproportionate amount of influence on
employee selection decisions?
a. interviews
b. written tests
c. performance simulation tests
d. work sampling methods
e. personality tests
(a; Moderate; Interviews; p. 588)

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12.

The unstructured interview is _____.


a. usually made up of random questions
b. typically biased
c. often only modestly related to future job performance
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
(d; Moderate; Unstructured Interviews; p. 588)
13.

The variability in interview results across an applicant pool is reduced by using a


standardized_____.
a. approach for recruiting applicants
b. pool of applicants
c. set of interview questions
d. time frame for scheduling interviews
e. none of the above
(c; Easy; Interviews; p. 589)
14.

Which of the following is true regarding behavioral structured interviews?


a. They are conducted in a similar manner as audition-type interviews.
b. They decrease an interviewers reliance on his or her gut feelings.
c. They are most useful when interviewing high-performing workers.
d. They are useful only for interviewing non-skilled workers.
e. They increase the effectiveness of the interview technique.
(e; Moderate; Behavioral Structured Interviews; p. 589) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
15.

Applicants describe how they handled problems and situations in previous jobs in a(n) _____
interview.
a. behavioral structured
b. audition-type
c. performance-simulation
d. problem-solving
e. reflection
(a; Challenging; Behavioral Structured Interviews; p. 589)
16.

The behavioral structured interview is built on the assumption that _____.


a. past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior
b. technical knowledge and skills are the best predictor of job performance
c. personality is the best predictor of job performance
d. personality and mood are highly correlated
e. technical knowledge and mood are highly correlated
(a; Moderate; Behavioral Structured Interviews; p. 589) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
17.

In practice, organizations use interviews _____.


a. to determine applicant-organization fit
b. solely to assess specific, job relevant skills
c. to manipulate an applicants image of the company
d. to assess a candidates credit history
e. none of the above
(a; Moderate; Interviews; p. 589)

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18.

What is a common contingent selection method?


a. IQ test
b. interview
c. interest inventory
d. drug test
e. work sample test
(d; Moderate; Contingent Selection; p. 589) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
19.

What is an argument against drug testing?


a. Drug tests screen out individuals who use marijuana and alcohol.
b. Drug use is a private matter.
c. Drug tests are costly in terms of peoples safety.
d. Drug tests are generally inaccurate.
e. The results of drug tests are easily faked.
(b; Moderate; Contingent Selection; p. 590) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
Training and Development Programs
20.

Which type of skill training has become increasingly important in organizations?


a. financial
b. technical
c. problem solving
d. interpersonal
e. social
(b; Moderate; Technical Skills; p. 591)
21.

Training employees on how to be better listeners falls under which of the following training
categories?
a. ethical skills
b. technical skills
c. problem-solving skills
d. interpersonal skills
e. cultural skills
(d; Moderate; Interpersonal Skills; p. 592)
22.

According to a recent survey, about ___ percent of employees working in the 1,000 largest U.S.
corporations receive ethics training.
a. 10
b. 25
c. 50
d. 75
e. 90
(d; Challenging; Ethics Training; p. 592)
23.

Examples of on-the-job training include all of the following except _____.


a. job rotation
b. apprenticeship
c. simulation centers
d. understudy assignments
e. formal mentoring programs
(c; Easy; On-the-Job Training; p. 593) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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24.

Examples of off-the-job training include all of the following except _____.


a. classroom lectures
b. apprenticeship programs
c. Internet courses
d. public seminars
e. videotapes
(b; Easy; Off-the-Job Training; p. 593) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
25.

How would a participator best absorb information?


a. use computers to read manuals
b. watch others and imitate behaviors
c. copy what others do on computers
d. listen to an audiotape
e. gain hands-on experience
(e; Easy; Learning Styles and Formal Training; p. 594) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
Performance Evaluation
26.

Performance evaluations are used to _____.


a. improve group cohesiveness
b. define departmental structure
c. help management make HR decisions
d. identify how jobs are completed
e. decrease conformity within organizations
(c; Challenging; Purposes of Performance Evaluation; p. 595) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
27.

Performance evaluations are used as a mechanism for all of the following except _____.
a. monitoring the success of marketing strategies
b. determining promotions
c. human resource planning
d. identifying training and development needs
e. none of the above
(a; Moderate; Purposes of Performance Evaluation; p. 595) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
28.

Which of the following is the least predictive set of criteria used to evaluate employees?
a. traits
b. task outcomes
c. behaviors
d. personality
e. mood
(a; Moderate; Traits; p. 596) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
29.

