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ActivPhysics can help with these problems:

All Activities in Section 2 Forces and Motion
and Section 4 Circular Motion.

2T cos 25 Fres = max , since T1 = T2 = T.

(a) If ax = 0, Fres = 2(1100 N) cos 25 = 1.99 kN.
(b) If ax = 0.16 m/s , Fres = 1.99 kN (3700 kg)
(0.16 m/s2 ) = 1.40 kN.

Section 6-1: Using Newtons Second Law



1. Two forces, both in the x-y plane, act on a 1.5-kg

mass, which accelerates at 7.3 m/s in a direction

30 counter-clockwise from the x-axis. One

force has magnitude 6.8 N and points in the
+x direction. Find the other force.




figure 6-59 Problem 3 Solution.

Newtons second law for this mass says Fnet = F1 +
F2 = ma, where we assume no other significant forces
are acting. Since the acceleration and the first force
are given, one can solve for the second, F2 = ma
F1 = (1.5 kg)(7.3 m/s )( cos 30 + sin 30 )
(6.8 N) = (2.68 + 5.48) N. This has magnitude
6.10 N and direction 63.9 CCW from the x-axis.


4. At what angle should you tilt an air table to
simulate motion on the moons surface, where
g = 1.6 m/s ?

2. Two forces act on a 3.1-kg mass, which undergoes
acceleration a = 0.91 0.27 m/s . If one of the
forces is F1 = 1.2 2.5 N, what is the other

As in the previous problem, F2 = ma F1 =
(3.1 kg)(0.91 0.27)(m/s ) (1.2 2.5) N =
(4.02+ 1.66)N.

3. A 3700-kg barge is being pulled along a canal by
two mules, as shown in Fig. 6-59. The tension in
each tow rope is 1100 N, and the ropes make
25 angles with the forward direction. What force
does the water exert on the barge (a) if it moves
with constant velocity and (b) if it accelerates
forward at 0.16 m/s2 ?

The horizontal forces on the barge are the two
tensions and the resistance of the water, as shown on
Figure 6-59. The net force is in the x direction, so

The acceleration down an incline is a|| = g sin (see

Example 6-1). To replicate the moons surface gravity,
the angle of tilt should be = sin1 (1.62/9.81) =
9.51 (see Appendix E).

5. A block of mass m slides with acceleration a down
a frictionless slope that makes an angle to the
horizontal; the only forces acting on it are the force
of gravity Fg and the normal force N of the slope.
Show that the magnitude
of the normal force is
given by N = m g 2 a2 .

Choose the x-axis down the slope (parallel to the
acceleration) and the y-axis parallel to the normal.
Then ax = a, ay = 0, Nx = 0, Ny = N, Fgx =
Fg cos (90 ) = mg sin , and Fgy = mg cos .
Newtons second law, N + Fg = ma, in components
gives mg sin = ma, and N mg cos = 0.
Eliminate (using sin2 p
+ cos2 = 1) to find (a/g)2 +
(N/mg)2 = 1, or N = m g 2 a2 .



Problem 8 Solution.
Problem 5 Solution.

6. A skier starts from rest at the top of a 24 slope
1.3 km long. Neglecting friction, how long does it
take to reach the bottom?

The acceleration down a frictionless incline is a =
g sin (see Example 6-1), and the distance traveled
down the incline, starting from rest (vp
0 = 0) at the top
(x0 = 0), is x = 21 at2 . Therefore, t = 2x/g sin =
2(1.3 km)/(9.8 m/s ) sin 24 = 25.5 s.

9. A 15-kg monkey hangs from the middle of a

massless rope as shown in Fig. 6-60. What is the
tension in the rope? Compare with the monkeys

The sum of the forces at the center of the rope (shown
on Fig. 6-60) is zero (if the monkey is at rest), T1 +
T2 + W = 0. The x component of this equation
requires that the tension is the same on both sides:
T1 cos 8 + T2 cos 172 = 0, or T1 = T2 . The y
component gives 2 T sin 8 = W, or T = W/2 sin 8 =
3.59W = 3.59(15 kg)(9.8 m/s ) = 528 N.



7. A block is launched up a frictionless ramp that

makes an angle of 35 to the horizontal. If the
blocks initial speed is 2.2 m/s, how far up the
ramp does it slide?


The acceleration up the ramp is g sin 35 , so the
block goes a distance in this direction calculated from
the equation v0x
2g sin 35 (x x0 ) = 0. Thus,
x x0 = (2.2 m/s)2 /2(9.8 m/s ) sin 35 = 43.1 cm.
figure 6-60 Problem 9 Solution.

8. At the start of a race, a 70-kg swimmer pushes off
the starting block with a force of 950 N directed at
15 below the horizontal. (a) What is the
swimmers horizontal acceleration? (b) If the
swimmer is in contact with the starting block for
0.29 s, what is the horizontal component of his
velocity when he hits the water?

(a) If we assume that the reaction force of the starting
block and gravity are the only significant forces acting
on the swimmer, the horizontal acceleration is just
Fx /m, or ax = (950 N) cos 15 /70 kg = 13.1 m/s2 .
(b) vx = ax t = (13.1 m/s )(0.29 s) = 3.80 m/s.

10. A tow truck is connected to a 1400-kg car by a
cable that makes a 25 angle to the horizontal, as
shown in Fig. 6-61. If the truck accelerates at
0.57 m/s2 , what is the magnitude of the cable
tension? Neglect friction and the mass of the

The only force on the car with a horizontal component
(in the direction of the acceleration) is the tension.
Therefore, T cos = ma, or T = (1400 kg)



(0.57 m/s )/cos 25 = 880 N. (The force of static

friction acts between the tires and the road with
magnitude sufficient to keep the wheels turning, but is
assumed to be negligible.)

figure 6-61 Problem 10 Solution.

11. A 10-kg mass is suspended at rest by two strings
attached to walls, as shown in Fig. 6-62. Find the
tension forces in the two strings.


The force diagram is superimposed on Fig. 6-62. Since
the mass is at rest, the sum of the forces is zero,
T1 + T2 + W = 0, which is true for the x and
y components separately, T1 cos 45 T2 = 0, and
T1 sin 45 W = 0. Solving for the magnitudes of the
and substituting 98 N for theweight, we find
T1 = 2 98 N = 139 N, and T2 = T1 / 2 = 98 N.

figure 6-63 Problem 12.

If the slope of the embankment exerts only a normal
force on the car (no friction), the situation is the same
as in Example 6-4, Fg + N + Fh = 0. Then Fh =
mg tan = (1100 kg)(9.8 m/s ) tan 23 = 4.58 kN.


13. A camper hangs a 26-kg pack between two trees,

using two separate pieces of rope of different
lengths, as shown in Fig. 6-64. What is the
tension in each rope?

10 kg

figure 6-62 Problem 11 Solution.

12. A 1100-kg car goes off the road and plunges down
a 23 embankment, coming to rest against a tree.
The contact between tree and car is such that the
force exerted on the car by the tree is purely
horizontal, as suggested in Fig. 6-63. Find the
magnitude of that force once the car is fully

figure 6-64 Problem 13.



The sum of the forces acting on the pack (gravity and
the tension along each rope) is zero, since it is at rest,
Fg + T1 + T2 = 0. In a coordinate system with x-axis
horizontal to the right and y-axis vertical upward, the
x and y components of the net force are T1 cos 71 +
T2 cos 28 = 0, and 269.8 N + T1 sin 71 +
T2 sin 28 = 0 (see Example 6-3). Solving for T1 and
T2 , one finds T1 = (269.8 N)(sin 71 +
tan 28 cos 71 ) = 228 N and T2 = (269.8 N)
(sin 28 + tan 71 cos 28 ) = 84.0 N.

14. A construction worker is lifting a 92-kg bundle of
plywood onto an upper floor, using the
arrangement shown in Fig. 6-65. What force must
the worker apply to lift the bundle at constant
speed? Assume the pulley is massless and

Section 6-2: Multiple Objects

15. Your 12-kg baby sister is hanging on the bottom
of the tablecloth with all her weight. In the
middle of the table, 60 cm from each edge, is a
6.8-kg roast turkey. (a) What is the acceleration
of the turkey? (b) From the time she starts
pulling, how long do you have to intervene before
the turkey goes over the edge of the table?

