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All Activities in Section 2 Forces and Motion

and Section 4 Circular Motion.

(a) If ax = 0, Fres = 2(1100 N) cos 25 = 1.99 kN.

2

(b) If ax = 0.16 m/s , Fres = 1.99 kN (3700 kg)

(0.16 m/s2 ) = 1.40 kN.

Problem

Fres

2

mass, which accelerates at 7.3 m/s in a direction

force has magnitude 6.8 N and points in the

+x direction. Find the other force.

25

x

T2

25

Solution

Newtons second law for this mass says Fnet = F1 +

F2 = ma, where we assume no other significant forces

are acting. Since the acceleration and the first force

are given, one can solve for the second, F2 = ma

2

F1 = (1.5 kg)(7.3 m/s )( cos 30 + sin 30 )

(6.8 N) = (2.68 + 5.48) N. This has magnitude

6.10 N and direction 63.9 CCW from the x-axis.

T1

Problem

4. At what angle should you tilt an air table to

simulate motion on the moons surface, where

2

g = 1.6 m/s ?

Solution

Problem

2. Two forces act on a 3.1-kg mass, which undergoes

2

acceleration a = 0.91 0.27 m/s . If one of the

forces is F1 = 1.2 2.5 N, what is the other

force?

Solution

As in the previous problem, F2 = ma F1 =

2

(3.1 kg)(0.91 0.27)(m/s ) (1.2 2.5) N =

(4.02+ 1.66)N.

Problem

3. A 3700-kg barge is being pulled along a canal by

two mules, as shown in Fig. 6-59. The tension in

each tow rope is 1100 N, and the ropes make

25 angles with the forward direction. What force

does the water exert on the barge (a) if it moves

with constant velocity and (b) if it accelerates

forward at 0.16 m/s2 ?

Solution

The horizontal forces on the barge are the two

tensions and the resistance of the water, as shown on

Figure 6-59. The net force is in the x direction, so

Example 6-1). To replicate the moons surface gravity,

the angle of tilt should be = sin1 (1.62/9.81) =

9.51 (see Appendix E).

Problem

5. A block of mass m slides with acceleration a down

a frictionless slope that makes an angle to the

horizontal; the only forces acting on it are the force

of gravity Fg and the normal force N of the slope.

Show that the magnitude

of the normal force is

p

given by N = m g 2 a2 .

Solution

Choose the x-axis down the slope (parallel to the

acceleration) and the y-axis parallel to the normal.

Then ax = a, ay = 0, Nx = 0, Ny = N, Fgx =

Fg cos (90 ) = mg sin , and Fgy = mg cos .

Newtons second law, N + Fg = ma, in components

gives mg sin = ma, and N mg cos = 0.

Eliminate (using sin2 p

+ cos2 = 1) to find (a/g)2 +

(N/mg)2 = 1, or N = m g 2 a2 .

60

CHAPTER 6

Problem 8 Solution.

Problem 5 Solution.

Problem

Problem

6. A skier starts from rest at the top of a 24 slope

1.3 km long. Neglecting friction, how long does it

take to reach the bottom?

Solution

The acceleration down a frictionless incline is a =

g sin (see Example 6-1), and the distance traveled

down the incline, starting from rest (vp

0 = 0) at the top

(x0 = 0), is x = 21 at2 . Therefore, t = 2x/g sin =

q

2

2(1.3 km)/(9.8 m/s ) sin 24 = 25.5 s.

massless rope as shown in Fig. 6-60. What is the

tension in the rope? Compare with the monkeys

weight.

Solution

The sum of the forces at the center of the rope (shown

on Fig. 6-60) is zero (if the monkey is at rest), T1 +

T2 + W = 0. The x component of this equation

requires that the tension is the same on both sides:

T1 cos 8 + T2 cos 172 = 0, or T1 = T2 . The y

component gives 2 T sin 8 = W, or T = W/2 sin 8 =

2

3.59W = 3.59(15 kg)(9.8 m/s ) = 528 N.

Problem

y

T2

8

makes an angle of 35 to the horizontal. If the

blocks initial speed is 2.2 m/s, how far up the

ramp does it slide?

T1

8

x

W

Solution

The acceleration up the ramp is g sin 35 , so the

block goes a distance in this direction calculated from

2

the equation v0x

2g sin 35 (x x0 ) = 0. Thus,

2

x x0 = (2.2 m/s)2 /2(9.8 m/s ) sin 35 = 43.1 cm.

figure 6-60 Problem 9 Solution.

Problem

8. At the start of a race, a 70-kg swimmer pushes off

the starting block with a force of 950 N directed at

15 below the horizontal. (a) What is the

swimmers horizontal acceleration? (b) If the

swimmer is in contact with the starting block for

0.29 s, what is the horizontal component of his

velocity when he hits the water?

Solution

(a) If we assume that the reaction force of the starting

block and gravity are the only significant forces acting

on the swimmer, the horizontal acceleration is just

Fx /m, or ax = (950 N) cos 15 /70 kg = 13.1 m/s2 .

2

(b) vx = ax t = (13.1 m/s )(0.29 s) = 3.80 m/s.

Problem

10. A tow truck is connected to a 1400-kg car by a

cable that makes a 25 angle to the horizontal, as

shown in Fig. 6-61. If the truck accelerates at

0.57 m/s2 , what is the magnitude of the cable

tension? Neglect friction and the mass of the

cable.

Solution

The only force on the car with a horizontal component

(in the direction of the acceleration) is the tension.

Therefore, T cos = ma, or T = (1400 kg)

CHAPTER 6

61

friction acts between the tires and the road with

magnitude sufficient to keep the wheels turning, but is

assumed to be negligible.)

T

25

a

negligible

Problem

11. A 10-kg mass is suspended at rest by two strings

attached to walls, as shown in Fig. 6-62. Find the

tension forces in the two strings.

23

Solution

The force diagram is superimposed on Fig. 6-62. Since

the mass is at rest, the sum of the forces is zero,

T1 + T2 + W = 0, which is true for the x and

y components separately, T1 cos 45 T2 = 0, and

T1 sin 45 W = 0. Solving for the magnitudes of the

tensions,

and substituting 98 N for theweight, we find

T1 = 2 98 N = 139 N, and T2 = T1 / 2 = 98 N.

Solution

If the slope of the embankment exerts only a normal

force on the car (no friction), the situation is the same

as in Example 6-4, Fg + N + Fh = 0. Then Fh =

2

mg tan = (1100 kg)(9.8 m/s ) tan 23 = 4.58 kN.

Problem

y

T1

45

T2

using two separate pieces of rope of different

lengths, as shown in Fig. 6-64. What is the

tension in each rope?

W

10 kg

Problem

12. A 1100-kg car goes off the road and plunges down

a 23 embankment, coming to rest against a tree.

The contact between tree and car is such that the

force exerted on the car by the tree is purely

horizontal, as suggested in Fig. 6-63. Find the

magnitude of that force once the car is fully

stopped.

62

CHAPTER 6

Solution

The sum of the forces acting on the pack (gravity and

the tension along each rope) is zero, since it is at rest,

Fg + T1 + T2 = 0. In a coordinate system with x-axis

horizontal to the right and y-axis vertical upward, the

x and y components of the net force are T1 cos 71 +

T2 cos 28 = 0, and 269.8 N + T1 sin 71 +

T2 sin 28 = 0 (see Example 6-3). Solving for T1 and

T2 , one finds T1 = (269.8 N)(sin 71 +

tan 28 cos 71 ) = 228 N and T2 = (269.8 N)

(sin 28 + tan 71 cos 28 ) = 84.0 N.

Problem

14. A construction worker is lifting a 92-kg bundle of

plywood onto an upper floor, using the

arrangement shown in Fig. 6-65. What force must

the worker apply to lift the bundle at constant

speed? Assume the pulley is massless and

frictionless.

Problem

15. Your 12-kg baby sister is hanging on the bottom

of the tablecloth with all her weight. In the

middle of the table, 60 cm from each edge, is a

6.8-kg roast turkey. (a) What is the acceleration

of the turkey? (b) From the time she starts

pulling, how long do you have to intervene before

the turkey goes over the edge of the table?