Which of the following is not true concerning self-evaluations?


a. They lead to employees rating themselves highly.
b. They tend to heighten employees defensiveness about the appraisal process.
c. They make excellent vehicles for stimulating job performance discussions between
employees and their superiors.
d. They are often low in agreement with superiors ratings.
e. They tend to be biased estimates.
(b; Moderate; Self-Evaluations; p. 597) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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30.

The approach to evaluation that uses feedback from those who have daily contact with an
employee (everyone from mailroom personnel to customers to bosses to peers) is termed _____.
a. critical incidents
b. 360-degree evaluation
c. BARS
d. multiperson comparisons
e. MBWA
(b; Moderate; 360-Degree Evaluation; p. 597)
31.

Which of the following is not a standard method of performance evaluation?


a. critical incidents
b. written essays
c. interviews
d. graphic rating scales
e. BARS
(c; Easy; Methods of Performance Evaluation; p. 598) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
32.

Which performance evaluation method requires no complex forms or extensive training to


complete?
a. written essays
b. critical incidents
c. graphic rating scales
d. behaviorally anchored rating scales
e. intellectual assessment
(a; Moderate; Written Essays; p. 598)
33.

The evaluation method that focuses the evaluators attention on those behaviors that are key to
executing a job effectively is known as_____.
a. forced comparison
b. critical incidents
c. graphic rating scales
d. behaviorally anchored rating scales
e. intellectual competence
(b; Easy; Critical Incidents; p. 598)
34.

If the manager uses critical incidents as a method of performance evaluation, then _____.
a. the subordinate is apt to become confused
b. the evaluators writing skills become the determining factor of the evaluation
c. the subordinate is likely to become motivated
d. the focus of the evaluation will center on key behaviors
e. the cost of the evaluation is likely to be incredibly high for the organization
(d; Moderate; Critical Incidents; p. 598)
35.

One reason to consider graphic rating scales is _____.


a. their accuracy
b. their usability in quantitative analysis
c. the quality of their results
d. their breadth of information
e. their reliability
(b; Challenging; Graphic Rating Scales; p. 598) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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36.

When an appraiser rates employees based on items on a continuum with the points reflecting
actual behaviors on a given job, this type of evaluation is called _____.
a. BARS
b. critical incident
c. graphic rating scale
d. behavioral structured ratings
e. MBWA
(a; Moderate; Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales; p. 598)
37.

_____ involves evaluating ones performance against the performance of one or more others.
a. BARS
b. A critical incident diary
c. A graphic rating scale
d. Forced comparison
e. Likert analysis
(d; Easy; Forced Comparisons; p. 598)
38.
top

_____ ranking requires the evaluator to place employees into a particular classification, such as

one-fifth or second one-fifth.


a. Individual
b. Group order
c. Paired
d. Fractional
e. Percentile
(b; Moderate; Group Order Ranking; p. 598)
39.

Which approach to performance evaluation rank-orders employees from best to worst?


a individual ranking
b. group order ranking
c. paired comparison
d. straight ranking
e. comparison ranking
(a; Easy; Individual Ranking; p. 599)
40.

All of the following are ways to overcome problems encountered with performance evaluations
except _____.
a. evaluate selectively
b. focus on identifiable traits
c. use multiple evaluators
d. provide employees with due process
e. train evaluators
(b; Challenging; Improving Performance Evaluations; p. 601) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
41.

_____ can be used to increase the perception that employees are treated fairly.
a. Selective evaluation
b. Due process
c. Multiple raters
d. Documenting with a journal
e. Focusing on subjective evaluations
(b; Challenging; Due Process; p. 601)

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42.

Which of the following is not a reason typically cited by managers regarding their reluctance to
give performance feedback?
a. Many employees become defensive when their weaknesses are pointed out.
b. Managers often fear confrontation with employees.
c. Employees have an inflated assessment of their own performance.
d. The human resources department is not supportive of the feedback process.
e. All of the above are typically cited reasons.
(d; Moderate; Providing Performance Feedback; pp. 601-602) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
Managing Diversity in Organizations
43.

Which of the following might a company consider to help employees address work-life conflicts?
a. keeping work-related travel reasonable
b. reducing workloads
c. offering off-site quality child-care
d. tie manager pay to customer satisfaction
e. relocation assistance
(e; Easy; Work-Life Initiatives; p. 604) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
44.

The centerpiece of most diversity programs is _____.


a. top management commitment
b. employee commitment
c. training
d. human resource personnel
e. employee satisfaction
(c; Moderate; Diversity Training; p. 605) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity}
45.

Diversity training programs are generally intended to provide a vehicle for _____.
a. increasing awareness and examining stereotypes
b. focusing on individual differences
c. eliminating group learning
d. balancing work/life conflicts
e. socializing otherwise unmanageable employees
(a; Moderate; Diversity Training; p. 605) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} {AACSB: Analytic
Skills}
Global Implications
46.