The vertical motion of your baby sister and the
horizontal motion of the turkey are analogous to the
climber and rock in Example 6-5. If we assume that
both have accelerations of the same magnitude as the
tablecloth, which has negligible mass, no friction with
the table, etc., then (a) a = arx = mc g/(mc + mr ) =
(12 kg)(9.8 m/s2 )/(12 kg + 6.8 kg) = 6.26 m/s
p is the
turkeys horizontal acceleration, and (b) t = 2x/a =

2(60 cm)/(6.26 m/s ) = 0.438 s is the time you have

to save the turkey from going over the edge. (The
assumptions relevant to Example 6-5 might be
somewhat over-restrictive in this situation.)




16. Find expressions for the acceleration of the blocks

in Fig. 6-66, where the string is fastened securely
to the ceiling. Neglect friction and assume that
the masses of pulley and string are negligible.


figure 6-65 Problem 14.

The tension in each rope pulls upward on the pulley,
while the weight of the plywood pulls downward.
Since the mass of the pulley is negligible, its weight
can be neglected, and the tension in each rope is the
same (this will be evident after Chapter 12). The
acceleration of the pulley, whose speed is constant, is
zero; therefore the vertical component of Newtons
second law gives T1 + T2 mg = 2T mg = 0, or
T = 12 mg = 12 (92 kg)(9.8 m/s ) = 451 N.

The equations of motion (components parallel to the

accelerations) for the two masses (m1 includes the
attached pulley) are T = m2 a2 and m1 g 2T =
m1 a1 . (The assumptions stated ensure that the tension
has the same magnitude at all points in the string, as
shown.) If the length of the string is fixed, when m1
moves down a distance d, m2 moves to the right a
distance 2d, so a2 = 2a1 . Thus T = m2 (2a1 ), m1 a1 =
m1 g 2(2m2 a1 ), and a1 = m1 g/(m1 + 4m2 ).

17. If the left-hand slope in Fig. 6-56 makes a
60 angle with the horizontal, and the right-hand
slope makes a 20 angle, how should the masses
compare if the objects are not to slide along the
frictionless slopes?

The free-body force diagrams for the left- and
right-hand masses are shown in the sketch, where
there is only a normal contact force since each slope is







figure 6-37 Problem 18.

figure 6-66 Problem 16 Solution.

frictionless, and we indicate separate parallel and

perpendicular x-y-axes. If the masses dont slide, the
net force on each must be zero, or T m g sin 60 = 0,
and mr g sin 20 Tr = 0 (we only need the parallel
components in this problem). If the masses of the
string and pulley are negligible and there is no friction,
then T = Tr . Adding the force equations, we find
mr g sin 20 m g sin 60 = 0, or the mass ratio must
be mr /m = sin 60 / sin 20 = 2.53 for no motion.

Problem 17 Solution.

18. In a setup like that shown in Fig. 6-37, but with
different masses, a 4.34-kg block starts from rest
on the left edge of a frictionless tabletop 1.25 m
wide. It accelerates to the right, and reaches the
right edge in 2.84 s. If the mass of the block
hanging from the left side is 3.56 kg, what is the
mass hanging from the right side?

The acceleration of the 4.34-kg block sliding
horizontally to the right across the frictionless
tabletop is a = 2(1.25 m)/(2.84 s)2 = 0.310 m/s2
(from Equation 2-10 and the given conditions). This is
also the magnitude of the accelerations of the other
two blocks. Since we are not interested in the tension
in either string, we may use a shortcut to find the
unknown mass. The net force on all three masses in
the direction of motion is the difference in the rightand left-hand weights, Fnet = (m 3.56 kg)g, which
equals the total mass times the acceleration,



(m + 3.56 kg + 4.34 kg)a. Solving for m, we find

m =

(3.56 kg + 4.34 kg)(0.310 m/s2 )+(3.56 kg)(9.8 m/s2 )

(9.8 m/s2 0.310 m/s2 )

= 3.93 kg

(The shortcut can be justified by adding the

component of the equations of motion of the three
blocks in the direction of motion: Tleft (3.56 kg)g =
(3.56 kg)a, Tright Tleft = (4.34 kg)a, and
mg Tright = ma. In this setup, the ropes are
massless, and the pulleys are massless and frictionless,
so the tension in each rope is constant.)

Fnet = (75 kg)g sin 12 + (63 kg)g sin 38 = 533 N =

(75 kg + 63 kg)a. Therefore, a = 533 N/138 kg =
3.86 m/s . (b) After they have stopped, the force of
the ice ax against the ice must balance the downslope
components of gravity calculated in part (a).

21. In a florists display, hanging plants of mass
3.85 kg and 9.28 kg are suspended from an
essentially massless wire, as shown in Fig. 6-67.
Find the tension in each section of the wire.

19. Suppose the angles shown in Fig. 6-56 are 60
and 20 . If the left-hand mass is 2.1 kg, what
should be the right-hand mass in order that
(a) it accelerates downslope at 0.64 m/s ;
(b) it accelerates upslope at 0.76 m/s ?

With reference to the solution to Problem 17, the
parallel component of the equations of motion
for the masses are T m g sin 60 = m a and
mr g sin 20 Tr = mr ar . The accelerations and
tensions are equal, respectively, provided the string
doesnt stretch and the other assumptions in
Problem 17 hold. Then mr ar + m a = (mr + m )a =
mr g sin 20 Tr + T m g sin 60 = mr g sin 20
m g sin 60 , or mr = m (g sin 60 + a)/(g sin 20 a).
(a) A downslope right-hand acceleration is positive for
the coordinate systems we have chosen, so substituting
a = 0.64 m/s and m = 2.1 kg, we find mr = 7.07 kg.
(b) If a = 0.76 m/s2 , then mr = 3.95 kg.

Let the tensions in each section of wire be denoted by

T1 , T2 , and T3 as shown in the figure. The horizontal
and vertical components of the net force on the
junction of the wire with each plant are equal to zero,
since the system is stationary. Thus:
T1 sin 54.0 T2 sin 13.9 (3.85 9.8) N = 0
T1 cos 54.0 + T2 cos 13.9 = 0

T2 sin 13.9 T3 sin 68.0 (9.28 9.8) N = 0

T2 cos 13.9 + T3 cos 68.0 = 0


(a) If we assume that the climbers move together as a
unit, with the same magnitude of downslope
acceleration a, then the net force acting on them is the
sum of the downslope components of gravity on each,


(3.85 kg)g
(9.28 kg)g

20. Two unfortunate climbers, roped together, are
sliding freely down an icy mountainside. The
upper climber (mass 75 kg) is on a slope at 12 to
the horizontal, but the lower climber (mass 63 kg)
has gone over the edge to a steeper slope at 38 .
(a) Assuming frictionless ice and a massless rope,
what is the acceleration of the pair? (b) The
upper climber manages to stop the slide with an
ice ax. Once the climbers have come to a complete
stop, what force must the ax exert against the


figure 6-67 Problem 21 Solution.

One can solve any three of these equations for the
unknown tensions, perhaps using the fourth equation
as a check (if you do, remember not to round off). For
example, T1 = (3.85 9.8) N/(sin 54.0 cos 54.0
tan 13.9 ) = 56.9 N, T2 = T1 cos 54.0 / cos 13.9 =
34.4 N, and T3 = T2 cos 13.9 / cos 68.0 = 89.2 N.
(Note that the given angles and weights are not
independent of one another.)

22. A rectangular block of mass m1 rests on a
wedge-shaped block of mass m2 , as shown in
Fig. 6-68. All contact surfaces are frictionless.
Find an expression for the magnitude of the
horizontal force F that must be applied to the

wedge in order that the rectangular block not slide
along the wedge.



figure 6-68 Problem 22.

The forces acting on the wedge and block are shown
separately in free-body diagrams for clarity. The
contact forces N1 (between wedge and block) and N2
(between wedge and horizontal surface) are purely
normal because the surfaces are frictionless. For no
relative motion between the wedge and block, both
must have the same horizontal acceleration, a. The
horizontal and vertical components of Newtons second
law for the block, and the horizontal component of
Newtons second law for the wedge (all thats needed
in this problem) give N1 sin = m1 a, N1 cos
m1 g = 0, F N1 sin = m2 a. Eliminating a and N1 ,
we find F = (m1 + m2 )a = (m1 + m2 )g tan .


