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THE ART OF Bop DRUMMING by John i a ete fori) Nee a “sis ve oi About the Author Well nova for iis ereutive lexibility and ewosiciaeship, Joh Riley has worked with wx furs mainsciysas Stan Gets, Red Rodiey, Dizzy Gillespie, Mies Davis, Quoe tone Heath, Mil Jackson, Miroslav Vitows, ‘Toots Thiele, Ranly Brocler,Ccree Pease the big bun Is of Woody Herman, Bol Mintzer, al the Wan goard Jar Oachecrs tle tan Gr original sic ensembles has lead to work with guitarist, John Scotiel, Mike Seer, fe Abercrombie and Seeve Khan, and sisophonist Joe Lovano, Bab Berg and Doe ta Equally act.vein the Jars Education field, John reveived a Bachelor o ve nce fron the University of North Texas, where he played in +h Band. and sent un to seccive a Masters deyrce from Manhattan Selete ent hculty of New York University, William Patterson Caller tan School of Music, As a treetance educator he has given master elace, ann around the world Acknowledgements My parents fohn and Many Ann foe their suppers and encoun furthesticks, balsa] phy toss GMS for the drums, Maxlern Drummict and Down Hy ‘Archor Tay otor tne quotes arid phot, Bob Sherwin far his musie-and de Be Schomburg Cente Michael W.idermta,amd Mes, Mel Lewis fo and Joe Mor sito, Also th the tus sor their gy seatinus! swaport; Dan Thess for his diligence and expertive: te, Fe: Roberts, for Rewearch in Black Culture, Pron 1 The photos; and uny first seachers Pons Sion a aks to the many friends wl seudents that read through st playing and the players that inspire us ail Dan Thr:ss Assistant Editor Emily Moorefield Music Engraving Dan Levy Cover Design Photogr: Dorian Ros er (tront cover); Ebet Roberts (back cover) the Schornl: ing Center for Research in Black Culture (pp 6, 34); Frank Drig.;s Collection (pp 25, 47, 55); Michael Wilde: Zildjian (p 6); Mrs. Mel Lewis (p 62) Producec’ by Dan Thress & John Riley 2 (70) Contents ———— TimePlaying 6 ‘The Ride Cymbal 7 he Jazz Deum Sound 10 pe Bass Deum & Mli-hat 11 Cymbals 12 Practicing 14 Comping 16 Interdependence 17 Comp Example 118 Pacing 20 Rhythmic Transposition 21 24 ga Soloist 30 Listeniny/Song Steweture 32 Awareness 33 Soloing 34 Solo Structure 35 One-bar Phrases 36 Developing Musical Phrases 37 ‘Vheee-beat Phi Developing | Questine a Brushes 47 Basie Parte Ballad Par 45 Against 2” Brush P: nsin 3/4 52 More Jazz Essentials 35 The fle St Playingin 3/4 Waltz Samia 59 128 Feel 39 Mambe 69 Uptempo Playing 60 Charts 62 School Days (medi: Last Week (shutil What Is This This October (ballad) Satch and Diz. (3/4. 4/4) 68 Out in Phe Ope Appendix 70 Books & Videos SD Key Fide Wichat bass snare LU tacking information 1 Sateh and Diz Time Playing More Jazz Essentials 2. Phas : 3) Warm-up 4 Gaba Compins 5 Comp “sample 1 — Slow 6 Comp Sxample 1 — Fast ayo "S 7 Rhythiic Transposition 38 Uptempo “Spri = Faster 8 Comp Jxample 2— Slow 39. Ous In The Open (ups 9 Comp ‘Sxample 2 — 10 Comp ixample 3— Slow Tunes Minus Drums 12 Comp “xample 3 — Fast 12 Comp Sxample 4—~ Slow 13 Comp Example 4— Fast AQ What Is Thit Thing Gaiied? (ces 4 ; 43 October (ballad) 2:58 Soloing 44 Sucband Dis a 8) 25 4 What This Thing Called? (snedivn-up) 45 Gut In T Ww: § 15 One-bir Phrases 36 Orchest-ating Phrases 17 Orchest ating Phrases — Fast Bob M tenor saxophone 18 Rests within the Phrase Phil Markowitz piano 19 Three-leat Phrases James Genus bass 20 Questie. and Answer Solo John Riley dra 21 Questic 1 and Answer Solo Number 2 All compositions by Joka Riley Brushes 22. Seboel Lays (medium with brushes) oe 23 Brah Fever bees ee GMs 20 bass dram 24 Swing und Straight Sth-note Ballid Patcorn 25 Uptemyo Pattern 1 2 mounted tom 26 F gure 14x14 floor tom 27 *3 Against 2" Feel Sx14 snare de 28 Brash Patteras in 3/4 Cymbu 29 October ballad) 13° Zildjian Kh Sticks Zildjian jare wood Corre sponding music examples are shaded in grey throughout the book see Recorded Septe: Park West Recording 3 Engineered by J Tracking numbers are listed throughout the book with this icon. | Mastered dy Frank P Introduction So you want to play drums, jazz drums, huh? Maybe you became interested in jaz drusis~ ming because you heaed a concert ov recording, attended a clinic or read an interview by one. of the more prominent dsuininers of the last thirey years such as Dennis Chambers, Vinnie Coliuta, Dave Weck, Peter Erskine, Steve Gadd, David Garibaldi, Billy Cobham, Jack Defohmette, Tony Williams or Elvin Jones. But where do you start? These diuininers sez] so different fram one another. They use different rstings, eymba roves, and they play different types of music, Yer all of them attribute « Luge parc uf Cues musicality to a chorough study and knowledge of the master druromers whe preced touch, cechnijie al them Vinnie Colaista credits Steve Gadd, Billy Cobhaun and Tony Williams. Billy Cobham ere its Tony Wiliams and Buddy Rich. Toay Williams credits May Roach, Are Blakey, Philly Joe Jones, Jimmy Cobb and Roy Haynes IL Wese drummers form 4 continuum that leade back to the be-bop era of the 1940s and 0s, and evea earlier. The purpose ofthis book isto help you discover, and leaen fron asters of be-hp, Early innovators such as Baby Dodds, Zutty Singleton, Gene Krupa an Jo Jones, were exceptions to the old saying, “five musicians and a drumaser” but all wecess~ fal “bop” playets