Solution

The vertical motion of your baby sister and the

horizontal motion of the turkey are analogous to the

climber and rock in Example 6-5. If we assume that

both have accelerations of the same magnitude as the

tablecloth, which has negligible mass, no friction with

the table, etc., then (a) a = arx = mc g/(mc + mr ) =

2

(12 kg)(9.8 m/s2 )/(12 kg + 6.8 kg) = 6.26 m/s

p is the

turkeys horizontal acceleration, and (b) t = 2x/a =

q

2

to save the turkey from going over the edge. (The

assumptions relevant to Example 6-5 might be

somewhat over-restrictive in this situation.)

Problem

T1

T2

in Fig. 6-66, where the string is fastened securely

to the ceiling. Neglect friction and assume that

the masses of pulley and string are negligible.

Solution

mg

Solution

The tension in each rope pulls upward on the pulley,

while the weight of the plywood pulls downward.

Since the mass of the pulley is negligible, its weight

can be neglected, and the tension in each rope is the

same (this will be evident after Chapter 12). The

acceleration of the pulley, whose speed is constant, is

zero; therefore the vertical component of Newtons

second law gives T1 + T2 mg = 2T mg = 0, or

2

T = 12 mg = 12 (92 kg)(9.8 m/s ) = 451 N.

accelerations) for the two masses (m1 includes the

attached pulley) are T = m2 a2 and m1 g 2T =

m1 a1 . (The assumptions stated ensure that the tension

has the same magnitude at all points in the string, as

shown.) If the length of the string is fixed, when m1

moves down a distance d, m2 moves to the right a

distance 2d, so a2 = 2a1 . Thus T = m2 (2a1 ), m1 a1 =

m1 g 2(2m2 a1 ), and a1 = m1 g/(m1 + 4m2 ).

Problem

17. If the left-hand slope in Fig. 6-56 makes a

60 angle with the horizontal, and the right-hand

slope makes a 20 angle, how should the masses

compare if the objects are not to slide along the

frictionless slopes?

Solution

The free-body force diagrams for the left- and

right-hand masses are shown in the sketch, where

there is only a normal contact force since each slope is

CHAPTER 6

63

N

a2

m2

T

T

T

a1

m2g

m1

m1g

figure 6-66 Problem 16 Solution.

perpendicular x-y-axes. If the masses dont slide, the

net force on each must be zero, or T m g sin 60 = 0,

and mr g sin 20 Tr = 0 (we only need the parallel

components in this problem). If the masses of the

string and pulley are negligible and there is no friction,

then T = Tr . Adding the force equations, we find

mr g sin 20 m g sin 60 = 0, or the mass ratio must

be mr /m = sin 60 / sin 20 = 2.53 for no motion.

Problem 17 Solution.

Problem

18. In a setup like that shown in Fig. 6-37, but with

different masses, a 4.34-kg block starts from rest

on the left edge of a frictionless tabletop 1.25 m

wide. It accelerates to the right, and reaches the

right edge in 2.84 s. If the mass of the block

hanging from the left side is 3.56 kg, what is the

mass hanging from the right side?

Solution

The acceleration of the 4.34-kg block sliding

horizontally to the right across the frictionless

tabletop is a = 2(1.25 m)/(2.84 s)2 = 0.310 m/s2

(from Equation 2-10 and the given conditions). This is

also the magnitude of the accelerations of the other

two blocks. Since we are not interested in the tension

in either string, we may use a shortcut to find the

unknown mass. The net force on all three masses in

the direction of motion is the difference in the rightand left-hand weights, Fnet = (m 3.56 kg)g, which

equals the total mass times the acceleration,

64

CHAPTER 6

m =

(9.8 m/s2 0.310 m/s2 )

= 3.93 kg

component of the equations of motion of the three

blocks in the direction of motion: Tleft (3.56 kg)g =

(3.56 kg)a, Tright Tleft = (4.34 kg)a, and

mg Tright = ma. In this setup, the ropes are

massless, and the pulleys are massless and frictionless,

so the tension in each rope is constant.)

(75 kg + 63 kg)a. Therefore, a = 533 N/138 kg =

2

3.86 m/s . (b) After they have stopped, the force of

the ice ax against the ice must balance the downslope

components of gravity calculated in part (a).

Problem

21. In a florists display, hanging plants of mass

3.85 kg and 9.28 kg are suspended from an

essentially massless wire, as shown in Fig. 6-67.

Find the tension in each section of the wire.

Solution

Problem

19. Suppose the angles shown in Fig. 6-56 are 60

and 20 . If the left-hand mass is 2.1 kg, what

should be the right-hand mass in order that

2

(a) it accelerates downslope at 0.64 m/s ;

2

(b) it accelerates upslope at 0.76 m/s ?

Solution

With reference to the solution to Problem 17, the

parallel component of the equations of motion

for the masses are T m g sin 60 = m a and

mr g sin 20 Tr = mr ar . The accelerations and

tensions are equal, respectively, provided the string

doesnt stretch and the other assumptions in

Problem 17 hold. Then mr ar + m a = (mr + m )a =

mr g sin 20 Tr + T m g sin 60 = mr g sin 20

m g sin 60 , or mr = m (g sin 60 + a)/(g sin 20 a).

(a) A downslope right-hand acceleration is positive for

the coordinate systems we have chosen, so substituting

2

a = 0.64 m/s and m = 2.1 kg, we find mr = 7.07 kg.

(b) If a = 0.76 m/s2 , then mr = 3.95 kg.

T1 , T2 , and T3 as shown in the figure. The horizontal

and vertical components of the net force on the

junction of the wire with each plant are equal to zero,

since the system is stationary. Thus:

T1 sin 54.0 T2 sin 13.9 (3.85 9.8) N = 0

T1 cos 54.0 + T2 cos 13.9 = 0

T2 cos 13.9 + T3 cos 68.0 = 0

54.0

T1

Solution

(a) If we assume that the climbers move together as a

unit, with the same magnitude of downslope

acceleration a, then the net force acting on them is the

sum of the downslope components of gravity on each,

T3

13.9

T2

(3.85 kg)g

(9.28 kg)g

Problem

20. Two unfortunate climbers, roped together, are

sliding freely down an icy mountainside. The

upper climber (mass 75 kg) is on a slope at 12 to

the horizontal, but the lower climber (mass 63 kg)

has gone over the edge to a steeper slope at 38 .

(a) Assuming frictionless ice and a massless rope,

what is the acceleration of the pair? (b) The

upper climber manages to stop the slide with an

ice ax. Once the climbers have come to a complete

stop, what force must the ax exert against the

ice?

68.0

One can solve any three of these equations for the

unknown tensions, perhaps using the fourth equation

as a check (if you do, remember not to round off). For

example, T1 = (3.85 9.8) N/(sin 54.0 cos 54.0

tan 13.9 ) = 56.9 N, T2 = T1 cos 54.0 / cos 13.9 =

34.4 N, and T3 = T2 cos 13.9 / cos 68.0 = 89.2 N.

(Note that the given angles and weights are not

independent of one another.)

Problem

22. A rectangular block of mass m1 rests on a

wedge-shaped block of mass m2 , as shown in

Fig. 6-68. All contact surfaces are frictionless.

Find an expression for the magnitude of the

horizontal force F that must be applied to the

CHAPTER 6

wedge in order that the rectangular block not slide

along the wedge.

m1

F

m2

Solution

The forces acting on the wedge and block are shown

separately in free-body diagrams for clarity. The

contact forces N1 (between wedge and block) and N2

(between wedge and horizontal surface) are purely

normal because the surfaces are frictionless. For no

relative motion between the wedge and block, both

must have the same horizontal acceleration, a. The

horizontal and vertical components of Newtons second

law for the block, and the horizontal component of

Newtons second law for the wedge (all thats needed

in this problem) give N1 sin = m1 a, N1 cos

m1 g = 0, F N1 sin = m2 a. Eliminating a and N1 ,

we find F = (m1 + m2 )a = (m1 + m2 )g tan .