24. Suppose the moon were held in its orbit not by
gravity but by the tension in a massless cable.
Estimate the magnitude of the cable tension. (See
Appendix E for relevant data.)

We are asked to estimate the net force on the moon,
which, according to Newtons second law, is the
product of its mass and its acceleration. Since the
moon describes approximately uniform circular motion
about the Earth, F = m(v 2 /r) = mr(2/T )2 , where r
and T are the radius and period of the orbit. Thus,
F = (7.351022 kg)(3.85108 m)(2/27.3
86,400 s)2 = 2.011020 N = m(2.73103 m/s ). We
displayed the numerical value of the moons
(centripetal) acceleration because, comparing it to
9.8 m/s (the gravitational acceleration of an apple at
the Earths surface), Newton is said to have arrived at
his famous inverse square law of gravitation. The
distances of the moon and apple from the center of the
Earth are about 60RE and RE , and
(2.73103 /9.8) (1/60)2. (See also Problem 16,
Chapter 9.)

25. Show that the force needed to keep a mass m in a
circular path of radius r with period T is
4 2 mr/T 2 .


Problem 22 Solution.

Section 6-3: Circular Motion

23. A simplistic model for the hydrogen atom pictures
its single electron in a circular orbit of radius
0.0529 nm about the fixed proton. If the electrons
orbital speed is 2.18106 m/s, what is the
magnitude of the force between the electron and
the proton?

For an object of mass m in uniform circular motion,

the net force has magnitude mv 2 /r (Equation 6-1).
The period of the motion (time for one revolution) is
T = 2r/v, so the centripetal force can also be written
as m(2r/T )2 /r = mr(2/T )2 = 4 2 mr/T 2 (see
Equation 4-18).

26. A mass m1 undergoes circular motion of radius R
on a horizontal frictionless table, connected by a
massless string through a hole in the table to a
second mass m2 (Fig. 6-69). If m2 is stationary,
find (a) the tension in the string and (b) the
period of the circular motion.

For a particle in uniform circular motion, the net force
equals the mass times the centripetal acceleration,
F = mv 2 /r = (9.111031 kg)(2.18106 m/s)2
(5.291011 m) = 8.18108 N.

(a) Newtons second law applied to the stationary

mass yields T m2 g = 0, so the tension is T = m2 g.
(b) This is also the magnitude of the net (horizontal)
force on the mass in uniform circular motion, so,
with the aid of the result of Problem
p 25,
m2 g = m1 R(2/ )2 , hence = 2 m1 R/m2 g is the



period. (We wrote a Greek letter, tau, for the

period because we used tee for the tension.)




figure 6-69 Problem 26 Solution.


29. A subway train rounds an unbanked curve at
67 km/h. A passenger hanging onto a strap
notices that an adjacent unused strap makes an
angle of 15 to the vertical. What is the radius of
the turn?

The net force on the unused strap is the vector sum of
the tension in the strap (acting along its length at 15
to the vertical) and its weight. This must equal the
mass times the horizontal centripetal acceleration.
The free-body diagram for the strap is the same as
Fig. 6-18, except that the angle from the vertical is
now given, as shown. Thus, T cos = mg, and
T sin = mv 2 /r. Dividing these equations to eliminate
T , and solving for the radius of the turn, one finds r =
v 2 /g tan = (67 m/3.6 s)2 /(9.8 tan 15 m/s ) = 132 m.

27. A 940-g rock is whirled in a horizontal circle at

the end of a 1.3-m-long string. (a) If the breaking
strength of the string is 120 N, what is the
maximum allowable speed of the rock? (b) At this
maximum speed, what angle does the string make
with the horizontal?

The situation is the same as described in Example 6-6.
The horizontal component of the tension is the
centripetal force, T cos = mv 2 /r = mv 2 / cos , and
the vertical component balances the weight, T sin =
mg. (b) At the maximum speed, the tension in the
string is at its breaking strength, Tmax = 120 N;
therefore the minimum angle the string makes with the
horizontal is given by sin min = mg/Tmax, or min =

sin1 (0.9409.8 N/120 N) = 4.40

p . (a) At these values
p T and , the speed is vmax = Tmax cos min /m =

(120 N)(1.3 m)(cos 4.40 ) /(0.940 kg) = 12.8 m/s.

28. If the rock of the previous problem is whirled in a
vertical circle, what is the minimum speed needed
at the top of the circle in order that the string
remain taut?

figure 6-18 Problem 29 Solution.

30. An Olympic hammer thrower whirls a 7.3-kg
hammer on the end of a 120-cm chain. If the chain
makes a 10 angle with the horizontal, what is the
speed of the hammer?

From Example 6-6, v = g cos2 / sin = 8.10 m/s,
where we used = 1.2 m and = 10 .


At the top of the circle, the tension, gravity, and the
centripetal acceleration are all vertically downward (as
in Example 6-8). Then T + mg
= mv /. If the string
remains taut, T 0, or v g =

(9.8 m/s )(1.3 m) = 3.57 m/s.

31. Riders on the Great American Revolution

loop-the-loop roller coaster of Example 6-8 wear
seatbelts as the roller coaster negotiates its
6.3-m-radius loop with a speed of 9.7 m/s. At the
top of the loop, what are the magnitude and
direction of the force exerted on a 60-kg rider
(a) by the roller-coaster seat and (b) by the



seatbelt? (c) What would happen if the rider

unbuckled at this point?

(a) As shown in Example 6-8, at the top of the loop,
N + mg = mv 2 /r, so N = (60 kg)[9.8 m/s2 +
(9.7 m/s)2 /6.3 m] = 308 N. (b) Actually, 308 N is the
difference between the normal force of the seat and the
force exerted by the seatbelt, i.e., N = 308 N + Fbelt .
The seatbelt, firmly adjusted, perhaps adds a few
pounds (1 lb = 4.45 N), providing a feeling of security.
(c) The seatbelt is required in case of accidents or
rapid tangential decelerations; it is not needed to
contribute to the centripetal force.

32. A 45-kg skater rounds a 5.0-m-radius turn at
6.3 m/s. (a) What are the horizontal and vertical
components of the force the ice exerts on her skate
blades? (b) At what angle can she lean without
falling over?

(a) If the ice is level, the contact force exerted on the
skater has vertical component (normal force) equal to
the weight, and horizontal component (static friction)
in the direction of the centripetal acceleration. Thus,
N = mg = (45 kg)(9.8 m/s ) = 441 N, and fs =
mv 2 /r = (45 kg)(6.3 m/s)2 /(5 m) = 357 N. (b) In
Chapter 14 it will be shown that stability requires that
the center of gravity of the skater should be along the
line of action of the contact force. She should lean at
= tan1 (fs /N ) = 39.0 , relative to the vertical.


Problem 32 Solution.

34. A jetliner flying horizontally at 850 km/h banks at
32 to make a turn. What is the radius of the

The forces on an airplane making a horizontal circular
turn are analogous to those on a car negotiating a
banked curve (see Fig. 6-21), where the main
aerodynamic force on the airplane is normal to the
wing surfaces. Thus, Faero sin = mv 2 /r, and
Faero cos = mg, so tan = v 2 /gr. In this case,
r = (850 m/3.6 s)2 /(9.8 m/s2 ) tan 32 = 9.10 km.

33. An indoor running track is square-shaped with

rounded corners; each corner has a radius of 6.5 m
on its inside edge. The track includes six
1.0-m-wide lanes. What should be the banking
angles on (a) the innermost and (b) the outermost
lanes if the design speed of the track is 24 km/h?

The banking angle is = tan1 (v 2 /gr) (see Example
6-7). A competitive runner rounds a turn on the inside
edge of his or her lane. (a) = tan1 [(24 m/3.6 s)2
(9.8 m/s2 )(6.5 m)] = 34.9 . (b) The radius of the
inside edge of the outermost lane is 6.5 m + 5(1 m) =
11.5 m, so = 21.5. (This type of banking is shown
in Fig. 6-58.)