Which of the following statements is true concerning international selection practices?


a. Structured interviews are popular in all countries.
b. Beliefs about how one should conduct an interpersonal interview are consistent across
countries.
c. The use of educational qualifications in screening candidates seems to be a universal
practice.
d. Policies and practices do not require modification from one country to the next.
e. Groups are typically much more effective at selecting candidates in individualistic cultures.
(c; Moderate; Selection and Culture; p. 605) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} {AACSB:
Analytic Skills}
47.

Which of the following is not true concerning international performance evaluations?


a. Caution should be used in generalizing across cultures.
b. Every culture is concerned with performance appraisal.
c. Not all managers look at performance appraisal the same way as do managers in the US.
d. Individualistic countries emphasize formal performance evaluation systems.
e. Israels culture values group activities.
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(b; Challenging; Performance Evaluation and Culture; p. 606) {AACSB: Multicultural and
Diversity} {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

130

TRUE/FALSE
Selection Practices
48.
The objective of effective selection is to match individual preference with the requirements of a
job.
(False; Moderate; Selection Practices; p. 585)
49.

If management fails to get a proper match between an employee and a position, both employee
performance and satisfaction suffer.
(True; Easy; Selection Practices; p. 585)
50.
As a selection device, written tests have decreased in usage during the past 20 years.
(False; Challenging; Written Tests; p. 587)
51.
Written tests have frequently been characterized as discriminatory.
(True; Easy; Written Tests; p. 587)
52.
As ethical problems have increased in organizations, integrity tests have gained popularity.
(True; Easy; Integrity Tests; p. 587)
53.

A test that measures factors such as dependability, carefulness, responsibility, and honesty is
referred to as a performance factor test.
(False; Moderate; Integrity Tests; p. 587)
54.

Integrity tests are good at predicting theft or discipline problems, but do not predict supervisor
ratings of performance.
(False; Challenging; Integrity Tests; p. 587)
55.
Performance simulation tests are a specific type of written test.
(False; Easy; Performance-Simulation Tests; p. 588)
56.
Work samples yield validities almost consistently superior to written aptitude tests.
(True; Moderate; Work Sample Tests; p. 588)
57.

Assessment center tests are effective for predicting the job performance of employees in
managerial positions.
(True; Moderate; Assessment Centers; p. 588)
58.

In assessment centers, job incumbents evaluate candidates as they go through several days of
exercises that simulate real problems they would confront on the job.
(False; Challenging; Assessment Centers; p. 588)
59.

The evidence indicates that interviews are good for assessing an applicants technical
knowledge, level of conscientiousness, and interpersonal skills.
(False; Moderate; Interviews; p. 588)
Training and Development
60.

In the past, organizations had to provide basic reading and math skills for their employees.
Improved educational standards have decreased that need over the past few decades.
(False; Moderate; Basic Literacy Skills; p. 591)

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61.

Technical training has become increasingly important because of changes in organizational


design.
(True; Moderate; Technical Skills; p. 591)
62.

Interpersonal skills are inherent, which means that training can make some minor improvements,
but it is not likely to result in major changes.
(False; Easy; Interpersonal Skills; p. 592)
63.
Problem-solving skills cannot be taught.
(False; Easy; Problem-Solving Skills; p. 592)
64.
Most training takes place in the form of formal, live classroom lectures.
(False; Easy; Formal versus Informal Training; p. 593)
65.
Most formal training revolves around employees simply helping each other out.
(False; Moderate; Formal versus Informal Training; p. 593)
66.
An Internet course is an example of an off-the-job training method.
(True; Easy; Off-the-Job Training; p. 593)
67.
The fastest growing means for delivering training is satellite-beamed television courses.
(False; Moderate; Training Methods; p. 593)
68.

To maximize training results, those who learn best by reading should have the opportunity to
observe individuals modeling new skills.
(False; Easy; Training and Learning Styles; p. 594)
69.
The most effective training is conducted through the use of standardized teaching techniques.
(False; Moderate; Training Effectiveness; pp. 594-595)
Performance Evaluation
70.
Performance evaluation can be used to identify strategic planning directions.
(False; Easy; Purposes of Performance Evaluation; p. 595)
71.

Employees will alter their job behavior to reflect the criteria that management uses to evaluate
their performance.
(True; Moderate; Evaluation Criteria; p. 595)
72.

One explanation for why many employees may not be motivated is that the performance
evaluation process is often more political than objective.
(True; Moderate; Improving Performance Evaluations; p. 600)
73.

When a manager is evaluated on the cost per unit of production in his or her department, the
evaluation criterion being used is behaviors.
(False; Moderate; Individual Task Outcomes; p. 595)
74.