65

Problem

24. Suppose the moon were held in its orbit not by

gravity but by the tension in a massless cable.

Estimate the magnitude of the cable tension. (See

Appendix E for relevant data.)

Solution

We are asked to estimate the net force on the moon,

which, according to Newtons second law, is the

product of its mass and its acceleration. Since the

moon describes approximately uniform circular motion

about the Earth, F = m(v 2 /r) = mr(2/T )2 , where r

and T are the radius and period of the orbit. Thus,

F = (7.351022 kg)(3.85108 m)(2/27.3

2

86,400 s)2 = 2.011020 N = m(2.73103 m/s ). We

displayed the numerical value of the moons

(centripetal) acceleration because, comparing it to

2

9.8 m/s (the gravitational acceleration of an apple at

the Earths surface), Newton is said to have arrived at

his famous inverse square law of gravitation. The

distances of the moon and apple from the center of the

Earth are about 60RE and RE , and

(2.73103 /9.8) (1/60)2. (See also Problem 16,

Chapter 9.)

Problem

25. Show that the force needed to keep a mass m in a

circular path of radius r with period T is

4 2 mr/T 2 .

Solution

Problem 22 Solution.

Problem

23. A simplistic model for the hydrogen atom pictures

its single electron in a circular orbit of radius

0.0529 nm about the fixed proton. If the electrons

orbital speed is 2.18106 m/s, what is the

magnitude of the force between the electron and

the proton?

the net force has magnitude mv 2 /r (Equation 6-1).

The period of the motion (time for one revolution) is

T = 2r/v, so the centripetal force can also be written

as m(2r/T )2 /r = mr(2/T )2 = 4 2 mr/T 2 (see

Equation 4-18).

Problem

26. A mass m1 undergoes circular motion of radius R

on a horizontal frictionless table, connected by a

massless string through a hole in the table to a

second mass m2 (Fig. 6-69). If m2 is stationary,

find (a) the tension in the string and (b) the

period of the circular motion.

Solution

Solution

For a particle in uniform circular motion, the net force

equals the mass times the centripetal acceleration,

F = mv 2 /r = (9.111031 kg)(2.18106 m/s)2

(5.291011 m) = 8.18108 N.

mass yields T m2 g = 0, so the tension is T = m2 g.

(b) This is also the magnitude of the net (horizontal)

force on the mass in uniform circular motion, so,

with the aid of the result of Problem

p 25,

m2 g = m1 R(2/ )2 , hence = 2 m1 R/m2 g is the

66

CHAPTER 6

period because we used tee for the tension.)

N

R

m1

T

m1g

T

m2

m2g

Problem

Problem

29. A subway train rounds an unbanked curve at

67 km/h. A passenger hanging onto a strap

notices that an adjacent unused strap makes an

angle of 15 to the vertical. What is the radius of

the turn?

Solution

The net force on the unused strap is the vector sum of

the tension in the strap (acting along its length at 15

to the vertical) and its weight. This must equal the

mass times the horizontal centripetal acceleration.

The free-body diagram for the strap is the same as

Fig. 6-18, except that the angle from the vertical is

now given, as shown. Thus, T cos = mg, and

T sin = mv 2 /r. Dividing these equations to eliminate

T , and solving for the radius of the turn, one finds r =

2

v 2 /g tan = (67 m/3.6 s)2 /(9.8 tan 15 m/s ) = 132 m.

the end of a 1.3-m-long string. (a) If the breaking

strength of the string is 120 N, what is the

maximum allowable speed of the rock? (b) At this

maximum speed, what angle does the string make

with the horizontal?

Solution

The situation is the same as described in Example 6-6.

The horizontal component of the tension is the

centripetal force, T cos = mv 2 /r = mv 2 / cos , and

the vertical component balances the weight, T sin =

mg. (b) At the maximum speed, the tension in the

string is at its breaking strength, Tmax = 120 N;

therefore the minimum angle the string makes with the

horizontal is given by sin min = mg/Tmax, or min =

p . (a) At these values

2

of

p T and , the speed is vmax = Tmax cos min /m =

2

(120 N)(1.3 m)(cos 4.40 ) /(0.940 kg) = 12.8 m/s.

Problem

28. If the rock of the previous problem is whirled in a

vertical circle, what is the minimum speed needed

at the top of the circle in order that the string

remain taut?

Problem

30. An Olympic hammer thrower whirls a 7.3-kg

hammer on the end of a 120-cm chain. If the chain

makes a 10 angle with the horizontal, what is the

speed of the hammer?

Solution

p

From Example 6-6, v = g cos2 / sin = 8.10 m/s,

where we used = 1.2 m and = 10 .

Problem

Solution

At the top of the circle, the tension, gravity, and the

centripetal acceleration are all vertically downward (as

2

in Example 6-8). Then T + mg

= mv /. If the string

remains taut, T 0, or v g =

q

2

loop-the-loop roller coaster of Example 6-8 wear

seatbelts as the roller coaster negotiates its

6.3-m-radius loop with a speed of 9.7 m/s. At the

top of the loop, what are the magnitude and

direction of the force exerted on a 60-kg rider

(a) by the roller-coaster seat and (b) by the

CHAPTER 6

67

unbuckled at this point?

Solution

(a) As shown in Example 6-8, at the top of the loop,

N + mg = mv 2 /r, so N = (60 kg)[9.8 m/s2 +

(9.7 m/s)2 /6.3 m] = 308 N. (b) Actually, 308 N is the

difference between the normal force of the seat and the

force exerted by the seatbelt, i.e., N = 308 N + Fbelt .

The seatbelt, firmly adjusted, perhaps adds a few

pounds (1 lb = 4.45 N), providing a feeling of security.

(c) The seatbelt is required in case of accidents or

rapid tangential decelerations; it is not needed to

contribute to the centripetal force.

Problem

32. A 45-kg skater rounds a 5.0-m-radius turn at

6.3 m/s. (a) What are the horizontal and vertical

components of the force the ice exerts on her skate

blades? (b) At what angle can she lean without

falling over?

Solution

(a) If the ice is level, the contact force exerted on the

skater has vertical component (normal force) equal to

the weight, and horizontal component (static friction)

in the direction of the centripetal acceleration. Thus,

2

N = mg = (45 kg)(9.8 m/s ) = 441 N, and fs =

mv 2 /r = (45 kg)(6.3 m/s)2 /(5 m) = 357 N. (b) In

Chapter 14 it will be shown that stability requires that

the center of gravity of the skater should be along the

line of action of the contact force. She should lean at

= tan1 (fs /N ) = 39.0 , relative to the vertical.

Problem

Problem 32 Solution.

Problem

34. A jetliner flying horizontally at 850 km/h banks at

32 to make a turn. What is the radius of the

turn?

Solution

The forces on an airplane making a horizontal circular

turn are analogous to those on a car negotiating a

banked curve (see Fig. 6-21), where the main

aerodynamic force on the airplane is normal to the

wing surfaces. Thus, Faero sin = mv 2 /r, and

Faero cos = mg, so tan = v 2 /gr. In this case,

r = (850 m/3.6 s)2 /(9.8 m/s2 ) tan 32 = 9.10 km.

rounded corners; each corner has a radius of 6.5 m

on its inside edge. The track includes six

1.0-m-wide lanes. What should be the banking

angles on (a) the innermost and (b) the outermost

lanes if the design speed of the track is 24 km/h?

Solution

The banking angle is = tan1 (v 2 /gr) (see Example

6-7). A competitive runner rounds a turn on the inside

edge of his or her lane. (a) = tan1 [(24 m/3.6 s)2

(9.8 m/s2 )(6.5 m)] = 34.9 . (b) The radius of the

inside edge of the outermost lane is 6.5 m + 5(1 m) =

11.5 m, so = 21.5. (This type of banking is shown

in Fig. 6-58.)

Problem 34 Solution.

Problem

35. Youre a passenger in a car rounding a turn with

radius 180 m. You take your keys from your

pocket and dangle them from the end of your

68

CHAPTER 6

keychain. They make an 18 angle with the

vertical, as shown in Fig. 6-70. What is the cars

speed?