Problem 34 Solution.

35. Youre a passenger in a car rounding a turn with
radius 180 m. You take your keys from your
pocket and dangle them from the end of your


keychain. They make an 18 angle with the
vertical, as shown in Fig. 6-70. What is the cars

36. A bucket of water is whirled in a vertical circle of
radius 85 cm. What is the minimum speed that
will keep the water from falling out?

As long as the magnitude of the acceleration at the
top of the circle is greater than g, the water will
remain in the bucket. (Then, the bottom of the bucket
exerts a normal force on the water so the two are in
q see Example 6-8). Thus, v /r > g, or

(9.8 m/s )(0.85 m) = 2.89 m/s.

37. A 1200-kg car drives on the country road shown in
Fig. 6-71. The radius of curvature of the crests
and dips is 31 m. What is the maximum speed at
which the car can maintain road contact at the

figure 6-70 Problem 35.


You and your keys are rounding the curve along with
the car, so all have the same centripetal acceleration,
ac = v 2 /r, which we assume is horizontal and directed
toward the center of the curve. The forces on the keys
are the tension along the direction of the keychain and
gravity downward, as shown on Fig. 6-70, so the
situation is just like Example 6-6, where the horizontal
component of the tension supplies the centripetal
acceleration, and the vertical component balances the
weight of the keys. Then the horizontal and vertical
components of Newtons second law for the keys are:
T cos(90 18 ) = T sin 18 = mac = mv 2 /r, and
T cos 18 mg = 0. Eliminating the tension, as
in the sixth step
6-6, we find mg tan 18 =
of Example

q /r, or v = gr tan 18 =

(9.8 m/s )(180 m) tan 18 = 23.9 m/s = 86.2 km/h.

(This problem could also be approached using an
accelerated coordinate system at rest relative to the
car, and introducing a fictitious force, mac , called
the centrifugal force, to account for the accelerated
motion. The beginning student is advised to stick with
inertial coordinate systems, however, in which there is
less chance for confusion.)

figure 6-71 Problem 37.

If air resistance is ignored, the forces on the car are
gravity and the contact force of the road, which is
represented by the sum of the normal force
(perpendicularly away from the road) and friction
between the tires and the road (parallel to the road in
the direction of motion). Newtons second law for the
car is Fg + N + fs = ma. At a crest, N is vertically
upward, fs is horizontal, and the vertical component of
a is the radial acceleration v 2 /r (downward in this
case). The vertical component of Newtons second law
is then mg + N = mv 2 /r. As long as the car is in

contact with the road, N 0; thus, v gr =

(9.8 m/s )(31 m) = 17.4 m/s = 62.7 km/h.

38. The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) is a NASA
experiment consisting of a 500-kg satellite
connected to the space shuttle by a 20-km-long
cable of negligible mass. Suppose the shuttle is in
a 250-km-high circular orbit, where the
acceleration of gravity is 0.926 times its value at
Earths surface. The TSS hangs vertically on its

tether (Fig. 6-72), and at its 230-km altitude the
acceleration of gravity is 0.932 times its surface
value. What is the tension in the cable?

20 km


figure 6-72 Problem 38 Solution.


40. You make a huge snowball with a mass of 33 kg. If
the coefficient of friction between the ball and an
ice-covered pond is 0.16, with what force must you
push the ball to move it (a) at constant velocity
and (b) with an acceleration of 0.84 m/s2 ?

The pond has a level frozen surface, so the normal
force on the snowball is equal in magnitude to its
weight. The frictional force opposing the motion has
magnitude fk = k N = k mg. The horizontal forces
acting are friction and the applied force, so the
horizontal component of Newtons second law (positive
in the direction of motion) is Fapp fk = ma. (a) At
constant velocity, a = 0, and Fapp = fk = (0.16)
(33 kg)(9.8 m/s ) = 51.7 N. (b) Fapp = ma + fk =
(33 kg)(0.84 m/s ) + 51.7 N = 79.5 N.

The radial component of Newtons second law for the
TSS (positive component toward the center of the
Earth) is mgTSS T = m(ar )TSS . Since the TSS and
the shuttle have the same period, (the tether would
pull the TSS forward or backward until this was so)
(2/ )2 = (v/r)2 = ar /r is the same for both, or
(ar /r)TSS = (ar /r)shuttle . If the shuttles orbit is
hardly affected by the much smaller TSS, then
(ar )Shuttle = gShuttle . Therefore, the tension in the
cable is

(ar )shuttle
T = m[gTSS (ar )TSS ] = m gTSS

6370 + 230
= (500 kg)(9.8 m/s ) 0.932 0.926
6370 + 250
= 43.1 N

Section 6-4: Friction

39. Movers slide a file cabinet along a floor. The mass
of the cabinet is 73 kg, and the coefficient of
kinetic friction between cabinet and floor is 0.81.
What is the frictional force on the cabinet?

If the floor is level, the normal force on the cabinet is
equal in magnitude to its weight, so the frictional force
has magnitude fk = k N = k mg = (0.81)(73 kg)
(9.8 m/s ) = 579 N. The direction of sliding friction
opposes the motion.

41. Eight 80-kg rugby players climb on a 70-kg scrum

machine, and their teammates proceed to push
them with constant velocity across a field. If the
coefficient of kinetic friction between scrum
machine and field is 0.78, with what force must
they push?

As in Problem 40(a), a horizontal applied force must
have magnitude equal to the frictional force in order
to push an object at constant velocity along a level
surface. The total weight on the scrum machine is
(880 kg + 70 kg)(9.8 m/s ) = 6.96 kN; therefore
Fapp = fk = k N = (0.78)(6.96 kN) = 5.43 kN.

42. A hockey puck is given an initial speed of 14 m/s.
If it comes to rest in 56 m, what is the coefficient
of kinetic friction?

The force of friction is the only horizontal force acting,
and the normal force is vertical and equal to the
pucks weight. Thus, fk = ma = k mg, or a = k g.
We take the positive direction parallel to the initial
velocity, so that Equation 2-11 can be used for the
acceleration, a = (0 v02 )/2(x x0 ) = (14 m/s)2
2(56 m) = 1.75 m/s . Then k = a/g =
(1.75 m/s2 )/(9.8 m/s2 ) = 0.18. (We express k to
two significant figures only since it is an empirical





43. A child sleds down a 12 slope at constant speed.

What is the coefficient of friction between slope
and sled?


If there is friction between the rock and the ice, we

must modify the rocks equation of motion, Tr +
Fgr + N + fk = mar . Since the ice surface is
horizontal, only the rocks x-equation changes, Trx
k N = mr arx . Now we need to use the rocks
y-equation to eliminate N, obtaining Trx mr g =
mr arx . Solving for arx as before, we find k mr g
mr acy mc g = mc acy , or arx = acy =
(mc k mr )g/(mc + mr ) = (70 kg 0.057940 kg)
(9.8 m/s2 )/(1010 kg)
q= 0.159 m/s . Now the climber

The frictional force must balance the downslope

component of gravity on the sled to produce a
constant speed. The normal force on the sled must
balance the perpendicular component of gravity if just
gravity and the contact force are acting. Thus,
mg sin = fk = k N , and mg cos = N, or k =
tan 12 = 0.21 (as in Example 6-10).

has more time, t =

to pray for rescue.



44. The handle of a 22-kg lawnmower makes a

35 angle with the horizontal. If the coefficient of
friction between lawnmower and ground is 0.68,
what magnitude of force is required to push the
mower at constant velocity? Assume the force is
applied in the direction of the handle. Compare
with the mowers weight.

46. During an ice storm, the coefficients of friction

between car tires and road are reduced to
k = 0.088 and s = 0.14. (a) What is the
maximum slope on which a car can be parked
without sliding? (b) On a slope just steeper than
this maximum, with what acceleration will a car
slide down the slope?



Assuming the ground is also horizontal, we may depict

the forces on the lawnmower as shown. At constant
velocity (constant speed in a straight line) a = 0, and
F + fk + N + mg = 0. The x and y components of this
equation are F cos 35 fk = 0, and N F sin 35
mg = 0. Using fk = k N = k (F sin 35 + mg), with
k = 0.68, we find F = k mg/(cos 35 k sin 35 ) =
1.58mg = 342 N.

