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Ecology (Spring Break assignment)

Read Chapters 53, 54, and 55 in Campbell textbook

4.1Species communities and ecosystems


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Define the following terms, and give examples:


Species
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Autotroph
Heterotroph
Producer
Consumer
Detritivore

10.Saprotroph
11. Detritivore and saprotrophs are consumers and heterotrophs, but differ in
their mode of getting nutrition What is the difference?
B. Know the following terms, use them in a sentence, and give examples:
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Ingestion
External digestion
Inorganic nutrients
Organic nutrients
Abiotic environment
Nutrient cycling
Sustainable ecosystem (why it is important, and methods of achieving this)
Random sampling
Mesocosm

10. Different ways to classify organisms and exceptions to the rules: Are all
plants autotrophs? Do all ecosystems need the sun? How to classify
organisms
4.2 Energy Flow
1. Where does the original energy for most ecosystems come from?
2. Describe the energy conversion by photosynthesis.
3. How does the energy flow through the food chain?
4. How is energy lost from the ecosystems (list the ways)?
5. Why are food chains limited in length to about max 7 levels (often just
4levels)?
6. What are the implications of food chain length and energy loss in the
production of food for humans?
7. What are trophic levels (define)? Name them.
8. The difference between energy flow in ecosystems and nutrient cycling in
ecosystems: there is a continuous supply of energy that always has to
enter, but there is a finite/limited amount of nutrients, so organic nutrients
must be recycled how? Describe this process using correct terminology
what does it and what happens with the inorganic nutrients again?
4.3 Carbon cycling
1. Which organic molecules is carbon dioxide converted to, by whom, and
how is this done?
2. In an aquatic ecosystem, carbon is found in a particular molecule that can
be used by producers. What is that molecule?
3. How does the carbon containing molecule enter the producers?
4. How is co2 produced by ALL organisms and how does it exit the body?
5. What is methane? How is it produced? How does it leave organisms and
enter the water and atmosphere?
6. What happens to methane in the atmosphere?
7. How are coal, natural gas, and oil formed?
8. How peat (a peat bog) is formed?

9. What happens in combustion? What materials are normally used for


combustion?
10.Explain how calcium carbonate makes up reefs in the ocean.
11. Draw a diagram of the carbon cycle
4.4 Climate change
1. Name 4 greenhouse gasses. Which 2 of these are most significant?
2. What 2 properties determine the impact of a greenhouse gas?
3. What type of radiation does the sun emit?
4. What type of radiation is emitted from the earth and absorbed by greenhouse
gases.
5. Concentrations of greenhouse gases affect global ___________
and____________ patterns.
6. What are the consequences of increased greenhouse effect?
7. Describe the relationship between CO2 concentration and average global
temperatures over the last 200 years.
8. Why has the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere risen in the last 200 year?
9. The increase of greenhouse gases is a global problem. Why?
10. What are some international measures to reduce greenhouse gas
concentrations?
11. What is the precautionary principal? How can it be used?