Problem

36. A bucket of water is whirled in a vertical circle of

radius 85 cm. What is the minimum speed that

will keep the water from falling out?

Solution

As long as the magnitude of the acceleration at the

top of the circle is greater than g, the water will

remain in the bucket. (Then, the bottom of the bucket

exerts a normal force on the water so the two are in

2

contact;

q see Example 6-8). Thus, v /r > g, or

v>

Problem

37. A 1200-kg car drives on the country road shown in

Fig. 6-71. The radius of curvature of the crests

and dips is 31 m. What is the maximum speed at

which the car can maintain road contact at the

crests?

N

fs

Fg

Solution

You and your keys are rounding the curve along with

the car, so all have the same centripetal acceleration,

ac = v 2 /r, which we assume is horizontal and directed

toward the center of the curve. The forces on the keys

are the tension along the direction of the keychain and

gravity downward, as shown on Fig. 6-70, so the

situation is just like Example 6-6, where the horizontal

component of the tension supplies the centripetal

acceleration, and the vertical component balances the

weight of the keys. Then the horizontal and vertical

components of Newtons second law for the keys are:

T cos(90 18 ) = T sin 18 = mac = mv 2 /r, and

T cos 18 mg = 0. Eliminating the tension, as

in the sixth step

6-6, we find mg tan 18 =

of Example

2

mv

q /r, or v = gr tan 18 =

2

(This problem could also be approached using an

accelerated coordinate system at rest relative to the

car, and introducing a fictitious force, mac , called

the centrifugal force, to account for the accelerated

motion. The beginning student is advised to stick with

inertial coordinate systems, however, in which there is

less chance for confusion.)

Solution

If air resistance is ignored, the forces on the car are

gravity and the contact force of the road, which is

represented by the sum of the normal force

(perpendicularly away from the road) and friction

between the tires and the road (parallel to the road in

the direction of motion). Newtons second law for the

car is Fg + N + fs = ma. At a crest, N is vertically

upward, fs is horizontal, and the vertical component of

a is the radial acceleration v 2 /r (downward in this

case). The vertical component of Newtons second law

is then mg + N = mv 2 /r. As long as the car is in

q

2

(9.8 m/s )(31 m) = 17.4 m/s = 62.7 km/h.

Problem

38. The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) is a NASA

experiment consisting of a 500-kg satellite

connected to the space shuttle by a 20-km-long

cable of negligible mass. Suppose the shuttle is in

a 250-km-high circular orbit, where the

acceleration of gravity is 0.926 times its value at

Earths surface. The TSS hangs vertically on its

CHAPTER 6

tether (Fig. 6-72), and at its 230-km altitude the

acceleration of gravity is 0.932 times its surface

value. What is the tension in the cable?

20 km

mgTSS

69

Problem

40. You make a huge snowball with a mass of 33 kg. If

the coefficient of friction between the ball and an

ice-covered pond is 0.16, with what force must you

push the ball to move it (a) at constant velocity

and (b) with an acceleration of 0.84 m/s2 ?

Solution

The pond has a level frozen surface, so the normal

force on the snowball is equal in magnitude to its

weight. The frictional force opposing the motion has

magnitude fk = k N = k mg. The horizontal forces

acting are friction and the applied force, so the

horizontal component of Newtons second law (positive

in the direction of motion) is Fapp fk = ma. (a) At

constant velocity, a = 0, and Fapp = fk = (0.16)

2

(33 kg)(9.8 m/s ) = 51.7 N. (b) Fapp = ma + fk =

2

(33 kg)(0.84 m/s ) + 51.7 N = 79.5 N.

Problem

Solution

The radial component of Newtons second law for the

TSS (positive component toward the center of the

Earth) is mgTSS T = m(ar )TSS . Since the TSS and

the shuttle have the same period, (the tether would

pull the TSS forward or backward until this was so)

(2/ )2 = (v/r)2 = ar /r is the same for both, or

(ar /r)TSS = (ar /r)shuttle . If the shuttles orbit is

hardly affected by the much smaller TSS, then

(ar )Shuttle = gShuttle . Therefore, the tension in the

cable is

rTSS

(ar )shuttle

T = m[gTSS (ar )TSS ] = m gTSS

rshuttle

6370 + 230

2

= (500 kg)(9.8 m/s ) 0.932 0.926

6370 + 250

= 43.1 N

Problem

39. Movers slide a file cabinet along a floor. The mass

of the cabinet is 73 kg, and the coefficient of

kinetic friction between cabinet and floor is 0.81.

What is the frictional force on the cabinet?

Solution

If the floor is level, the normal force on the cabinet is

equal in magnitude to its weight, so the frictional force

has magnitude fk = k N = k mg = (0.81)(73 kg)

2

(9.8 m/s ) = 579 N. The direction of sliding friction

opposes the motion.

machine, and their teammates proceed to push

them with constant velocity across a field. If the

coefficient of kinetic friction between scrum

machine and field is 0.78, with what force must

they push?

Solution

As in Problem 40(a), a horizontal applied force must

have magnitude equal to the frictional force in order

to push an object at constant velocity along a level

surface. The total weight on the scrum machine is

2

(880 kg + 70 kg)(9.8 m/s ) = 6.96 kN; therefore

Fapp = fk = k N = (0.78)(6.96 kN) = 5.43 kN.

Problem

42. A hockey puck is given an initial speed of 14 m/s.

If it comes to rest in 56 m, what is the coefficient

of kinetic friction?

Solution

The force of friction is the only horizontal force acting,

and the normal force is vertical and equal to the

pucks weight. Thus, fk = ma = k mg, or a = k g.

We take the positive direction parallel to the initial

velocity, so that Equation 2-11 can be used for the

acceleration, a = (0 v02 )/2(x x0 ) = (14 m/s)2

2

2(56 m) = 1.75 m/s . Then k = a/g =

(1.75 m/s2 )/(9.8 m/s2 ) = 0.18. (We express k to

two significant figures only since it is an empirical

constant.)

70

CHAPTER 6

Solution

Problem

What is the coefficient of friction between slope

and sled?

Solution

must modify the rocks equation of motion, Tr +

Fgr + N + fk = mar . Since the ice surface is

horizontal, only the rocks x-equation changes, Trx

k N = mr arx . Now we need to use the rocks

y-equation to eliminate N, obtaining Trx mr g =

mr arx . Solving for arx as before, we find k mr g

mr acy mc g = mc acy , or arx = acy =

(mc k mr )g/(mc + mr ) = (70 kg 0.057940 kg)

2

(9.8 m/s2 )/(1010 kg)

q= 0.159 m/s . Now the climber

component of gravity on the sled to produce a

constant speed. The normal force on the sled must

balance the perpendicular component of gravity if just

gravity and the contact force are acting. Thus,

mg sin = fk = k N , and mg cos = N, or k =

tan 12 = 0.21 (as in Example 6-10).

to pray for rescue.

Problem

Problem

35 angle with the horizontal. If the coefficient of

friction between lawnmower and ground is 0.68,

what magnitude of force is required to push the

mower at constant velocity? Assume the force is

applied in the direction of the handle. Compare

with the mowers weight.

between car tires and road are reduced to

k = 0.088 and s = 0.14. (a) What is the

maximum slope on which a car can be parked

without sliding? (b) On a slope just steeper than

this maximum, with what acceleration will a car

slide down the slope?

Solution

Solution

the forces on the lawnmower as shown. At constant

velocity (constant speed in a straight line) a = 0, and

F + fk + N + mg = 0. The x and y components of this

equation are F cos 35 fk = 0, and N F sin 35

mg = 0. Using fk = k N = k (F sin 35 + mg), with

k = 0.68, we find F = k mg/(cos 35 k sin 35 ) =

1.58mg = 342 N.

s = 7.97. (b) From Example 6-10, a = g sin

k g cos = (9.8 m/s2 )(sin 7.97 0.088 cos 7.97 ) =

2

50.5 cm/s . (Using a little

p trigonometry, we could have

written a = g(s k )/ 1 + 2s .)

