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Introduction to the SAE-AISI Designation

System
Abstract:
The SAE system uses a basic four-digit system to designate the chemical composition of carbon
and alloy steels. The first digit (1), of this designation indicates a carbon steel; i.e., carbon steels
comprise 1xxx groups in the SAE-AISI system and are subdivided into four categories due to the
variance in certain fundamental properties among them.
For many years, certain grades of carbon and alloy steels have been designated by a four-digit
AISI/SAE numerical index system that identified the grades according to standard chemical
compositions. Since the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) ceased writing material
specifications, the relationship between AISI and grade designations has been discontinued.
From point of edition of the 1995 Iron and Steel Society (ISS) Strip Steel Manual, the four-digit
designations are referred to solely as SAE Designations.
The SAE system uses a basic four-digit system to designate the chemical composition of carbon
and alloy steels. The simplest system for designation of steel is schematically shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Schematic Representation of AISI/SAE Steel Designation System


Figure 1 demonstrates that the SAE-AISI system uses a four-digit number to designate a carbon
and alloy steel and refers to its specific chemical composition. It is worth noting however, that
there are also certain types of alloy steels that are designated by five digits (51XXX; 52XXX).
The first digit (1), of this designation indicates a carbon steel; i.e., carbon steels comprise 1xxx
groups in the SAE-AISI system and are subdivided into four categories due to the variance in
certain fundamental properties among them. Thus the plain carbon steels are comprised within
the 10xx series (containing 1.00% Mn maximum); resulfurized carbon steels within the 11xx
series; resulfurized and rephosphorized carbon steels within the 12xx series; and nonresulfurized high-manganeze (up-to 1.65%) carbon steels which are produced for applications
requiring good machinability are comprised within the 15xx series.

The SAE-AISI system then classifies all other alloy steels using the same four digit index as
follows:
2 - Nickel steels;
3 - Nickel-chromium steels;
4 - Molybdenum steels;
5 - Chromium steels;
6 - Chromium-vanadium steels;
7 - Tungsten-chromium steels;
9 - Silicon-manganese steels.
The second digit of the series indicates the concentration of the major element in percentiles (1
equals 1%). The last two digits of the series indicate the carbon concentration to 0.01%.
Example:
SAE 5130 indicates a chromium steel alloy, containing 1% of chromium and 0.30% of carbon.
Table 1 shows the SAE/AISI steel Numbering designation system
Additional letters added between the second and third digits include B when boron is added
(between 0.0005 and 0.003%) for enhanced hardenability, and L when lead is added (between
0.15 and 0.35%) for enhanced machinability. The prefix M is used to designate merchant quality
steel (the least restrictive quality descriptor for hot-rolled steel bars used in noncritical parts of
structures and machinery). The prefix E (electric-furnace steel) and the suffix H (hardenability
requirements) are mainly applicable to alloy steels. The full series of classification groups is
shown in Table 2-4.
Table 1: The SAE/AISI steel numbering designation system
10XX Plain carbon, Mn 1.00% max
Carbon steels

11XX Resulfurized free machining


12XX Resulfurized/rephosphorized free machining
15XX Plain carbon, Mn 1.00-1.65%

Manganese steels
Nickel steels

13XX Mn 1.75%
23XX Ni 3.50%
25XX Ni 5.00%
31XX Ni 1.25%, Cr 0.65-0.80%

Nickel-chromium steels

32XX Ni 1.75%, Cr 1.07%


33XX Ni 3.50%, Cr 1.50-1.57%
34XX Ni 3.00%, Cr 0.77%

Molybdenum steels
Chromium-molybdenum steels

40XX Mo 0.20-0.25%
44XX Mo 0.40-0.52%
41XX Cr 0.50-0.95%, Mo 0.12-0.30%

Nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels
Nickel-molybdenum steels

43XX Ni 1.82%, Cr 0.50-0.80%, Mo 0.25%


47XX Ni 1.05%, Cr 0.45%, Mo 0.20-0.35%
46XX Ni 0.85-1.82%, Mo 0.20-0.25%
48XX Ni 3.50%, Mo 0.25%
50XX Cr 0.27-0.65%
51XX Cr 0.80-1.05%