(a) With reference to Example 6-14, = tan1

s = 7.97. (b) From Example 6-10, a = g sin
k g cos = (9.8 m/s2 )(sin 7.97 0.088 cos 7.97 ) =
50.5 cm/s . (Using a little
p trigonometry, we could have
written a = g(s k )/ 1 + 2s .)

2(51 m)/(0.159 m/s2 ) = 25.3 s,

47. A bat crashes into the vertical front of an
accelerating subway train. If the coefficient of
friction between bat and train is 0.86, what is the
minimum acceleration of the train that will allow
the bat to remain in place?

Since N is parallel to the acceleration, but
perpendicular to gravity and friction, N = ma, and
fs = mg s N = s ma. Therefore, in order to
remain in place, a g/s = (9.8 m/s )/0.86 =
11.4 m/s2 .
Problem 44 Solution.

45. Repeat Example 6-5, now assuming that the
coefficient of kinetic friction between rock and ice
is 0.057.

48. In a factory, boxes drop vertically onto a conveyor

belt moving horizontally at 1.7 m/s. If the
coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.46, how long does
it take each box to come to rest with respect to
the belt?



2(1.6 m) = 86.8 m/s , or about twenty-one times

greater. (Friction is no substitute for a seatbelt!)

51. A bug crawls outward from the center of a
compact disc spinning at 200 revolutions per
minute. The coefficient of static friction between
the bugs sticky feet and the disc surface is 1.2.
How far does the bug get from the center before

Problem 47 Solution.

Kinetic friction accelerates each box up to the speed of
the belt: fk = k N = k mg = ma (if we suppose the
belt to be horizontal). This takes time t = v/a =
v/k g = (1.7 m/s)/(0.46)(9.8 m/s2 ) = 0.377 s.

49. The coefficient of static friction between steel train
wheels and steel rails is 0.58. The engineer of a
train moving at 140 km/h spots a stalled car on
the tracks 150 m ahead. If he applies the brakes so
that the wheels do not slip, will the train stop in

When stopping on a level track, the maximum
acceleration due to friction is a = s g, as explained
in Example 6-12. The minimum stopping distance
from an initial speed of (140/3.6) m/s is x =
v02 /(2a) = (38.9 m/s)2 /(20.589.8 m/s ) =
133 m. With split-second timing, an accident could be

50. If you neglect to fasten your seatbelt, and if the
coefficient of friction between you and your car
seat is 0.42, what is the maximum deceleration for
which you can remain in your seat? Compare with
the deceleration in an accident that brings a
60-km/h car to rest in a distance of 1.6 m.

If the seat is horizontal (parallel to the acceleration)
then fs = ma s N = s mg, or a s g. The
maximum deceleration is therefore (0.42)(9.8 m/s ) =
4.12 m/s . For the accident described, the magnitude
of the deceleration is v02 /2(x x0 ) = (60 m/3.6 s)2

Assume that the disc is level. Then the frictional force

produces the (centripetal) acceleration of the bug,
and the normal force equals its weight. Thus,
fs = m(v 2 /r) = mr(2/T )2 s N = s mg, or
r s g(T /2)2 = (1.2)(9.8 m/s )(60 s/2(200))2 =
2.68 cm. Note that the period of revolution is 60 s
divided by the number of revolutions per minute.

52. A 310-g paperback book rests on a 1.2-kg
textbook. A force is applied to the textbook, and
the two books accelerate together from rest to
96 cm/s in 0.42 s. The textbook is then brought to
a stop in 0.33 s, during which time the paperback
slides off. Within what range does the coefficient
of static friction between the two books lie?

The direction of motion and the orientation of the
surface of contact are not specified; assume
both are horizontal. Then, for the acceleration,
fs = ma s N = s mg (where m is the mass of the
paperback), or s a/g. From the given data,
s (0.96 m/s/0.42 s)/(9.8 m/s2 ) = 0.23. During the
deceleration, fsmax = s mg < ma (the magnitude of
the paperbacks acceleration is smaller than that of
the textbook, because the paperback slides off), so
s < (0.96 m/s/0.33 s)/(9.8 m/s ) = 0.30.

53. A 2.5-kg block and a 3.1-kg block slide down a
30 incline as shown in Fig. 6-73. The coefficient
of kinetic friction between the 2.5-kg block and
the slope is 0.23; between the 3.1-kg block and the
slope it is 0.51. Determine the (a) acceleration of
the pair and (b) the force the lighter block exerts
on the heavier one.




2.5 kg
3.1 kg


figure 6-73 Problem 53.

The acceleration down the incline is a = g(sin

k cos ) = (9.8 m/s2 )(sin 25 0.12 cos 25 ) =
3.08 m/s (see Example 6-10). The speed at the
bottom is v 2 = 2 as, where s = 41 m. On level ground,
the deceleration is fk /m = k mg/m = k g, so
the distance traveled before stopping is x =
v 2 /2(k g) = as/k g = (3.08 m/s )(41 m)/(0.12)
(9.8 m/s2 ) = 107 m.

55. In a typical front-wheel-drive car, 70% of the cars
weight rides on the front wheels. If the coefficient
of friction between tires and road is 0.61, what is
the maximum acceleration of the car?


Problem 53 Solution.

On a level road, the maximum acceleration from static

friction between the tires and the road is
amax = s N/m (see Example 6-12). In this case, the
normal force on the front tires (the ones producing the
frictional force which accelerates the car) is 70% of
mg, whereas the whole mass must be accelerated.
Thus, amax = (0.61)(0.70)(9.8 m/s ) = 4.18 m/s .



The forces on the blocks are as shown. (Since

k2 > k1 , there will be a contact force of magnitude
Fc , such that the acceleration of both blocks down the
incline is a.) The x and y components of Newtons
second law for each block are

56. Repeat the previous problem for a rear-wheeldrive car with the same portion of its weight over
the front wheels.

m1 g sin 30 k1 N1 Fc

= m1 a, Nk1 m1 g cos 30 = 0
m2 g sin 30 k2 N2 + Fc
= m2 a, N2 m2 g cos 30 = 0.

(a) To solve for a, add the x equations and use values

of N from the y equations: a = [(m1 + m2 )g sin 30
(m1 k1 + m2 k2 )g cos 30 ]/(m1 + m2 ), or
a = 1.63 m/s , when the given ms and k s are
substituted. (b) To solve for Fc , divide each x
equation by the corresponding m, and subtract:
Fc = (k2 k1 )m1 m2 g cos 30 /(m1 + m2 ) = 3.29 N.

The frictional force on the rear wheels accelerates the
car, the frictional force on the front wheels, assumed
negligible, just makes them turn. If the car is on level
ground, Nr = 0.3mg, so Fs = ma s (0.3mg), or
a (0.61)(0.3)(9.8 m/s ) = 1.79 m/s . (Putting more
weight over the drive axle gives better traction.)

54. Children sled down a 41-m-long hill inclined at
25 . At the bottom the slope levels out. If the
coefficient of friction is 0.12, how far do the
children slide on the level?

Problem 56 Solution.





57. A police officer investigating an accident estimates

from the damage done that a moving car hit a
stationary car at 25 km/h. If the moving car left
skid marks 47 m long, and if the coefficient of
kinetic friction is 0.71, what was the initial speed
of the moving car?

On a level road, the acceleration of a skidding car is
k g (see Example 6-12). From the kinematics
of the reconstructed accident, v 2 = v02
2k g(x
q x0 ), from which we calculate that

v0 = (25 m/3.6 s)2 + 2(0.71)(9.8 m/s )(47 m) =

26.5 m/s = 95.4 km/h = 59.3 mi/h. (Add speeding to
the traffic citation!)

figure 6-74 Problem 59.

Fa . Thus, the equilibrium condition will always be

satisfied if sin 50 > cos 50 /s , or s > cot 50 =

58. A slide inclined at 35 takes bathers into a
swimming pool. With water sprayed onto the slide
to make it essentially frictionless, a bather spends
only one-third as much time on the slide as when
it is dry. What is the coefficient of friction on the
dry slide?