Problem

47. A bat crashes into the vertical front of an

accelerating subway train. If the coefficient of

friction between bat and train is 0.86, what is the

minimum acceleration of the train that will allow

the bat to remain in place?

Solution

Since N is parallel to the acceleration, but

perpendicular to gravity and friction, N = ma, and

fs = mg s N = s ma. Therefore, in order to

2

remain in place, a g/s = (9.8 m/s )/0.86 =

11.4 m/s2 .

Problem 44 Solution.

Problem

Problem

45. Repeat Example 6-5, now assuming that the

coefficient of kinetic friction between rock and ice

is 0.057.

belt moving horizontally at 1.7 m/s. If the

coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.46, how long does

it take each box to come to rest with respect to

the belt?

CHAPTER 6

71

greater. (Friction is no substitute for a seatbelt!)

Problem

51. A bug crawls outward from the center of a

compact disc spinning at 200 revolutions per

minute. The coefficient of static friction between

the bugs sticky feet and the disc surface is 1.2.

How far does the bug get from the center before

slipping?

Solution

Problem 47 Solution.

Solution

Kinetic friction accelerates each box up to the speed of

the belt: fk = k N = k mg = ma (if we suppose the

belt to be horizontal). This takes time t = v/a =

v/k g = (1.7 m/s)/(0.46)(9.8 m/s2 ) = 0.377 s.

Problem

49. The coefficient of static friction between steel train

wheels and steel rails is 0.58. The engineer of a

train moving at 140 km/h spots a stalled car on

the tracks 150 m ahead. If he applies the brakes so

that the wheels do not slip, will the train stop in

time?

Solution

When stopping on a level track, the maximum

acceleration due to friction is a = s g, as explained

in Example 6-12. The minimum stopping distance

from an initial speed of (140/3.6) m/s is x =

2

v02 /(2a) = (38.9 m/s)2 /(20.589.8 m/s ) =

133 m. With split-second timing, an accident could be

averted.

Problem

50. If you neglect to fasten your seatbelt, and if the

coefficient of friction between you and your car

seat is 0.42, what is the maximum deceleration for

which you can remain in your seat? Compare with

the deceleration in an accident that brings a

60-km/h car to rest in a distance of 1.6 m.

Solution

If the seat is horizontal (parallel to the acceleration)

then fs = ma s N = s mg, or a s g. The

2

maximum deceleration is therefore (0.42)(9.8 m/s ) =

2

4.12 m/s . For the accident described, the magnitude

of the deceleration is v02 /2(x x0 ) = (60 m/3.6 s)2

produces the (centripetal) acceleration of the bug,

and the normal force equals its weight. Thus,

fs = m(v 2 /r) = mr(2/T )2 s N = s mg, or

2

r s g(T /2)2 = (1.2)(9.8 m/s )(60 s/2(200))2 =

2.68 cm. Note that the period of revolution is 60 s

divided by the number of revolutions per minute.

Problem

52. A 310-g paperback book rests on a 1.2-kg

textbook. A force is applied to the textbook, and

the two books accelerate together from rest to

96 cm/s in 0.42 s. The textbook is then brought to

a stop in 0.33 s, during which time the paperback

slides off. Within what range does the coefficient

of static friction between the two books lie?

Solution

The direction of motion and the orientation of the

surface of contact are not specified; assume

both are horizontal. Then, for the acceleration,

fs = ma s N = s mg (where m is the mass of the

paperback), or s a/g. From the given data,

s (0.96 m/s/0.42 s)/(9.8 m/s2 ) = 0.23. During the

deceleration, fsmax = s mg < ma (the magnitude of

the paperbacks acceleration is smaller than that of

the textbook, because the paperback slides off), so

2

s < (0.96 m/s/0.33 s)/(9.8 m/s ) = 0.30.

Problem

53. A 2.5-kg block and a 3.1-kg block slide down a

30 incline as shown in Fig. 6-73. The coefficient

of kinetic friction between the 2.5-kg block and

the slope is 0.23; between the 3.1-kg block and the

slope it is 0.51. Determine the (a) acceleration of

the pair and (b) the force the lighter block exerts

on the heavier one.

72

CHAPTER 6

Solution

2.5 kg

3.1 kg

30

k cos ) = (9.8 m/s2 )(sin 25 0.12 cos 25 ) =

2

3.08 m/s (see Example 6-10). The speed at the

bottom is v 2 = 2 as, where s = 41 m. On level ground,

the deceleration is fk /m = k mg/m = k g, so

the distance traveled before stopping is x =

2

v 2 /2(k g) = as/k g = (3.08 m/s )(41 m)/(0.12)

(9.8 m/s2 ) = 107 m.

Problem

55. In a typical front-wheel-drive car, 70% of the cars

weight rides on the front wheels. If the coefficient

of friction between tires and road is 0.61, what is

the maximum acceleration of the car?

Solution

Problem 53 Solution.

friction between the tires and the road is

amax = s N/m (see Example 6-12). In this case, the

normal force on the front tires (the ones producing the

frictional force which accelerates the car) is 70% of

mg, whereas the whole mass must be accelerated.

2

2

Thus, amax = (0.61)(0.70)(9.8 m/s ) = 4.18 m/s .

Solution

Problem

k2 > k1 , there will be a contact force of magnitude

Fc , such that the acceleration of both blocks down the

incline is a.) The x and y components of Newtons

second law for each block are

56. Repeat the previous problem for a rear-wheeldrive car with the same portion of its weight over

the front wheels.

m1 g sin 30 k1 N1 Fc

= m1 a, Nk1 m1 g cos 30 = 0

m2 g sin 30 k2 N2 + Fc

= m2 a, N2 m2 g cos 30 = 0.

of N from the y equations: a = [(m1 + m2 )g sin 30

(m1 k1 + m2 k2 )g cos 30 ]/(m1 + m2 ), or

2

a = 1.63 m/s , when the given ms and k s are

substituted. (b) To solve for Fc , divide each x

equation by the corresponding m, and subtract:

Fc = (k2 k1 )m1 m2 g cos 30 /(m1 + m2 ) = 3.29 N.

Solution

The frictional force on the rear wheels accelerates the

car, the frictional force on the front wheels, assumed

negligible, just makes them turn. If the car is on level

ground, Nr = 0.3mg, so Fs = ma s (0.3mg), or

2

2

a (0.61)(0.3)(9.8 m/s ) = 1.79 m/s . (Putting more

weight over the drive axle gives better traction.)

Problem

54. Children sled down a 41-m-long hill inclined at

25 . At the bottom the slope levels out. If the

coefficient of friction is 0.12, how far do the

children slide on the level?

Problem 56 Solution.

CHAPTER 6

Problem

73

50

from the damage done that a moving car hit a

stationary car at 25 km/h. If the moving car left

skid marks 47 m long, and if the coefficient of

kinetic friction is 0.71, what was the initial speed

of the moving car?

Solution

On a level road, the acceleration of a skidding car is

k g (see Example 6-12). From the kinematics

of the reconstructed accident, v 2 = v02

2k g(x

q x0 ), from which we calculate that

2

26.5 m/s = 95.4 km/h = 59.3 mi/h. (Add speeding to

the traffic citation!)

satisfied if sin 50 > cos 50 /s , or s > cot 50 =

0.84.

Problem

58. A slide inclined at 35 takes bathers into a

swimming pool. With water sprayed onto the slide

to make it essentially frictionless, a bather spends

only one-third as much time on the slide as when

it is dry. What is the coefficient of friction on the

dry slide?

Solution

The time it takes to slide down, starting from rest at

the top, depends

p on the acceleration in the direction of

the slope, t = 2x/a, where x is the length of the

slide (see Equation 2-10). Without friction, a = g sin ,

and with friction, a = g sin k g cos =

a(1 k cot ) (see Example 6-10). The ratio of the

2

corresponding times is 13 , so 31 = (t/t )2 =

a /a = 1 k cot , or k = 8 tan 35 /9 = 0.62.

