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Hilti engineering for

earthquake
applications

Build a future safer from


earthquakes.
Hilti. Outperform. Outlast.

Global research and development

A global network for local needs.

Produced by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP).


Global map assembled by D. Giardini, G. Grnthal, K. Shedlock and P. Zhang (1999)

An increasing population density, the


concentration of valuable assets in
urban centers and societys dependence
on a functioning infrastructure demand
a better understanding of the risks
posed by earthquakes. In several areas
around the globe, these risks have been
reduced through appropriate building
codes and state of the art construction
practices. The development of pre-qualification methods to evaluate building
products for seismic conditions additionally contributes to safer buildings for
generations to come.

In our own laboratories, as well as in


cooperation with universities around the
globe, we are constantly developing new
ideas and a better understanding of how
Hilti products respond in seismic events.
Through our 30,000 contact points with
customers per day, we are able to transfer this knowledge to the building industry. Hilti field personnel provide training
and technical support both onsite and
in the design office. Our field engineers
are connected to a global network of
experts so that we can always provide
advanced yet simple solutions - from
the start of your design and the product
selection to the point of a proper installation on a jobsite.

Hilti testing centers

In this brochure you will find:


An overview of applications
where seismic considerations are
common
Information about standards to
pre-qualify these systems for
seismic conditions
Information about Hilti products
that are pre-qualified for seismic
conditions
Software for performing seismic
anchorage calculations
Information about a new
French seismic approval for
post-installed structural rebar
connections

Global research and development

Seismic research and development.

Hilti is committed to building a future safer from earthquakes. For decades, we have
pioneered basic and applied research in fastening technology and construction
products. Our network of in-house laboratories in Europe, North America and Asia,
conducts product tests around the globe, nearly every day of the year. We also work
with universities and external testing laboratories to tackle the most challenging
technical problems that our customers face.
Hiltis seismic research includes detailed investigation of product performance under
simulated seismic conditions and full-scale system testing. This multilevel approach
helps to capture the complexity of anchored systems behavior under seismic conditions.
With one of the worlds largest and most flexible steel deck diaphragm test frames,
Hilti can do full-scale static and seismic testing of entire deck sections with up to 350
fastening points to assess parameters like fastener performance and energy dissipation. This allows Hilti to test and develop powder-actuated and screw fastening systems suitable for earthquake zones in conjunction with various metal deck systems.
Fire and smoke can pose significant risks during and after an earthquake occurs.
Hilti is pioneering research to extensively test firestop systems for earthquake performance in order to support our customers with recommendations for design applications.
We apply our collected experience from extensive research and testing to develop better products that provide a greater level of performance and reliability.
To find out more about Hiltis simulated seismic tests and full-scale testing please visit www.hilti.com/seismic

Typical seismic applications

Hilti solutions
at a glance.
Seismic anchorage applications
can include strengthening or
retrofitting an existing structure,
as well as standard anchorage
applications that exist both in
seismic and non-seismic geographies. Earthquake shaking can
affect a wide range of construction products that Hilti supplies
including concrete anchors,
powder-actuated fasteners, installation supports, and firestop
systems for fire containment.

Post-installed anchor applications 

Seismic retrofitting: concrete retrofits

Structural connections: structural steel

Secondary steel connections: railings,

Utilities fastening: mechanical equipment

stairways, racking, curtain wall, glazing,


awnings

Page 6-9

attachments to concrete

attachment

Typical seismic applications

Post-installed structural rebar connections and additional applications

Post-installed structural rebar: Concrete


to concrete connections

Mechanical

and electrical supports

Structural analysis of reinforced concrete

Page 10-11

Metal deck fastening to steel base material with powder-actuated fasteners and
screws

Firestop cable and pipe penetrations, and


joints

Post-installed anchors in concrete

Design provisions

US seismic design framework

IBC 2009 referencing ACI 318-08, Appendix D

EU seismic design framework


CEN/TS 1992-4-1:2009

Pre-qualification criteria ACI 355.2 with ICC-ES AC193/AC308

Under development by EOTA

Approvals /
Technical data

To be derived based on pre-qualification


criteria when available

Load definition

ICC-ES evaluation report


ASCE/SEI 7-05

EN 1991-1-6:2005 (Eurocode 1) and EN 19981:2004 (Eurocode 8)

Current seismic design standards in the US.


The American building code, IBC 2009, references the design provisions issued by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) in
ACI 318-08, Appendix D, which provides methods to calculate the design capacities of anchorages under seismic conditions
according to the strength design methodology (ultimate limit states). These provisions apply to structures located in medium to
high seismic zones (Seismic Design Categories (SDC) C, D, E, or F), where the concrete base material shall be assumed to be
cracked unless otherwise demonstrated.