The time it takes to slide down, starting from rest at
the top, depends
p on the acceleration in the direction of
the slope, t = 2x/a, where x is the length of the
slide (see Equation 2-10). Without friction, a = g sin ,
and with friction, a = g sin k g cos =
a(1 k cot ) (see Example 6-10). The ratio of the
corresponding times is 13 , so 31 = (t/t )2 =
a /a = 1 k cot , or k = 8 tan 35 /9 = 0.62.

59. You try to push a heavy trunk, exerting a force at
an angle of 50 below the horizontal (Fig. 6-74).
Show that, no matter how hard you try to push, it
is impossible to budge the trunk if the coefficient
of static friction exceeds 0.84.

The trunk remains at rest if the sum of the forces on it
(x and y components) is 0: Fa cos 50 fs = 0, N
mg Fa sin 50 = 0. Since fs = Fa cos 50 s N =
s (mg + Fa sin 50 ), the condition for equilibrium can
be written Fa (cos 50 s sin 50 ) s mg, or
(cos 50 /s ) sin 50 (mg/Fa ). The right-hand
side is always positive (Fa and mg are magnitudes),
but the left-hand side can be positive or negative. If it
is negative, the trunk does not move, independent of

Problem 59 Solution.

60. A block of mass m is being pulled at constant
speed v down a slope that makes an angle with
the horizontal. The pulling force is applied
through a horizontal rope, as shown in Fig. 6-75.
If the coefficient of kinetic friction is k , find an
expression for the rope tension.

Since the speed is constant (a = 0), the sum of the
forces on the block is zero (Newtons second law).
Taking components parallel and perpendicular to the
incline, we have: T cos + mg sin fk = 0, and
N + T sin mg cos = 0. Then T cos + mg sin =
fk = k N = k (mg cos T sin ), and
T = mg(k cos sin )/(cos + k sin ). (Note that
T 0, so the application of step 7 of the strategy box
in Section 6-1 is restricted by the range of
, 0 tan1 k .)



Section 6-5: Drag Forces



1 mg

63. Find the drag force on a 7.4-cm-diameter baseball

moving through air (density 1.2 kg/m3 ) at 45 m/s.
The drag coefficient is 0.50.

The cross-sectional area of the baseball (a sphere) is
4 d , so Equation 6-4 and the other given quantities
result in a drag force of magnitude FD = 21 CAv 2 =
3 1
2 (0.50)(1.2 kg/m ) 4 (7.4 cm) (45 m/s) = 2.61 N.

figure 6-75 Problem 60 Solution.

61. A block is shoved down a 22 slope with an initial
speed of 1.4 m/s. If it slides 34 cm before
stopping, what is the coefficient of friction?

The acceleration down the slope can be found from
kinematics (Equation 2-11) and from Newtons second
law (as in Example 6-10): a = g sin k g cos =
v02 /2. In this equation, the values of , v0 , and are
given; therefore we can solve for k :
k = tan 22 +

(1.4 m/s)2

2(0.34 m)(9.8 m/s ) cos 22

64. A footballs terminal speed is 53 m/s when its
falling pointed end first and 43 m/s when its
falling with its long dimension horizontal. If the
football is 28 cm long at its longest, what is the
diameter on its short dimension? Assume the drag
coefficient C is the same in both orientations.

= 0.72.

62. If the block in the previous problem were shoved
up the slope with the same initial speed, (a) how
far would it go? (b) Once it stopped, would it
slide back down?

(a) Because the frictional force always opposes the
relative motion of the surfaces in contact,
Example 6-10 does not give the acceleration of a block
shoved up an incline. Rather, fk is in the opposite
direction to that shown in Fig. 6-33, and Newtons
second law gives a = g sin + k g cos . With values
from Problem 61, a = 10.2 m/s (positive down slope).
The distance traveled up the slope to where the block
stops is (from Equation 2-11) v02 /2a = (1.4 m/s)2
2(10.2 m/s2 ) 9.58 cm (negative up slope). (We did
not use a rounded-off value of k in this calculation.)
(b) Once the block has stopped, it will remain at rest
if s tan 22 = 0.404 (see Example 6-14). Since s is
normally greater than k (which was 0.72 in
Problem 61), the block does not slide back. (Notice
how the direction of the frictional forces depends on
the circumstances: it was up the incline in
Problem 61, down the incline in Problem 62(a), and
up the incline in Problem 62(b).)

Problem 64 Solution.

The terminal speed of the football is inversely
proportional to the square root of its cross-sectional
area perpendicular to the direction of fall (see
Example 6-15). If we assume that the drag coefficient
is the same for both orientations, then
(vt,long /vt,end )2 = (43/53)2 = Aend /Along . Aend (the
footballs cross-sectional area in a plane perpendicular
to, and through, the midpoint of the long axis) is the
area of a circle of diameter d. Along (the footballs
cross-sectional area in a plane containing the long
axis) is the area of two identical circular segments, of
chord equal to the long dimension, = 28 cm, and
height (or saggita) equal to 21 d, as shown. The areas
can be found from geometry, in terms of and d:
Aend = 41 d2 , and Along = R2 (R 21 d), where
R = (2 + d2 )/4d, and = 2 sin1 (/2R). The

transcendental equation for the ratio of these areas
can be solved numerically on a PC. Our result for
= 28 cm is d 16.71 cm.





65. Find the terminal speed of a 1.0-mm-diameter

spherical raindrop in air. The densities of air and
water are 1.2 kg/m and 1000 kg/m , respectively,
and the drag coefficient is 0.50.


figure 6-76 Problems 67, 68.

The expression for the terminal speed
found in
Example 6-15 can be used, vt = 2 mg/CA, where
the mass of the drop is its volume, V, times the
density of water, w .The volume and cross-sectional
area of a spherical drop, in terms of the diameter, are
ratio is 23 d. Then
6 d and 4 d , respectively, so their
the terminal speed becomes vt = 4 gd (w /)/3C =

4(9.8 m/s )(103 m)(1000/1.2)/3(0.50) = 4.67 m/s,

where we canceled identical units in the density ratio.

66. Will a golf ball of mass 45 g and diameter 4.3 cm
reach terminal speed when dropped from a height
of 25 m? The drag coefficient is 0.35, and the
density of air is 1.2 kg/m .

take advantage of the type of shortcut mentioned in

the solution to Problem 18. (For a similar solution
using equations of motion for each object, see
Problem 17 or 19.) Being tied together by a rope
(which is assumed to be unextensible), m1 and m2
move as a unit, with the same acceleration (in
magnitude) which well choose to be positive for m2
upward and m1 downslope. Gravity acts positive
downslope on m1 (m1 g sin 30 ) and negative downward
on m2 (m2 g), so the net force on the system of
masses, in the positive direction of motion, equal to
the total mass times the acceleration, is
m1 g sin 30 m2 g = (m1 + m2 )a. (Here, we neglect
the mass of the rope and pulley, which are also
accelerated, and any frictional forces.) Thus,
a = (5 kg sin 30 2 kg)
(9.8 m/s2 )/(5 kg + 2 kg) = 0.700 m/s2 .

The terminal
p speed for this golf ball, in
2 mg/CA =

2(45g)(9.8 m/s )/(0.35)(1.2 kg/m )(4.3 cm/2)2 =

38.0 m/s (see Example 6-15). Even in the absence of
air resistance, a golf ball dropped from p
a height of
25 m would attain a speed of only v = 2 g (25 m) =
22.1 m/s, far short of the terminal speed. (The actual
speed of an object, dropping through a distance y,
subject to the drag force of Equation 6-4, is
v 2 = vt2 (1 e2gy/vt ), as shown in many intermediate
mechanics texts. This gives a speed of 20.4 m/s for the
golf ball dropped in this problem.)

Paired Problems
67. In Fig. 6-76, suppose m1 = 5.0 kg and
m2 = 2.0 kg, and that the surface and pulley are
frictionless. Determine the magnitude and
direction of m2 s acceleration.

Since we are not interested in the tension in the rope
connecting the masses, this is a good opportunity to

68. Repeat the preceding problem, now taking
m1 = 3.0 kg with m2 still 2.0 kg.

The analysis in the solution to the previous problem
gives a = (3 kg sin 30 2 kg)(9.8 m/s )
(3 kg + 2 kg) = 0.98 m/s2 . The minus sign means
that m2 goes downward and m1 upslope, as specified

69. A tetherball on a 1.7-m rope is struck so it goes
into circular motion in a horizontal plane, with the
rope making a 15 angle to the horizontal. What
is the balls speed?