Problem

59. You try to push a heavy trunk, exerting a force at

an angle of 50 below the horizontal (Fig. 6-74).

Show that, no matter how hard you try to push, it

is impossible to budge the trunk if the coefficient

of static friction exceeds 0.84.

Solution

The trunk remains at rest if the sum of the forces on it

(x and y components) is 0: Fa cos 50 fs = 0, N

mg Fa sin 50 = 0. Since fs = Fa cos 50 s N =

s (mg + Fa sin 50 ), the condition for equilibrium can

be written Fa (cos 50 s sin 50 ) s mg, or

(cos 50 /s ) sin 50 (mg/Fa ). The right-hand

side is always positive (Fa and mg are magnitudes),

but the left-hand side can be positive or negative. If it

is negative, the trunk does not move, independent of

Problem 59 Solution.

Problem

60. A block of mass m is being pulled at constant

speed v down a slope that makes an angle with

the horizontal. The pulling force is applied

through a horizontal rope, as shown in Fig. 6-75.

If the coefficient of kinetic friction is k , find an

expression for the rope tension.

Solution

Since the speed is constant (a = 0), the sum of the

forces on the block is zero (Newtons second law).

Taking components parallel and perpendicular to the

incline, we have: T cos + mg sin fk = 0, and

N + T sin mg cos = 0. Then T cos + mg sin =

fk = k N = k (mg cos T sin ), and

T = mg(k cos sin )/(cos + k sin ). (Note that

T 0, so the application of step 7 of the strategy box

in Section 6-1 is restricted by the range of

, 0 tan1 k .)

74

CHAPTER 6

Problem

fk

1 mg

moving through air (density 1.2 kg/m3 ) at 45 m/s.

The drag coefficient is 0.50.

Solution

The cross-sectional area of the baseball (a sphere) is

1

2

4 d , so Equation 6-4 and the other given quantities

result in a drag force of magnitude FD = 21 CAv 2 =

3 1

1

2

2

2 (0.50)(1.2 kg/m ) 4 (7.4 cm) (45 m/s) = 2.61 N.

Problem

61. A block is shoved down a 22 slope with an initial

speed of 1.4 m/s. If it slides 34 cm before

stopping, what is the coefficient of friction?

Solution

The acceleration down the slope can be found from

kinematics (Equation 2-11) and from Newtons second

law (as in Example 6-10): a = g sin k g cos =

v02 /2. In this equation, the values of , v0 , and are

given; therefore we can solve for k :

k = tan 22 +

(1.4 m/s)2

2

Problem

64. A footballs terminal speed is 53 m/s when its

falling pointed end first and 43 m/s when its

falling with its long dimension horizontal. If the

football is 28 cm long at its longest, what is the

diameter on its short dimension? Assume the drag

coefficient C is the same in both orientations.

= 0.72.

Problem

62. If the block in the previous problem were shoved

up the slope with the same initial speed, (a) how

far would it go? (b) Once it stopped, would it

slide back down?

Solution

(a) Because the frictional force always opposes the

relative motion of the surfaces in contact,

Example 6-10 does not give the acceleration of a block

shoved up an incline. Rather, fk is in the opposite

direction to that shown in Fig. 6-33, and Newtons

second law gives a = g sin + k g cos . With values

2

from Problem 61, a = 10.2 m/s (positive down slope).

The distance traveled up the slope to where the block

stops is (from Equation 2-11) v02 /2a = (1.4 m/s)2

2(10.2 m/s2 ) 9.58 cm (negative up slope). (We did

not use a rounded-off value of k in this calculation.)

(b) Once the block has stopped, it will remain at rest

if s tan 22 = 0.404 (see Example 6-14). Since s is

normally greater than k (which was 0.72 in

Problem 61), the block does not slide back. (Notice

how the direction of the frictional forces depends on

the circumstances: it was up the incline in

Problem 61, down the incline in Problem 62(a), and

up the incline in Problem 62(b).)

Problem 64 Solution.

Solution

The terminal speed of the football is inversely

proportional to the square root of its cross-sectional

area perpendicular to the direction of fall (see

Example 6-15). If we assume that the drag coefficient

is the same for both orientations, then

(vt,long /vt,end )2 = (43/53)2 = Aend /Along . Aend (the

footballs cross-sectional area in a plane perpendicular

to, and through, the midpoint of the long axis) is the

area of a circle of diameter d. Along (the footballs

cross-sectional area in a plane containing the long

axis) is the area of two identical circular segments, of

chord equal to the long dimension, = 28 cm, and

height (or saggita) equal to 21 d, as shown. The areas

can be found from geometry, in terms of and d:

Aend = 41 d2 , and Along = R2 (R 21 d), where

R = (2 + d2 )/4d, and = 2 sin1 (/2R). The

CHAPTER 6

transcendental equation for the ratio of these areas

can be solved numerically on a PC. Our result for

= 28 cm is d 16.71 cm.

75

m1

Problem

m2

spherical raindrop in air. The densities of air and

3

3

water are 1.2 kg/m and 1000 kg/m , respectively,

and the drag coefficient is 0.50.

30

Solution

The expression for the terminal speed

found in

p

Example 6-15 can be used, vt = 2 mg/CA, where

the mass of the drop is its volume, V, times the

density of water, w .The volume and cross-sectional

area of a spherical drop, in terms of the diameter, are

1

1

3

2

ratio is 23 d. Then

6 d and 4 d , respectively, so their

p

the terminal speed becomes vt = 4 gd (w /)/3C =

q

2

where we canceled identical units in the density ratio.

Problem

66. Will a golf ball of mass 45 g and diameter 4.3 cm

reach terminal speed when dropped from a height

of 25 m? The drag coefficient is 0.35, and the

3

density of air is 1.2 kg/m .

the solution to Problem 18. (For a similar solution

using equations of motion for each object, see

Problem 17 or 19.) Being tied together by a rope

(which is assumed to be unextensible), m1 and m2

move as a unit, with the same acceleration (in

magnitude) which well choose to be positive for m2

upward and m1 downslope. Gravity acts positive

downslope on m1 (m1 g sin 30 ) and negative downward

on m2 (m2 g), so the net force on the system of

masses, in the positive direction of motion, equal to

the total mass times the acceleration, is

m1 g sin 30 m2 g = (m1 + m2 )a. (Here, we neglect

the mass of the rope and pulley, which are also

accelerated, and any frictional forces.) Thus,

a = (5 kg sin 30 2 kg)

(9.8 m/s2 )/(5 kg + 2 kg) = 0.700 m/s2 .

Solution

The terminal

p speed for this golf ball, in

2 mg/CA =

air,

is

v

=

t

q

2

38.0 m/s (see Example 6-15). Even in the absence of

air resistance, a golf ball dropped from p

a height of

25 m would attain a speed of only v = 2 g (25 m) =

22.1 m/s, far short of the terminal speed. (The actual

speed of an object, dropping through a distance y,

subject to the drag force of Equation 6-4, is

2

v 2 = vt2 (1 e2gy/vt ), as shown in many intermediate

mechanics texts. This gives a speed of 20.4 m/s for the

golf ball dropped in this problem.)

Paired Problems

Problem

67. In Fig. 6-76, suppose m1 = 5.0 kg and

m2 = 2.0 kg, and that the surface and pulley are

frictionless. Determine the magnitude and

direction of m2 s acceleration.

Solution

Since we are not interested in the tension in the rope

connecting the masses, this is a good opportunity to

Problem

68. Repeat the preceding problem, now taking

m1 = 3.0 kg with m2 still 2.0 kg.

Solution

The analysis in the solution to the previous problem

2

gives a = (3 kg sin 30 2 kg)(9.8 m/s )

(3 kg + 2 kg) = 0.98 m/s2 . The minus sign means

that m2 goes downward and m1 upslope, as specified

previously.

Problem

69. A tetherball on a 1.7-m rope is struck so it goes

into circular motion in a horizontal plane, with the

rope making a 15 angle to the horizontal. What

is the balls speed?