Post-installed anchors designed using the methods in ACI


318-08, Appendix D, must be pre-qualified by extensive testing under ACI 355.2. The International Code Council (ICC)
Evaluation Service provides a path to prequalification through
acceptance criteria AC 193 for mechanical anchors and AC
308 for chemical anchors. These criteria define the testing
methods and assessment procedures to develop design parameters compliant with Appendix D.
Specific product characteristics as well as material safety
factors can be found in the Evaluation Service Report (ESR)
issued by ICC, which enable the determination of the product
resistances such as concrete breakout, pull-out, tensile and
shear steel capacities. ICC-ES evaluation service reports and
acceptance criteria can be found at www.icc-es.org

Inelastic

(plastic hinge)

Elastic

Anchorage in locations in a structure expected to undergo inelastic

deformation (so-called plastic hinges) is beyond the scope of Appendix D due to a higher intensity of cracking and spalling.

Illustration: Hoehler, Matthew S.: Behavior and Testing of Fastenings to


Concrete for Use in Seismic Applications, Dissertation, University of Stuttgart
Institute for Construction Materials, 2006, p. 49

Post-installed anchors in concrete

Applying US seismic design standards in Europe.

Anchors are developed and


tested for use in cracked
concrete. Additional tests
under cyclic loads on anchors
located in cracks are performed.

The third party assessment


leads to an ICC-ES report in
which the anchor resistance
data are reported. These
data include specific capacities for seismic loads.

In the European landscape of design standards, provisions for


seismic design of post-installed anchors in concrete are given
in Part 1 of CEN/TS 1992-4:2009 Design of fasteners for use
in concrete. The Eurocode 8 (EN 1998-1:2004) covers the
loads acting on buildings and civil engineering structures in
seismic regions and needs to be taken into account together
with the Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-1-6:2005) in all seismic zones
except in cases of very low seismicity1.
However, currently there are no pre-qualification criteria
for post-installed anchors under seismic loading within the
European Technical Approval Guidelines, which implies that
post-installed anchors under seismic conditions are not yet

Resistance data are used


with the strength design
methodology according to
ACI 318-08, Appendix D.

Using engineering judgement,


the resistance can be compared with loads determined
from European codes.

covered by a European Technical Approval. As a result, in


present day it is not possible to perform seismic design of
anchors within the European code and regulation framework.
Nevertheless, one may apply engineering judgement by referring consistently to the resistances determined according to
ACI 318-08, Appendix D, on the basis of the ICC-ES reports
and comparing them with the loads defined according with
EN 1998-1:2004 and EN 1991-1-6:2005.
1

exception see EN 1998-1:2004, Section 3.2.1 (5)

Hilti PROFIS Anchor 2

Hilti PROFIS Anchor 2


The software for post-installed anchor seismic design.
PROFIS Anchor 2 has the capability of performing seismic calculations according to the American design method ACI 318-08,
Appendix D. Once a designer has established the seismic loads acting on a fastening, a seismic anchor design can be performed keeping in mind the following important steps:

1. Selecting the design method


Upon opening a new calculation with PROFIS Anchor 2, a
user will be prompted to enter the preferred design standard. Select ICC based design, which refers to design with
ACI 318-08, Appendix D.

2. Indicate seismic design


Under the loads tab select strength design according to
ACI 318/AC193/AC 308 and click the button indicating
seismic design. Upon clicking this button, you will then
need to select between three seismic design approaches.

3. Enter the appropriate seismic design approach


Note that all three of these provisions are acceptable design cases based on your application condition.
Ductile anchor yielding
Select (D.3.3.4) if the steel strength of a ductile anchor
element has the highest percent design utilization.
When this option is selected, PROFIS Anchor 2 will filter
the solution for products that satisfy the ACI 318-08
definition of a ductile steel element.
Selecting this option when a ductile anchor yielding is not
the limiting resistance will result in a design report output
of fastening does not meet the design criteria!

Ductile fixture yielding


Select (D.3.3.5) assuming the anchor attachment is being
designed to yield in a ductile manner as the limiting resistance. (capacity design of the fixture must be performed)
When this option is selected, you will be prompted to
re-input the design loads corresponding to the loads at
which yielding of the anchor attachment would occur.

Non-ductile failure
Select (D.3.3.6) corresponding to a limiting design resistance of brittle steel failure, concrete failure, or anchor
pull-out. Based on this option, a reduction factor of 0.4
(Nonductile) will be applied to the design strength as
instructed by the ACI 318-08 code.
For common jobsite applications with limited edge distance and anchor spacing, it is often necessary to design
for a non-ductile limiting resistance.

Anchor portfolio

Seismic post-installed anchor systems.