The tetherball whirling in a horizontal circle is
analogous to the mass
p on a string in Example 6-6.
g cos2 / sin =

(9.8 m/s )(1.7 m) cos2 15 / sin 15 = 7.75 m/s.





70. An airplane goes into a turn 3.6 km in radius. If

the banking angle required is 28 from the
horizontal, what is the planes speed?

The forces on a car (in a plane perpendicular to the

velocity) rounding a banked curve at arbitrary speed
are analyzed in detail in the solution to Problem 81
below. (a) It is shown there that to prevent skidding,
s v 2 vd2 /gR(1 + v 2 vd2 /g 2 R2 ), where R is the
radius of the curve, and vd is the design speed for the
proper banking angle, tan d = vd2 /gR. In this problem,
vd = (60/3.6) m/s, v = (40/3.6) m/s, and R = 130 m,
so s 0.12. (b) Since v < vd , the car would slide
down the bank of the curve in the absence of friction.

The airplane making a turn at the proper banking
angle is analogous to the
q situation in Example 6-7.

Thus, v = gr tan = (9.8 m/s2 )(3.6 km) tan 28 =

137 m/s = 493 km/h. (Note that the angles given in
this and the previous problem are complementary, and
that the radius of the circle in Problem 69 is cos .)

71. Starting from rest, a skier slides 100 m down a 28
slope. How much longer does the run take if the
coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.17 instead of 0?

If air resistance is ignored, the forces acting on the
skier are analogous to those on the sled in
Example 6-10, so the downslope acceleration is
ak = g(sin k cos ). Starting from rest, the
time needed
to coast a distance x downslope
is t = 2x/ak . With no friction, t =
2(100 m)/(9.8 m/s ) sin 28 =

q s. If k = 0.17, t =

2(100 m)/(9.8 m/s )(sin 28 0.17 cos 28 ) = 7.99 s,

or about 1.40 s longer.

72. At the end of a factory production line, boxes
start from rest and slide down a 30 ramp 5.4 m
long. If the slide is to take no more than 3.3 s,
what is the maximum frictional coefficient that
can be tolerated?

As in the preceding problem,
the time required to slide
down the incline is t = 2x/ak 3.3 s. Therefore,
ak = g(sin k cos ) 2x/(3.3 s)2 , or k
tan 30 2(5.4 m)/(3.3 s)2 (9.8 m/s ) cos 30 = 0.46.

73. A car moving at 40 km/h negotiates a
130-m-radius banked turn designed for 60 km/h.
(a) What coefficient of friction is needed to keep
the car on the road? (b) To which side of the
curve would it move if it hit an essentially
frictionless icy patch?

74. A passenger sets a coffee cup on the seatback tray
of an airplane flying at 580 km/h. The plane goes
into a 2.6-km-radius turn, getting part of its
turning force from its rudder and part from
banking at 25 (i.e., its banking at a lower angle
than required to give the full turning force).
(a) What coefficient of friction is needed to keep
the coffee cup on the tray? (b) If there were
insufficient friction, which way would the cup

This problem involves a coffee cup on a banked
traytable moving with speed v in a horizontal circular
arc of radius R. The forces and centripetal acceleration
are analogous to those on a car rounding a banked
curve, as in the previous problem. Here, the circular
speed v = 580 km/h = 161 m/s is greater than the

design speed for a 25q

banked turn,

vd = gR tan 25 = (9.8 m/s )(2.6 km) tan 25 =
109 m/s,
so a coefficient of static friction
s v 2 vd2 /gR (1 + v 2 vd2 /g 2 R2 ) = 0.37 is needed
to keep the cup from sliding up the tray.

Supplementary Problems
75. A space station is in the shape of a hollow ring,
450 m in diameter (Fig. 6-77). At how many
revolutions per minute should it rotate in order to
simulate Earths gravitythat is, so that the

normal force on an astronaut at the outer edge
would be the astronauts weight on Earth?


must balance the weight of the ball, independent of v,

hence Tu = mg/ sin = 12.4 N. When v = 5 m/s, T =
(0.84 kg)(5 m/s)2 (1.2 m)1 (12.4 N)(1.2/1.6) =
8.17 N.

450 m

1.6 m

1.2 m

figure 6-77 Problem 75.



Standing on the outer edge of the space station,
rotating with it, the astronaut experiences a normal
force equal to the centripetal force, N = mac =
m 4 2 r/T 2 , where T is the period of rotation (see
Example 4-8). Since T is the time per revolution, the
number of revolutions per unit time is 1/T (called the
frequency of revolution). If the normal force is to
duplicate Earths
q gravity, ac = g, and 1/T = (1/2)
g/r = (1/2) (9.8 m/s )/(450 m/2) = (3.32
102 rev/s)(60 s/ min) = 1.99 rpm.

figure 6-78 Problem 76 Solution.

77. In the loop-the-loop track of Fig. 6-25, show that
the car leaves the track at an angle given by
cos = v 2 /rg, where is the angle made by a
vertical line through the center of the circular
track and a line from the center to the point where
the car leaves the track.

76. Figure 6-78 shows a 0.84-kg ball attached to a
vertical post by strings of length 1.2 m and 1.6 m.
If the ball is set whirling in a horizontal circle, find
(a) the minimum speed necessary for the lower
string to be taut and (b) the tension in each string
if the balls speed is 5.0 m/s.

Consider the three forces acting on the ball, gravity
and the tensions pulling along each string, as shown
sketched on Fig. 6-78. The balls acceleration is the
centripetal acceleration, v 2 /r, directed along the lower
string toward the axis of rotation, so the horizontal
and vertical components of Newtons second law are
T + Tu cos = mv 2 /r and Tu sin = mg. The angle
between the tensions is given by the lengths of the
strings, or = cos1 (1.2/1.6) = 41.4 . (a) The lower
string is taut provided T 0. Eliminating Tu from the
above equations, we find T =mv 2 /r mg cot 0,
so this condition implies v gr cot =

(9.8 m/s )(1.2 m) cot 41.4 = 3.65 m/s. (b) The

vertical component of the tension in the upper string

Problem 77 Solution.

The angle and the forces acting on the car are
shown in the sketch. The radial component of the net
force (towards the center of the track) equals the mass
times the centripetal acceleration, N + mg cos =



mv 2 /r. (The tangential component is not of interest in

this problem.) The car leaves the track when
N = (mv 2 /r) mg cos = 0 (no more contact) or
cos = v 2 /gr. This implies that the car leaves the
track at real angles for v 2 < gr; otherwise, the car
never leaves the track, as in Example 6-8.

78. An astronaut is training in a centrifuge that
consists of a small chamber whirled around
horizontally at the end of a 5.1-m-long shaft. The
astronaut places a notebook on the vertical wall of
the chamber and it stays in place. If the coefficient
of static friction is 0.62, what is the minimum rate
at which the centrifuge must be revolving?

The wall and gravity act on the notebook. If the latter
doesnt fall, fs = mg s N = s mv 2 /r, or
v 2 gr/s . In circular motion, the linear speed is
related to the rate of revolution (the angular speed,
denoted by Greek letter omega) by v = 2r/ = r,
where is the period.
Thus, v 2 = 2 r2 gr/s , or
g/s r = (9.8 m/s )/(0.62)(5.1 m) =
1.76 s1 = 16.8 rev/ min. (Note: = 2/ has units
rad/s, and 2 rad = 1 rev.)