When a manager is evaluated on the degree to which he or she has a good attitude, the
evaluation criterion being used is behaviors.
(False; Moderate; Traits; p. 596)
75.
There is evidence that certain traits will be good predictors for performance in many jobs.
(False; Moderate; Traits; p. 596)

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76.
The traditional source of performance evaluations is the employees immediate boss.
(True; Easy; Evaluators; p. 596)
77.
Using immediate subordinates in the performance evaluation process is contrary to recent trends
in the workplace.
(False; Moderate; Evaluating Employee Performance; p. 597)
78.

Self-evaluations usually reflect the same ratings as evaluations performed by an individuals


superiors.
(False; Easy; Self-Evaluations; p. 597)
79.
Probably the simplest method of evaluation is the graphic rating scale.
(False; Challenging; Written Essays; p. 598)
80.
The major problem with a written essay performance appraisal is lack of objectivity.
(False; Moderate; Written Essays; p. 598)
81.
Critical incidents as a method of performance evaluation focus on problem behaviors.
(False; Moderate; Critical Incidents; p. 598)
82.
One of the most popular methods of evaluation is the graphic rating scale.
(True; Easy; Graphic Rating Scales; p. 598)
83.
Forced comparisons are absolute measuring devices for performance evaluation.
(False; Moderate; Forced Comparisons; p. 598-623)
84.

The approach that compares each employee with every other employee and rates each as either
the superior or weaker member of the pair is called group order ranking.
(False; Moderate; Group Order Ranking; p. 598)
85.
The individual ranking approach ranks each employee into a particular classification.
(False; Moderate; Individual Ranking; p. 599)
86.

As the number of evaluators increases, the probability of attaining more accurate information
increases.
(True; Moderate; Multiple Evaluators; p. 601)
87.

If raters make evaluations on only those dimensions which they are in a good position to rate,
this increases the agreement between raters and makes the evaluation a more valid process.
(True; Moderate; Selective Evaluation; p. 601)
88.

There is no evidence to support the idea that training evaluators can help minimize or eliminate
common errors such as halo and leniency.
(False; Moderate; Training Evaluators; p. 601)
89.
Due process systems provide individuals with adequate notice of what is expected of them.
(True; Moderate; Due Process; p. 601)
90.
Statistically speaking, half of all employees must be below-average performers.
(True; Moderate; Providing Performance Feedback; p. 602)

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91.

The performance review should be designed more as a counseling activity than as a judgment
process, and it can best be accomplished by allowing the review to evolve out of the employees
own self-evaluation.
(True; Moderate; Providing Performance Feedback; p. 602)
Managing Diversity in Organizations
92.
Evidence indicates that time pressures are the primary problem underlying work/life conflicts.
(False; Moderate; Work-Life Conflict; pp. 603-604)
Global Implications
93.

The use of educational qualifications in screening candidates is not used in Middle Eastern
countries since managers tend to see people as subjugated to their environment.
(False; Moderate; Performance Evaluation and Culture; p. 606) {AACSB: Multicultural and
Diversity}
94.
In Israel, performance evaluations arent widely used, since people hold a long-term time frame.
(False; Challenging; Performance Evaluation and Culture; p. 607) {AACSB: Multicultural and
Diversity}
SCENARIO-BASED QUESTIONS
Application of Selection Practices
Robert has received authorization to add an assistant manager to his department. This person will be
working closely with Robert and must have excellent interpersonal as well as technical skills. Robert
wants to make certain that he maximizes the chance of choosing the correct individual and is trying to
decide on the most appropriate selection device.
95.

A written test will most likely help Robert to evaluate candidates _____.
a. cognitive abilities
b. on-the-job skills
c. productivity
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
(a; Easy; Written Tests; p. 587) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
96.

Robert is considering administering written integrity tests to management candidates that pass
the initial screening. These tests will most likely help Robert to predict a candidates _____.
a. propensity to react calmly under stress
b. degree of positive self-concept
c. spatial and mechanical abilities
d. likelihood of posing discipline problems
e. degree of attention to detail
(d; Moderate; Integrity Tests; p. 587) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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97.

Robert tells a colleague of his plans to submit managerial candidates to integrity testing. The
colleague expresses doubt over whether candidates will respond truthfully to the tests. Robert
most likely responds to this doubt by ________.
a. changing course and deciding to administer a different type of test
b. clarifying that integrity tests make sense because they are simple to use and administer
c. documenting that integrity tests are the most cost-effective means of employee screening
d. agreeing that individuals who lie on integrity tests usually dont present themselves in a
positive light on job
e. explaining that research shows that fakery does not undermine the validity of integrity tests
(e; Moderate; Integrity Tests; p. 588) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
98.