Solution

The tetherball whirling in a horizontal circle is

analogous to the mass

p on a string in Example 6-6.

g cos2 / sin =

From

step

6,

v

=

q

2

76

CHAPTER 6

Problem

Solution

the banking angle required is 28 from the

horizontal, what is the planes speed?

velocity) rounding a banked curve at arbitrary speed

are analyzed in detail in the solution to Problem 81

below. (a) It is shown there that to prevent skidding,

s v 2 vd2 /gR(1 + v 2 vd2 /g 2 R2 ), where R is the

radius of the curve, and vd is the design speed for the

proper banking angle, tan d = vd2 /gR. In this problem,

vd = (60/3.6) m/s, v = (40/3.6) m/s, and R = 130 m,

so s 0.12. (b) Since v < vd , the car would slide

down the bank of the curve in the absence of friction.

Solution

The airplane making a turn at the proper banking

angle is analogous to the

q situation in Example 6-7.

137 m/s = 493 km/h. (Note that the angles given in

this and the previous problem are complementary, and

that the radius of the circle in Problem 69 is cos .)

Problem

71. Starting from rest, a skier slides 100 m down a 28

slope. How much longer does the run take if the

coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.17 instead of 0?

Solution

If air resistance is ignored, the forces acting on the

skier are analogous to those on the sled in

Example 6-10, so the downslope acceleration is

ak = g(sin k cos ). Starting from rest, the

time needed

to coast a distance x downslope

p

is t = 2x/ak . With no friction, t =

q

2

2(100 m)/(9.8 m/s ) sin 28 =

6.59

q s. If k = 0.17, t =

2

or about 1.40 s longer.

Problem

72. At the end of a factory production line, boxes

start from rest and slide down a 30 ramp 5.4 m

long. If the slide is to take no more than 3.3 s,

what is the maximum frictional coefficient that

can be tolerated?

Solution

As in the preceding problem,

the time required to slide

p

down the incline is t = 2x/ak 3.3 s. Therefore,

ak = g(sin k cos ) 2x/(3.3 s)2 , or k

2

tan 30 2(5.4 m)/(3.3 s)2 (9.8 m/s ) cos 30 = 0.46.

Problem

73. A car moving at 40 km/h negotiates a

130-m-radius banked turn designed for 60 km/h.

(a) What coefficient of friction is needed to keep

the car on the road? (b) To which side of the

curve would it move if it hit an essentially

frictionless icy patch?

Problem

74. A passenger sets a coffee cup on the seatback tray

of an airplane flying at 580 km/h. The plane goes

into a 2.6-km-radius turn, getting part of its

turning force from its rudder and part from

banking at 25 (i.e., its banking at a lower angle

than required to give the full turning force).

(a) What coefficient of friction is needed to keep

the coffee cup on the tray? (b) If there were

insufficient friction, which way would the cup

slide?

Solution

This problem involves a coffee cup on a banked

traytable moving with speed v in a horizontal circular

arc of radius R. The forces and centripetal acceleration

are analogous to those on a car rounding a banked

curve, as in the previous problem. Here, the circular

speed v = 580 km/h = 161 m/s is greater than the

banked turn,

2

vd = gR tan 25 = (9.8 m/s )(2.6 km) tan 25 =

109 m/s,

so a coefficient of static friction

s v 2 vd2 /gR (1 + v 2 vd2 /g 2 R2 ) = 0.37 is needed

to keep the cup from sliding up the tray.

Supplementary Problems

Problem

75. A space station is in the shape of a hollow ring,

450 m in diameter (Fig. 6-77). At how many

revolutions per minute should it rotate in order to

simulate Earths gravitythat is, so that the

CHAPTER 6

normal force on an astronaut at the outer edge

would be the astronauts weight on Earth?

77

hence Tu = mg/ sin = 12.4 N. When v = 5 m/s, T =

(0.84 kg)(5 m/s)2 (1.2 m)1 (12.4 N)(1.2/1.6) =

8.17 N.

450 m

1.6 m

1.2 m

Tu

T

mg

Solution

Standing on the outer edge of the space station,

rotating with it, the astronaut experiences a normal

force equal to the centripetal force, N = mac =

m 4 2 r/T 2 , where T is the period of rotation (see

Example 4-8). Since T is the time per revolution, the

number of revolutions per unit time is 1/T (called the

frequency of revolution). If the normal force is to

duplicate Earths

q gravity, ac = g, and 1/T = (1/2)

p

2

g/r = (1/2) (9.8 m/s )/(450 m/2) = (3.32

102 rev/s)(60 s/ min) = 1.99 rpm.

Problem

77. In the loop-the-loop track of Fig. 6-25, show that

the car leaves the track at an angle given by

cos = v 2 /rg, where is the angle made by a

vertical line through the center of the circular

track and a line from the center to the point where

the car leaves the track.

Problem

76. Figure 6-78 shows a 0.84-kg ball attached to a

vertical post by strings of length 1.2 m and 1.6 m.

If the ball is set whirling in a horizontal circle, find

(a) the minimum speed necessary for the lower

string to be taut and (b) the tension in each string

if the balls speed is 5.0 m/s.

Solution

Consider the three forces acting on the ball, gravity

and the tensions pulling along each string, as shown

sketched on Fig. 6-78. The balls acceleration is the

centripetal acceleration, v 2 /r, directed along the lower

string toward the axis of rotation, so the horizontal

and vertical components of Newtons second law are

T + Tu cos = mv 2 /r and Tu sin = mg. The angle

between the tensions is given by the lengths of the

strings, or = cos1 (1.2/1.6) = 41.4 . (a) The lower

string is taut provided T 0. Eliminating Tu from the

above equations, we find T =mv 2 /r mg cot 0,

so this condition implies v gr cot =

q

2

vertical component of the tension in the upper string

Problem 77 Solution.

Solution

The angle and the forces acting on the car are

shown in the sketch. The radial component of the net

force (towards the center of the track) equals the mass

times the centripetal acceleration, N + mg cos =

78

CHAPTER 6

this problem.) The car leaves the track when

N = (mv 2 /r) mg cos = 0 (no more contact) or

cos = v 2 /gr. This implies that the car leaves the

track at real angles for v 2 < gr; otherwise, the car

never leaves the track, as in Example 6-8.

Problem

78. An astronaut is training in a centrifuge that

consists of a small chamber whirled around

horizontally at the end of a 5.1-m-long shaft. The

astronaut places a notebook on the vertical wall of

the chamber and it stays in place. If the coefficient

of static friction is 0.62, what is the minimum rate

at which the centrifuge must be revolving?

Solution

The wall and gravity act on the notebook. If the latter

doesnt fall, fs = mg s N = s mv 2 /r, or

v 2 gr/s . In circular motion, the linear speed is

related to the rate of revolution (the angular speed,

denoted by Greek letter omega) by v = 2r/ = r,

where is the period.

Thus, v 2 = 2 r2 gr/s , or

q

p

2

g/s r = (9.8 m/s )/(0.62)(5.1 m) =

1.76 s1 = 16.8 rev/ min. (Note: = 2/ has units

rad/s, and 2 rad = 1 rev.)

Solution

When standing on the Earths surface, you are

rotating with the Earth about its axis through the

poles, with a period of 1d. The radius of your circle of

rotation (your perpendicular distance to the axis) is

r = RE cos , where RE is the radius of the Earth

(constant if geographical variations are neglected) and

is your lattitude. Your centripetal acceleration has

2

magnitude ac = (2/T ) r and is directed toward the

axis of rotation (see Example 4-8). We assume there

are only two forces acting on you, gravity, Fg

(magnitude mg approximately constant, directed

towards the center of the Earth), and the force exerted

by the scale, Fs . Newtons second law requires that

Fg + Fs = mac . (a) At the north pole, ac = 0, so the

magnitudes of Fg and Fs are equal, or Fs = mg; but

at the equator, ac has a maximum magnitude, equal

to the difference in the magnitudes of Fg and Fs , or

Fs = mg m(2/T )2 RE . Therefore Fs (your

weight) is lower at the equator than at the pole.