were knowledgeable musicians as well as gifted drummer “The leaders of she be-hop movement were Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Bud Powell ans ‘Thelonious Monk. Their compositions challenged drummers like no others had before. They combined chythmically intricate melodies and sophisticated Inarmionies (at times played as slowly—or rapidly — as imaginable) in ways that continue to captivate players today ‘This music requires more from a drummer than just timekeeping. When you listen to some of the masters of the idiom, you hear not only a great feel, but an acknowledgement of the melody and the harmonic forun, musical accompaniment, and logical solos, Ifyou dig even dleepet, you may find that more than one of the "newest, hippest” phrases was alzeads ek played by a drummer in your grandfather’ day! T hope this book will shed some light on this importang music, andl will help you put dawn the same kind of musical roots many m ins s0 deeply value. Subseyent volume i ti series will address the musical inmiovations ofthe 608 and 70s, aswell as elartsead interpretation, ing and Enjoy! drum Deamining | i The Ride Cymbal Toa drummer, the key to playing any style of music well is recognizing and developing the fundamental clements that make the thine flow. In contemporary papular music, Slove is locked in by "1" and "3" on the bass drum and hackbesits on "2" an"? with the stave s Think abou eiving each note a definite b shouldbe wit ensling, “F nude eas site re paste rera sill sowad somewhat stiff becintse the snare las fee you can hear . definite end to each note. Now play the pattern ox: your Aas toon sound better sccanse the floor tom reson ret sted to che nestone rather ssare drum, The py a separated. Lay pianiny 1 than the ‘The sound ye. want on the side eytnbal insite each ne sivall > Time Plavinys Shelly Manne 8 The Jazz Sound — Baely drumset players like Baby Dodds and Zutty Singleton, focused their ime playing on the bass drum anc snare deum. ‘Their sound was an outgrth of th style, The fee! was march-like, but also inichuded! clemenis of swing derived fram hoogicawoogie ath rae time pianostyles. The teum “ragtime” a derivation of "aigged-time,” mean Cynbals and Chinese rom-tons were used as sound effects, by the 1930s, the fnetios moved to dhe bass drum and bi and Jater to the bars dram and ride vy and soloing, The tom sy in druia solos developesl on the snace. Calfskin Heads Plastic drum heals alt exist in the 19306 and! 1940s, and were ait in widespread use wnt! the miid-196(:, The sounel of Kenny Clarke, May Roach, Roy Haynes, Art Burkes anal all the great playsrs of the bop era, isthe cound of dewnts with calfskin heads. Calfskin heals bbave a rich, pure tone with fess overtone ring than phastic heads, You ean feel the « into a ealtskin head and rehound with a nice, soft spring on the upstroke, Mest people that calfskin I eads respond physically Tide mate slowly than plastic, but mos because the fe:tand sound are so pieasing, None of the plastic-coated head surfaces eel quite Jike calfskin cy fast as long. Also, brushes feel and sound yreat played on a calfskin head. Tuning ‘The jazz drumset usually consists oF a bass drum, snare, mounted drums sce tuned so shat cach one fsa piteh and tone that blends wi like voices in rhoir. The highest voiceis the sma sm and flow: tom, The all the others, much rum which shou have both a crisp attacks anda fat sours. With the snaes off, the drum should Dlend in petfecily with your toms, ‘After making sure cach snare dram heat is in tune with itself, experiment with vour tuning: Tune both he, ds to the same pitch ~ how does that sound? Now tune the top head these Ley loosening o° tightening the snares, Top head looser? Botton head tighte dium has « wide tonal range. On the toms, the top and bottom heads he same pie «This tuning gives dhe drur Urumamers at times use the bass dt aan open, warin, singing tone. Because ‘avy Tike a third hand, icis wned to a tone and rswntice sinalae to that of the toms, Therefore, mulling is kept to a minionum. ‘Tuning your arums to specifi pitches isn't necessary, but most drummers ¢ dium in shin sor fourths t0 help create siclodie flow. When tuning, [tie first, and then the snare drum, Then I tune the toms to blend! in between the drum. As fort e range in which to tune the drums, historical thesmuller the ensemile higher the tur ny of the drums. Drummers working in larger, louder ensembles tuned drums lower because the lower- sounding drums projected becter through the ensemble 0B ‘To hear the sound of calfskin heads, compare Max Roach’s sound on Liv Ciittord Brow. to Mel Lewis's sound on The Defictive Uae jowes, Vo more than thi years apart, hoth drummers are using ealts ‘Mas tunes very high while M.. tunes very low But both have a similar resonance and warm ime Playing The Bass Drum & Hi-hat ———___— ‘There has been auch discussion in recent years about whether er aot the should play quarter-notes on the bass drums (commonly “bop” drusamers played time on the bass dr ase too loxed they will ruin the rec to as "feather and this much 3s clear Novy, and ifthe sgrumded. Drummers consider quarter-notes on the bass drum too loud if within the ensemble. 1 the quarter is dium ts let out the time dogss tee hey should be "felt, nos heard,” asthe saying gocs. Mos