Robert has decided to create a work sampling and let applicants demonstrate their abilities. He
should use this to evaluate candidates _____ skills.
a. ethical
b. interpersonal
c. technical
d. reactive
e. associative
(c; Moderate; Work Sample Tests; p. 588) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
99.

The best means of evaluating the management skills of the applicants would be achieved
through _____.
a. use of an assessment center
b. verifying the applicants job histories
c. work sampling
d. written personality tests
e. written basic literacy tests
(a; Moderate; Assessment Centers; p. 588) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
Application of Skill Categories
You are involved in training and development for your division at WorldProducts, Inc. You want to target
some specific organizational problems through training.
100.

Your organization is situated in an urban area where many students do not finish high school.
You will probably first have to address the skill category termed _____.
a. basic literacy
b. technical
c. interpersonal
d. problem solving
e. managerial
(a; Easy; Basic Literacy Skills; p. 591) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
101.

Your organization has reduced layers, flattening the organization. Your employees now need to
perform a wider variety of tasks. As a result, you need to provide employees with training to help
develop their _____ skills.
a. basic literacy
b. technical
c. interpersonal
d. problem solving
e. none of the above
(b; Moderate; Technical Skills; p. 591) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

135

102.

You are implementing self-managed teams and quality-management programs. It would be


important to conduct training in _____.
a. basic literacy
b. technical skills
c. interpersonal skills
d. problem solving
e. interdependence
(d; Moderate; Problem-Solving Skills; p. 592) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
103.

WorldProducts is considering implementing employee ethics training programs. Some members


of senior management are opposed to these programs. Their opposition is most likely based on
which of the following beliefs?
a. Ethics training is almost nonexistent in todays workplace.
b. Ethics can be learned only through formal teaching programs.
c. Individual values systems are fixed at an early age.
d. Integrity cannot be taught by example.
e. Ethics programs help employees to recognize ethical dilemmas.
(c; Moderate; Ethics Training; p. 592) {AACSB: Ethical Reasoning} {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
Application of Training Methods
You have just been appointed as director of your companys corporate training division. The CEO of your
company has been displeased with your companys prior training programs, so you are tasked with
rehauling the entire training division. You convene a meeting of all training division managers to decide
on the types of training that the division will implement.
104.

Most of your managers advocate sticking with off-the-job training programs. Which of the
following are they most likely to cite to support their recommendation?
a. Research shows that on-the-job training programs encourage employee absenteeism.
b. Evidence documents that off-the-job training allows employees to expand their creativity.
c. Off-the-job training programs involve effective practices such as apprenticeships.
d. On-the-job training programs have been proven to decrease employee job satisfaction.
e. Off-the-job training programs pose less risk of disrupting the work environment.
(b; Challenging; Off-the-Job Training; p. 593) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
105.

One of your managers is a firm supporter of e-training programs for employees in your
companys international offices. He touts the benefits of e-programs by stressing that ________.
a. e-training approaches have been proven to result in higher levels of knowledge assimilation.
b. employees tend to be distracted by the social environments of classroom learning.
c. many employees find solitary learning to be highly motivating.
d. e-programs are easily accessible by employees who work outside of standard U.S. hours.
e. because of their self-paced nature, e-programs are inexpensive to design and implement.
(b; Moderate; Off-the-Job Training; p. 593) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

136

Application of Performance Evaluations


Alice Ann Jones is the new director of human resources and psychological services for a small
consulting firm in Mobile, Alabama.
106.

Alice Anns consulting firm makes extensive use of teams, encourages employee involvement,
and is very concerned with quality-management. An appropriate evaluation technique for this
firm would be ____.
a. written essays
b. trait evaluations
c. BARS
d. 360-degree evaluations
e. graphic rating scales
(d; Challenging; 360-Degree Evaluation; p. 597) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
Application of Managing Diversity in Organizations
You have recently gone to work for Goodvibes, Inc., a medium-sized firm that provides temporary
workers for organizations who are outsourcing such functions as accounting, marketing, and training and
development. Most Goodvibes employees are highly trained and could work at almost any company of
their choosing. Many employees work part-time or job share so that they can have more control over how
their time is spent. Goodvibes has instituted many family-friendly programs in order to attract and keep
these talented people.
107.

Which of the following programs is Goodvibes likely to have instituted?


a. child care
b. elder care
c. relocation assistance
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
(d; Easy; Work-Life Initiatives; p. 604) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
108.