(b) The fractional difference of these two values is

(Fs,pole Fs,eq. )/Fs,pole = (2/T )2 RE /g =

2

(2/86, 400 s)2 (6.37106 m)/(9.81 m/s ) = 0.34%.

Fs

Fs

at pole

Fg

r

Fg

Fs

Fg

at equator

RE

Problem 78 Solution.

Problem 79 Solution.

Problem

79. You stand on a spring scale at the north pole and

again at the equator. (a) Which scale reading will

be lower, and why? (b) By what percentage will

the lower reading differ from the higher one?

(Here youre neglecting variations in g due to

geological factors.)

Problem

80. Driving in thick fog on a horizontal road, a driver

spots a tractor-trailer truck jackknifed across the

road, as in Fig. 6-79. To avert a collision, the

driver could brake to a stop or swerve in a circular

arc, as suggested in Fig. 6-79. Which offers the

CHAPTER 6

79

Problem 81 Solution.

coefficient of static friction is operative in both

cases, and that the car maintains constant speed if

it swerves.

and perpendicular to the road, we find N mg cos =

m(v 2 /R) sin , mg sin fs = (v 2 /R) cos , where the

upper sign is for v > vd , and the lower for v < vd . (We

chose these components because the solution for N

and fs is direct.) This argument applies if the car does

not skid (otherwise a 6= ar ) so fs s N. Therefore:

s

g sin v 2 cos /R

g tan v 2 /R

fs

=

=

2

N

g cos + v sin /R

g + v 2 tan /R

vd2 v 2

=

gR(1 + v 2 vd2 /g 2 R2 )

condition on s becomes:

s

Solution

On a level road, the maximum force of friction is

s N = s mg, so the maximum acceleration is s g (in

magnitude). Applied in a straight line (ax s g), the

stopping distance from an initial speed v is

0 = v 2 2ax x, or x v 2 /2s g. On a swerving circular

path at constant speed (ar s g), the turning radius

is ar = v 2 /r, or r v 2 /s g. Evidently, rmin = 2xmin ,

so braking is safer than swerving.

Problem

81. A highway turn of radius R is banked for a design

speed vd . If a car enters the turn at speed v =

vd + v, where v can be positive or negative,

show that the minimum coefficient of static

friction needed to prevent slipping is

|v| (2vd + v)

.

s =

gR [1 + (vd v/gR)2 ]

Solution

The equation of motion for a car rounding a banked

turn is N + mg + fs = mar , where ar = v 2 /R is the

radical acceleration (assumed horizontal and constant

in magnitude) and the forces are as shown. Note that

the frictional force changes direction for v greater or

|v| (2vd + v)

v(2vd + v)

=

.

gR(1 + vd2 v 2 /g 2 R2 )

gR(1 + vd2 v 2 /g 2 R2 )

v < vd .) The expression for the minimum coefficient of

friction is not particularly simple, but for v = 0 (car at

rest) it reduces to |vd | (2vd vd )/gR = vd2 /gR =

tan , as in Example 6-14.

Problem

82. Suppose the coefficient of friction between a block

and a horizontal surface is proportional to the

blocks speed: = 1 v/v1 , where 1 and v1 are

constants. If the block is given an initial speed v0 ,

show that it comes to rest in a distance x =

v0 v1 /1 g.

Solution

Take the x-axis in the direction of the initial velocity,

with origin at the initial position (x(0) = 0,

vx (0) = v0 ). The equation of motion (x component) is

m(dvx /dt) = N = (1 /v1 )vx mg, since N = mg on

a horizontal surface. The solution of this differential

equation for vx , which satisfies the initial conditions,

is: vx (t) = (dx/dt) = v0 exp[(1 g/v1 )t]). The solution

for x is: x(t) = (v0 v1 /1 g)(1 exp[(1 g/v1 )t]). The

block comes to rest in the limit t , since

vx () = 0. Thus x() = v0 v1 /1 g.

80

CHAPTER 6

Problem

83. A block is projected up an incline making an angle

with the horizontal. It returns to its initial

position with half its initial speed. Show that the

coefficient of kinetic friction is k = 53 tan .

southeast.)

Problem 84 Solution.

Problem 83 Solution.

Solution

Going up the incline, the blocks acceleration (positive

down the incline) is g(sin + k cos ) = aup ,

whereas going down, the acceleration is

g(sin k cos ) = adown . If the block slides

up a

p

distance , its initial speed upward was 2aup ,

whereas, sliding down the

same distance, it returns to

the bottom with speed 2adown . Given that the

latter speed is half the former, 4adown = aup =

4g(sin k cos ) = g(sin + k cos ). Therefore

3 sin = 5k cos , or k = 35 tan .

Problem

84. The victim of a political kidnapping is forced into

a north-facing car and then blindfolded. The car

pulls into traffic and, from the sound of the

surrounding traffic, the victim knows that the car

is moving at about the legal speed limit of

85 km/h. The car then turns to the right; the

victim estimates that the force the seat exerts on

him is one-fifth of his weight. The victim

experiences this force for 28 s. At the end of that

time, in what direction can the victim conclude

that he is heading?

Solution

In a circular turn at constant speed on level ground,

the force felt by the victim (friction exerted by the

seat) is mv 2 /r = 51 mg, as given. Therefore, the radius

of the turn is r = 5v 2 /g. The arclength of the turn is

s = r = vt, so the angle (in radians) is = vt/r =

vt/(5v 2 /g) = gt/5v. The velocity turns through the

same angle (measured clockwise from north), so the

victims final heading is

2

= 2.32 rad = 133 .

5(85 m/3.6 s)

Problem

85. A 2.1-kg mass is connected to a spring of spring

constant k = 150 N/m and unstretched length

18 cm. The pair are mounted on a frictionless air

table, with the free end of the spring attached to a

frictionless pivot. The mass is set into circular

motion at 1.4 m/s. Find the radius of its path.

Solution

Since the airtable is frictionless, the only horizontal

force acting on the mass is the spring force, of

magnitude k( 0 ) and in the direction of the

centripetal acceleration v 2 /. Here, the radius of the

circle is , the length of the spring, while 0 is the

unstretched length. Therefore, k( 0 ) = mv 2 /.

This is a quadratic equation for

, 2 0 pmv 2 /k = 0, with positive solution

= 12 [0 + 20 + 4 mv 2 /k] = 21 [0.18 m +

p

(0.18 m)2 + 4(2.1 kg)(1.4 m/s)2 /(150 N/m)] =

27.9 cm.

Problem

86. This problem is for those with unusually advanced

math skills. Set up Newtons law for an object

falling from rest subject to the drag force of

Equation 6-4. Use a coordinate system with the

y-axis vertically downward, and write the

acceleration as ay = dvy /dt. Your Newtons law

then becomes a differential equation. Integrate it

to show that the speed as afunction of

time is

q

q

2gm

CAg

given by v(t) = CA tanh

2m t , where

tanh is the hyperbolic tangent function

tanh(x) = (ex ex )/(ex + ex ).

Solution

For an object falling downward (in the y-direction)

under the influence of gravity and the quadratic drag

force of Equation 6-4, Newtons second law is

CHAPTER 6

m dv/dt = mg 12 CAv 2 . (The drag force is really

21 CAv |v| , but v is always positive for a falling

object in the coordinate system chosen.) This

equation can be separated and simplified (using vt

from Example 6-15) to yield (g/vt )dt = vt dv/(vt2 v 2 ),

which can be integrated using partial fractions or

integral tables. The result, expressed in terms of

logarithms or inverse hyperbolic functions, depends on

whether vt > v or vt < v, which is determined by the

initial speed, v0 . Here, we consider an object dropped

from rest, so v0 = 0, and we obtain

Z

Z t

gt

1 v

1

1

gdt

dv

=

=

+

vt

2 0

vt + v

vt v

0 vt

1

v

vt + v

=

= tanh1 .

log

2

vt v

vt

Solving for v as a function of t is quicker with

hyperbolic functions, but the result in terms of

exponentials is the same:

e2gt/vt 1

gt

v

= 2gt/v

= tanh

.

t + 1

vt

vt

e

81

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