When standing on the Earths surface, you are
rotating with the Earth about its axis through the
poles, with a period of 1d. The radius of your circle of
rotation (your perpendicular distance to the axis) is
r = RE cos , where RE is the radius of the Earth
(constant if geographical variations are neglected) and
is your lattitude. Your centripetal acceleration has
magnitude ac = (2/T ) r and is directed toward the
axis of rotation (see Example 4-8). We assume there
are only two forces acting on you, gravity, Fg
(magnitude mg approximately constant, directed
towards the center of the Earth), and the force exerted
by the scale, Fs . Newtons second law requires that
Fg + Fs = mac . (a) At the north pole, ac = 0, so the
magnitudes of Fg and Fs are equal, or Fs = mg; but
at the equator, ac has a maximum magnitude, equal
to the difference in the magnitudes of Fg and Fs , or
Fs = mg m(2/T )2 RE . Therefore Fs (your
weight) is lower at the equator than at the pole.
(b) The fractional difference of these two values is
(Fs,pole Fs,eq. )/Fs,pole = (2/T )2 RE /g =
(2/86, 400 s)2 (6.37106 m)/(9.81 m/s ) = 0.34%.
at pole



at equator


Problem 78 Solution.
Problem 79 Solution.

79. You stand on a spring scale at the north pole and
again at the equator. (a) Which scale reading will
be lower, and why? (b) By what percentage will
the lower reading differ from the higher one?
(Here youre neglecting variations in g due to
geological factors.)

80. Driving in thick fog on a horizontal road, a driver
spots a tractor-trailer truck jackknifed across the
road, as in Fig. 6-79. To avert a collision, the
driver could brake to a stop or swerve in a circular
arc, as suggested in Fig. 6-79. Which offers the



Problem 81 Solution.

figure 6-79 Problem 80.

greater margin of safety? Assume that the same

coefficient of static friction is operative in both
cases, and that the car maintains constant speed if
it swerves.

less than the design speed. Taking components parallel

and perpendicular to the road, we find N mg cos =
m(v 2 /R) sin , mg sin fs = (v 2 /R) cos , where the
upper sign is for v > vd , and the lower for v < vd . (We
chose these components because the solution for N
and fs is direct.) This argument applies if the car does
not skid (otherwise a 6= ar ) so fs s N. Therefore:

g sin v 2 cos /R
g tan v 2 /R
g cos + v sin /R
g + v 2 tan /R
vd2 v 2
gR(1 + v 2 vd2 /g 2 R2 )

since vd2 /gR = tan . If we set v = v vd , the

condition on s becomes:

On a level road, the maximum force of friction is
s N = s mg, so the maximum acceleration is s g (in
magnitude). Applied in a straight line (ax s g), the
stopping distance from an initial speed v is
0 = v 2 2ax x, or x v 2 /2s g. On a swerving circular
path at constant speed (ar s g), the turning radius
is ar = v 2 /r, or r v 2 /s g. Evidently, rmin = 2xmin ,
so braking is safer than swerving.

81. A highway turn of radius R is banked for a design
speed vd . If a car enters the turn at speed v =
vd + v, where v can be positive or negative,
show that the minimum coefficient of static
friction needed to prevent slipping is
|v| (2vd + v)
s =
gR [1 + (vd v/gR)2 ]

The equation of motion for a car rounding a banked
turn is N + mg + fs = mar , where ar = v 2 /R is the
radical acceleration (assumed horizontal and constant
in magnitude) and the forces are as shown. Note that
the frictional force changes direction for v greater or

|v| (2vd + v)
v(2vd + v)
gR(1 + vd2 v 2 /g 2 R2 )
gR(1 + vd2 v 2 /g 2 R2 )

(Note that |v| is +v for v > vd and v for

v < vd .) The expression for the minimum coefficient of
friction is not particularly simple, but for v = 0 (car at
rest) it reduces to |vd | (2vd vd )/gR = vd2 /gR =
tan , as in Example 6-14.

82. Suppose the coefficient of friction between a block
and a horizontal surface is proportional to the
blocks speed: = 1 v/v1 , where 1 and v1 are
constants. If the block is given an initial speed v0 ,
show that it comes to rest in a distance x =
v0 v1 /1 g.

Take the x-axis in the direction of the initial velocity,
with origin at the initial position (x(0) = 0,
vx (0) = v0 ). The equation of motion (x component) is
m(dvx /dt) = N = (1 /v1 )vx mg, since N = mg on
a horizontal surface. The solution of this differential
equation for vx , which satisfies the initial conditions,
is: vx (t) = (dx/dt) = v0 exp[(1 g/v1 )t]). The solution
for x is: x(t) = (v0 v1 /1 g)(1 exp[(1 g/v1 )t]). The
block comes to rest in the limit t , since
vx () = 0. Thus x() = v0 v1 /1 g.



83. A block is projected up an incline making an angle
with the horizontal. It returns to its initial
position with half its initial speed. Show that the
coefficient of kinetic friction is k = 53 tan .

(This can be expressed as 43 S of E, or approximately


Problem 84 Solution.

Problem 83 Solution.

Going up the incline, the blocks acceleration (positive
down the incline) is g(sin + k cos ) = aup ,
whereas going down, the acceleration is
g(sin k cos ) = adown . If the block slides
up a
distance , its initial speed upward was 2aup ,
whereas, sliding down the
same distance, it returns to
the bottom with speed 2adown . Given that the
latter speed is half the former, 4adown = aup =
4g(sin k cos ) = g(sin + k cos ). Therefore
3 sin = 5k cos , or k = 35 tan .

84. The victim of a political kidnapping is forced into
a north-facing car and then blindfolded. The car
pulls into traffic and, from the sound of the
surrounding traffic, the victim knows that the car
is moving at about the legal speed limit of
85 km/h. The car then turns to the right; the
victim estimates that the force the seat exerts on
him is one-fifth of his weight. The victim
experiences this force for 28 s. At the end of that
time, in what direction can the victim conclude
that he is heading?

In a circular turn at constant speed on level ground,
the force felt by the victim (friction exerted by the
seat) is mv 2 /r = 51 mg, as given. Therefore, the radius
of the turn is r = 5v 2 /g. The arclength of the turn is
s = r = vt, so the angle (in radians) is = vt/r =
vt/(5v 2 /g) = gt/5v. The velocity turns through the
same angle (measured clockwise from north), so the
victims final heading is

(9.8 m/s )(28 s)

= 2.32 rad = 133 .
5(85 m/3.6 s)

85. A 2.1-kg mass is connected to a spring of spring
constant k = 150 N/m and unstretched length
18 cm. The pair are mounted on a frictionless air
table, with the free end of the spring attached to a
frictionless pivot. The mass is set into circular
motion at 1.4 m/s. Find the radius of its path.

Since the airtable is frictionless, the only horizontal
force acting on the mass is the spring force, of
magnitude k( 0 ) and in the direction of the
centripetal acceleration v 2 /. Here, the radius of the
circle is , the length of the spring, while 0 is the
unstretched length. Therefore, k( 0 ) = mv 2 /.
This is a quadratic equation for
, 2 0 pmv 2 /k = 0, with positive solution
= 12 [0 + 20 + 4 mv 2 /k] = 21 [0.18 m +
(0.18 m)2 + 4(2.1 kg)(1.4 m/s)2 /(150 N/m)] =
27.9 cm.

86. This problem is for those with unusually advanced
math skills. Set up Newtons law for an object
falling from rest subject to the drag force of
Equation 6-4. Use a coordinate system with the
y-axis vertically downward, and write the
acceleration as ay = dvy /dt. Your Newtons law
then becomes a differential equation. Integrate it
to show that the speed as afunction of
 time is
given by v(t) = CA tanh
2m t , where
tanh is the hyperbolic tangent function
tanh(x) = (ex ex )/(ex + ex ).

For an object falling downward (in the y-direction)
under the influence of gravity and the quadratic drag
force of Equation 6-4, Newtons second law is

m dv/dt = mg 12 CAv 2 . (The drag force is really
21 CAv |v| , but v is always positive for a falling
object in the coordinate system chosen.) This
equation can be separated and simplified (using vt
from Example 6-15) to yield (g/vt )dt = vt dv/(vt2 v 2 ),
which can be integrated using partial fractions or
integral tables. The result, expressed in terms of
logarithms or inverse hyperbolic functions, depends on
whether vt > v or vt < v, which is determined by the
initial speed, v0 . Here, we consider an object dropped
from rest, so v0 = 0, and we obtain

Z t
1 v
2 0
vt + v
vt v
0 vt

vt + v
= tanh1 .
vt v
Solving for v as a function of t is quicker with
hyperbolic functions, but the result in terms of
exponentials is the same:
e2gt/vt 1
= 2gt/v
= tanh
t + 1