To reduce the work-life conflicts faced by their employees, Goodvibes should spend less effort
helping employees with _____.
a. improving time management skills
b. segmenting their work and home lives
c. integrating their work and home lives
d. adjusting to a wide range of scheduling options
e. improving their job productivity
(a; Moderate; Work-Life Initiatives; p. 604) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
109.

A Harvard study found that 82 percent of _____ between the ages of 20 and 39 said that a
family-friendly schedule was their most important job criterion.
a. women
b. men
c. employees
d. job applicants
e. managers
(b; Moderate; Work-Life Conflict; p. 604) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

137

Application of Global Implications


The company that Miguel works for is expanding. They have traditionally operated in North America and
are now expanding to some markets on the west coast of Africa. Miguel has been asked to head up the
human resources team that will be hiring the first employees and setting up the practices and
procedures.
110.

As Miguel begins to evaluate the appropriate selection process, the one thing that he can feel
very safe implementing is the use of _____.
a. work sample tests
b. interviews as a method to screen and select candidates
c. educational qualifications to screen candidates
d. any of the above
e. none of the above
(c; Moderate; Selection and Culture; p. 605) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} {AACSB:
Analytic Skills}
111.

Miguel and his team need to decide what kind of performance evaluations to use. They will need
to evaluate the culture in terms of all of the following dimensions except _____.
a. individualism/collectivism
b. personal relationships to the environment
c. time orientation
d. language dominance
e. focus of responsibility
(d; Moderate; Performance Evaluation and Culture; p. 606) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity}
{AACSB: Analytic Skills}
112.

Miguel knows that the cultures perception of a persons relationship to the environment will
affect _____.
a. how the company approaches environmental issues
b. whether the company gives performance evaluations at all
c. the location where the supervisor gives evaluations
d. the location where the supervisor gives reprimands
e. the location where the supervisor gives promotions
(b; Challenging; Performance Evaluation and Culture; p. 606) {AACSB: Multicultural and
Diversity} {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
113.

Miguel will need to know that the results of looking at the countrys time orientation will affect
_____.
a. how quickly an employee should be reprimanded after misconduct
b. how much importance should be placed on meeting work deadlines
c. how often performance evaluations should occur
d. how long performance evaluations should last
e. how much training an employee should typically receive
(c; Moderate; Performance Evaluation and Culture; p. 607) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity}
{AACSB: Analytic Skills}
SHORT DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
114.

Why must employers be careful about the questions they ask on employment applications?
Its pretty obvious that questions about race, gender, and nationality are disallowed.
Other questions also put companies in legal jeopardy. For example, it generally is not
permissible to ask about prior arrest records or even convictions unless the answer is job
related. (Easy; Application Forms; pp. 587-588) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
138

115.

Identify the main types of background checks that employers use to screen candidates in the
initial selection process.
a) More than 80 percent of employers conduct reference checks on applicants at some
point in the hiring process.
b) Letters of recommendation are another form of background check.
c) Finally, some employers do background checks on an applicants credit history or
criminal records.
(Easy; Background Checks; pp. 586-587) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

116.

Why are performance-simulation tests helpful in the employee selection process?


What better way is there to find out if an applicant can do a job successfully than by
having him or her do it? They also more easily meet the requirement of job-relatedness
than do most written tests. (Easy; Performance-Simulation Tests; p. 588) {AACSB:
Analytic Skills}

117.

Discuss the reasons why managers utilize performance simulation tests over written tests.
Although they are more complicated to develop and more difficult to administer than
written tests, performance-simulation tests have increased in popularity during the past
several decades. This appears to be due to the fact that they have higher face validity
than do most written tests. (Easy; Performance-Simulation Tests versus Written Tests; p.
588) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

118.

Describe the role of assessment centers in the employee selection process.


A more elaborate set of performance simulation tests, specifically designed to evaluate a
candidates managerial potential, is administered in assessment centers. In assessment
centers, line executives, supervisors, and/or trained psychologists evaluate candidates as
they go through one to several days of exercises that simulate real problems that they
would confront on the job. Based on a list of descriptive dimensions that the actual job
incumbent has to meet, activities might include interviews, in-basket problem-solving
exercises, leaderless group discussions, and business decision games. For instance, a
candidate might be required to play the role of a manager who must decide how to
respond to ten memos in his or her in-basket within a two-hour period. (Easy;
Assessment Centers; p. 588) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

119.

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the selection interview.


Not only is the interview widely used, it also seems to carry a great deal of weight. That
is, the results tend to have a disproportionate amount of influence on the selection
decision. The candidate who performs poorly in the employment interview is likely to be
cut from the applicant pool, regardless of his or her experience, test scores, or letters of
recommendation. Conversely, all too often, the person most polished in job-seeking
techniques, particularly those used in the interview process, is the one hired, even
though he or she may not be the best candidate for the position. (Easy; Interviews; p.
588) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

139

120.