Seismically pre-qualified injectable mortars

Hilti HIT-RE 500-SD injectable mortar


ICC-ES ESR-2332
(approval for all seismic design categories)

Heavy-duty adhesive anchoring system


with long working (gel) time for deep installations
Bond strengths that outperform in seismic
and cracked concrete conditions
Wide range of approved flexible embedment
lengths and diameters with the HIT-V rod

Hilti HIT Profi System


All the necessary contractor accessories
for proper hole cleaning and injection
Brushes and air nozzles ensure a clean hole
Installation with piston plugs allows
for bubble free injection

(Class 5.8, EN ISO 898-1 steel)

Seismically pre-qualified mechanical anchors

Hilti HDA undercut anchor


ICC-ES ESR-1546

Hilti HSL-3 heavy-duty expansion anchor


ICC-ES ESR-1545

The first undercut system in the world to be


seismically qualified with an ICC-ESR report
The ability to handle high loads combined with
small edge distances and spacing
Proper installation can be verified visually

Fast and easy through-set installation


HSL-3-B torque cap ensures proper installation
with no need for a torque wrench
Wide range of sizes and head configurations

(approval for all seismic design categories)

(approval for all seismic design categories)

Post-installed structural rebar

Structural rebar applications.


Post-installed structural rebar
The primary task of structural rebar in reinforced concrete is to carry tensile loads
and avoid brittle concrete failure. Reinforced concrete design assumes that concrete has negligible tensile strength but allows for the design of rebar development
length with the following two situations:
Transferring tensile loads from one bar to another (overlap splice)
Development length of the tensile force in a bar beyond a node in equilibrium
Post-installed rebar designed
as a rebar splice

Post-installed rebar designed as an


anchor node in equilibrium

10

CSTB Approval DTA 3/10-649 for


seismic structural rebar application

Post-installed rebar connections designed as part of a structural system must be


designed as carefully as the entire structure. European Technical Approvals prove
that in static load situations, post-installed rebars behave like cast-in bars.
Seismic structural rebar approval
French approval DTA 3/10-649 delivered by CSTB, a member of EOTA, recognizes
Hilti HIT-RE 500-SD injectable mortar as a product qualified for structural rebar
applications in seismic zones. This national approval requires that qualified products
have an ETA approval for rebar, an ETA approval for anchorage in cracked concrete,
as well as an ICC-ES pre-qualification for seismic conditions. By applying engineering judgement, engineers can use this French approval when designing seismic
structural post-installed rebar connections.
One will find in the DTA:
The design bond strength fbd,seism of Hilti HIT-RE 500-SD in seismic zones
Formatted data for design with Eurocode 2 and Eurocode 8:
Application limit information (required transverse reinforcement, setting
instructions and training requirements)

Additional seismic applications

Installation applications.
Surprisingly simple - exceptionally
efficient products, customized for
dedicated applications: system MQ for
medium-duty and system MI for
heavy-duty systems.
Sprinkler fixings
M&E applications
Overhead grid systems

Design aids: Hilti PROFIS Installation


All from one program: easy generation of 2D and 3D sketches, detail
drawings and design reports
Maximum safety assured by well
thought-out modeling and planning
using Hilti typicals

Structural analysis of
reinforced concrete.

Hilti detection systems provide the ability to determine size, spacing, and concrete
coverage of reinforcing bars in existing concrete structures. This information can
provide an engineer with the insight needed for the structural analysis of an existing
building and to assess whether an earthquake retrofit is necessary.
To find out more, visit www.hilti.com/detection

Metal deck fastening


to steel base material.

Based on internal testing as well as external independent US system approvals Hilti


can provide solutions for steel deck fastening applications in earthquake zones.
For example, powder-actuated fastening systems are used to attach metal deck
to structural and bar joist base materials. Screw fastening systems complete the
offering for deck attachments by allowing mechanical fastening of side and end
lap connections. This complete system represents a highly productive and reliable
solution for deck fastenings.

Firestop cable and pipe


penetrations, and joints.
The protection of assets and facilities and the need of continuity of operations
following earthquakes and fires is crucial. In many cases, fire and smoke can pose
a serious threat once an earthquake has occurred. Based on testing, Hilti innovative
firestop systems and pre-engineered devices exhibit superior performance when
subject to earthquake conditions. These devices include solutions for pipe and
cable penetrations through floors and walls and fire rated joint seals.

11

Hilti engineering for

Hilti support for seismic specifications.


Field engineers
Work directly with designers to provide technical
assistance and consultation

Technical back office


Engineering and customer service representatives available to
answer your questions on the phone or by E-mail

Account managers
Highly-trained product and application experts working
directly with the customers who install Hilti products

Hilti online www.hilti.com/seismic


Immediate access to additional in-depth information
related to seismic design
PROFIS software tutorial for seismic calculations per the
American design method
Further information on Hilti seismic research and
development

Hilti. Outperform. Outlast.


Hilti Corporation I 9494 Schaan I Liechtenstein I P +423-234 2111 I F +423-234 2965 I www.hilti.com/seismic

Hilti = registered trademark of Hilti Corp., Schaan | W4039 0611 0-en | 1 Printed in Liechtenstein | 2011 | Right of technical and programme changes reserved S. E. & O.

earthquake
applications