What are the three most popular sets of criteria for evaluating employee performance?
The three most popular sets of criteria for evaluating employee performance are
individual task outcomes, behaviors, and traits.
a) If ends count, rather than means, then management should evaluate an employees
task outcomes. In many cases, its difficult to identify specific outcomes that can be
directly attributable to an employees actions.
b) Its not unusual for management to evaluate the employees behavior.
c) The weakest set of criteria, yet one that is widely used by organizations is individual
traits. They are weaker because they are farthest removed from the actual
performance of the job itself.
(Easy; Criteria for Evaluating Employee Performance; pp. 595-596) {AACSB: Analytic
Skills}

121.

Who should perform employee evaluations?


With many of todays organizations using self-managed teams, telecommuting, and other
organizing devices that distance bosses from their employees, an employees immediate
superior may not be the most reliable judge of that employees performance. Thus, in
more and more cases, peers and even subordinates are being asked to participate in the
performance evaluation process. Also, increasingly, employees are participating in their
own performance evaluation. In most situations, in fact, it is highly advisable to use
multiple sources of ratings. Any individual performance rating may say as much about
the rater as about the person being evaluated. By averaging across raters, we can obtain
a more reliable, unbiased, and accurate performance evaluation. (Easy; Evaluators; p.
597) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

122.

What is a 360-degree performance evaluation?


The latest approach to performance evaluation is the use of 360-degree evaluation. It
provides for performance feedback from the full circle of daily contacts that an employee
might have, ranging from mailroom personnel to customers to bosses to peers.
(Easy; 360-Degree Evaluations; p. 597) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

140

MEDIUM LENGTH DISCUSSION QUESTIONS


123.

Describe and discuss three substantive selection devices uses to assess job candidates once
they have passed an initial screening.
Selection devices include written tests, performance simulation tests, and interviews.
a) Typical written tests are tests of intelligence or cognitive ability tests, personality
tests, integrity tests, and interest inventories. Managers have come to recognize that
there are valid tests available and they can be helpful in predicting who will be
successful on the job. Applicants, however, tend to view written tests as less valid
and fair than interviews or performance tests.
b) What better way is there to find out if an applicant can do a job successfully than by
having him or her do it? Thats precisely the logic of performance simulation tests.
The two best-known performance simulation tests are work sampling and assessment
centers. The former is suited to routine jobs, whereas the latter is relevant for the
selection of managerial personnel.
c) Of all the selection devices that organizations use to differentiate candidates, the
interview continues to be the most common. Not only is the interview widely used, it
also seems to carry a great deal of weight.
(Moderate; Selection Devices; pp. 587-588) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

124.

Briefly explain three of the four types of written tests that are typically used in the employee
selection process?
Typical written tests include tests of intelligence or cognitive ability tests, personality
tests, integrity tests and interest inventories.
a) Tests in intellectual ability, spatial and mechanical ability, perceptual accuracy, and
motor ability have proven to be valid predictors for many skilled, semiskilled, and
unskilled operative jobs in industrial organizations. Intelligence tests have proven to
be particularly good predictors for jobs that require cognitive complexity.
b) Personality tests are relatively inexpensive and simple to use and administer.
Organizations use numerous measures of the Big Five traits in selection decisions.
c) As ethical problems have increased in organizations, integrity tests have gained
popularity. These are paper-and-pencil tests that measure factors such as
dependability, carefulness, responsibility, and honesty.
(Easy; Written Tests; p. 587) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

141

125.

Compare and contrast the two types of selection interviews.


The unstructured interviewshort in duration, casual, and made up of random questions
is not a very effective selection device. The data gathered from such interviews are
typically biased and often only modestly related to future job performance. Without
structure, a number of biases can distort results. These biases include interviewers
tending to favor applicants who share their attitudes, giving unduly high weight to
negative information, and allowing the order in which applicants are interviewed to
influence evaluations.
Using a standardized set of questions, providing interviewers with a uniform method of
recording information, and standardizing the rating of the applicants qualifications
reduce the variability in results across applicants and enhance the validity of the
interview as a selection device. The effectiveness of the interview also improves when
employers use behavioral structured interviews. This interview technique requires
applicants to describe how they handled specific problems and situations in previous
jobs. Its built on the assumption that past behavior offers the best predictor of future
behavior. (Moderate; Interviews; pp. 588-589) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

126.

Describe and discuss the four general skill categories addressed by most employee training
activities.
Four general skill categories typically offered by organizations are basic literacy,
technical, interpersonal, and problem solving.
a) Organizations increasingly have to provide basic reading and math skills for their
employees. Most training is directed at upgrading and improving an employees
technical skills.
b) Technical training has become increasingly important today for two more reasons
new technology and new structural designs. Almost all employees belong to a work
unit.
c) To some degree, their work performance depends on their ability to effectively
interact with their co-workers and their bosses.
d) Managers, as well as many employees who perform nonroutine tasks, have to solve
problems on their job. When people require these skills but are deficient in them, they
can participate in problem-solving training.
(Moderate; Types of Training; p. 591) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

127.

What purposes do performance evaluations serve in organizations?


Performance evaluations serve a number of purposes in organizations.
a) One purpose is to help management make general human resource decisions.
Evaluations provide input into such important decisions as promotions, transfers,
and terminations.
b) Evaluations also identify training and development needs. They pinpoint employee
skills and competencies that are currently inadequate but for which remedial
programs can be developed.
c) Evaluations also fulfill the purpose of providing feedback to employees on how the
organization views their performance.
d) Furthermore, performance evaluations are the basis for reward allocations. Decisions
as to who gets merit pay increases and other rewards are frequently determined by
performance evaluations.
(Moderate; Purposes of Performance Evaluation; p. 595) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

142

128.

Describe and discuss the two most popular forced comparison methods of performance
evaluation.
The two most popular comparisons are group order ranking and individual ranking.
a) The group order ranking requires the evaluator to place employees into a particular
classification, such as top one-fifth or second one-fifth. This method is often used in
recommending students to graduate schools.
b) The individual ranking approach rank-orders employees from best to worst. If the
manager is required to appraise 30 employees, this approach assumes that the
difference between the first and second employee is the same as that between the
twenty-first and twenty-second. Even though some of the employees may be closely
grouped, this approach allows for no ties. The result is a clear ordering of employees,
from the highest performer down to the lowest.
(Moderate; Forced Comparisons; pp. 598-599) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

COMPREHENSIVE ESSAYS
129.

Describe and discuss work sample tests and assessment centers.


Work sample tests are hands-on simulations of part or all of the job that must be
performed by applicants. By carefully devising work samples based on specific job tasks,
management determines the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for each job. Then
each work sample element is matched with a corresponding job performance element.
Work samples are widely used in the hiring of skilled workers, such as welders,
machinists, carpenters, and electricians. The results from work sample experiments are
impressive. Studies almost consistently demonstrate that work samples yield validities
superior to written aptitude and personality tests. A more elaborate set of performance
simulation tests, specifically designed to evaluate a candidates managerial potential, is
administered in assessment centers. In assessment centers, line executives, supervisors,
and/or trained psychologists evaluate candidates as they go through one to several days
of exercises that simulate real problems that they would confront on the job. Based on a
list of descriptive dimensions that the actual job incumbent has to meet, activities might
include interviews, in-basket problem-solving exercises, leaderless group discussions,
and business decision games. The evidence on the effectiveness of assessment centers
is impressive. They have consistently demonstrated results that predict later job
performance in managerial positions. (Moderate; Performance-Simulation Tests; p. 588)
{AACSB: Analytic Skills}

143

130.

Explain why performance evaluations should be improved. Discuss some suggestions for
improving performance evaluations.
The performance evaluation process is a potential minefield of problems. For instance,
evaluators can unconsciously inflate evaluations, understate performance, or allow the
assessment of one characteristic to unduly influence the assessment of others. Some
appraisers bias their evaluations by unconsciously favoring people who have qualities
and traits similar to their own. And, of course, some evaluators see the evaluation
process as a political opportunity to overtly reward or punish employees they like or
dislike.
Although there are no protections that will guarantee accurate performance evaluations,
the following suggestions can significantly help to make the process more objective and
fair.
a) The use of multiple evaluators is recommended. As the number of evaluators
increases, the probability of attaining more accurate information increases. By
moving employees about within the organization so as to gain a number of
evaluations or by using multiple assessors, we increase the probability of achieving
more valid and reliable evaluations.
b) Appraisers should evaluate only those areas in which they have some expertise. This
precaution increases the interrater agreement and makes the evaluation a more valid
process.
c) In addition, evaluators should be trained. If you cant find good evaluators, the
alternative is to make good evaluators. There is substantial evidence that training
evaluators can make them more accurate raters.
d) Finally, employees should be provided with due process. The concept of due process
can be applied to appraisals to increase the perception that employees are treated
fairly. Three features characterize due process systems:
i. Individuals are provided with adequate notice of what is expected of them;
ii. All evidence relevant to a proposed violation is aired in a fair hearing so the
individuals affected can respond; and
iii. The final decision is based on the evidence and free of bias.
(Challenging; Improving Performance Evaluations; pp. 600-601) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

144