Chromium steels

50XXX Cr 0.50%, C 1.00% min


51XXX Cr 1.02%, C 1.00% min
52XXX Cr 1.45%, C 1.00% min

Chromium-vanadium steels

61XX Cr 0.60-0.95%, V 0.10-0.015%

Tungsten-chromium steels

72XX W 1.75%, Cr 0.75%


81XX Ni 0.30%, Cr 0.40%, Mo 0.12%

Nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels

86XX Ni 0.55%, Cr 0.50%, Mo 0.20%


87XX Ni 0.55%, Cr 0.50%, Mo 0.25%
88XX Ni 0.55%, Cr 0.50%, Mo 0.35%

Silicon-manganese steels

92XX Si 1.40-2.00%, Mn 0.65-0.85%, Cr 0-0.65%


93XX Ni 3.25%, Cr 1.20%, Mo 0.12%

Nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels

94XX Ni 0.45%, Cr 0.40%, Mo 0.12%


97XX Ni 0.55%, Cr 0.20%, Mo 0.20%
98XX Ni 1.00%, Cr 0.80%, Mo 0.25%

SAE International, as a standards organization, maintains several alloy numbering systems, one
of which, for steel grades, is the SAE steel grades system.
In the 1930s and 1940s the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and SAE were both involved
in efforts to standardize such a numbering system for steels. These efforts were similar and
overlapped significantly. For several decades the systems were united into a joint system
designated the AISI/SAE steel grades. In 1995 the AISI turned over future maintenance of the
system to SAE because the AISI never wrote any of the specifications.[1]
Today steel quotes and certifications commonly make reference to both SAE and AISI, not
always with precise differentiation. For example, in the alloy/grade field, a cert might say
"4140", "AISI 4140", or "SAE 4140", and in most light-industrial applications any of the above
is accepted as adequate, and considered equivalent, for the job at hand, as long as the specific
specification called out by the designer (for example, "4140 bar per ASTM-A108" or "4140 bar
per AMS 6349") is certified to on the certificate. The alloy number is simply a general classifier,
whereas it is the specification itself that narrows down the steel to a very specific standard.
The SAE steel grade system's correspondence to other alloy numbering systems, such as the
ASTM-SAE unified numbering system (UNS), can be seen in cross-referencing tables (including
the ones given below).
The AISI system used a letter prefix to denote the steelmaking process. The prefix "C" denoted
open-hearth furnace, electric arc furnace or basic oxygen furnace, while "E" denotes electric arc
furnace steel.[2][3] A letter "L" within the grade name indicates lead as an added ingredient; for
example, 12L14 is a common grade that is 1214 with lead added for machinability.

Carbon and alloy steel


Main articles: Carbon steel and Alloy steel

Carbon steels and alloy steels are designated by a four digit number, where the first digit
indicates the main alloying element(s), the second digit indicates the secondary alloying
element(s), and the last two digits indicate the amount of carbon, in hundredths of a percent
(basis points) by weight. For example, a 1060 steel is a plain-carbon steel containing 0.60 wt%
C.[4]
An "H" suffix can be added to any designation to denote hardenability is a major requirement.
The chemical requirements are loosened but hardness values defined for various distances on a
Jominy test.[3]
Major classifications of steel[2]
SAE designation

Type

1xxx

Carbon steels

2xxx

Nickel steels

3xxx

Nickel-chromium steels

4xxx

Molybdenum steels

5xxx

Chromium steels

6xxx

Chromium-vanadium steels

7xxx

Tungsten steels

8xxx

Nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels

9xxx

Silicon-manganese steels
Carbon and alloy steel grades[5]

SAE designation

Type
Carbon steels

10xx Plain carbon (Mn 1.00% max.)


11xx Resulfurized
12xx Resulfurized and rephosphorized
15xx Plain carbon (Mn 1.001.65%)
Manganese steels
13xx Mn 1.75%
Nickel steels
23xx Ni 3.50%
25xx Ni 5.00%
Nickel-chromium steels
31xx Ni 1.25%; Cr 0.65%, or 0.80%
32xx Ni 1.25%; Cr 1.07%
33xx Ni 3.50%; Cr 1.50%, or 1.57%
34xx Ni 3.00%; Cr 0.77%
Molybdenum steels
40xx Mo 0.20%, 0.25%, or Mo 0.25% and S 0.042% [1]
44xx Mo 0.40%, or 0.52%
Chromium-molybdenum (chromoly) steels
41xx Cr 0.50%, 0.80%, or 0.95%; Mo 0.12%, 0.20%, 0.25%, or 0.30%
Nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels
43xx Ni 1.82%; Cr 0.500.80%; Mo 0.25%
43BVxx Ni 1.82%; Cr 0.50%; Mo 0.12%, or 0.35%; V 0.03% min
47xx Ni 1.05%; Cr 0.45%; Mo 0.20%, or 0.35%
81xx Ni 0.30%; Cr 0.40%; Mo 0.12%
81Bxx Ni 0.30%; Cr 0.45%; Mo 0.12%; and added boron [1]
86xx Ni 0.55%; Cr 0.50%; Mo 0.20%
87xx Ni 0.55%; Cr 0.50%; Mo 0.25%

88xx Ni 0.55%; Cr 0.50%; Mo 0.35%


93xx Ni 3.25%; Cr 1.20%; Mo 0.12%
94xx Ni 0.45%; Cr 0.40%; Mo 0.12%
97xx Ni 0.55%; Cr 0.20%; Mo 0.20%
98xx Ni 1.00%; Cr 0.80%; Mo 0.25%
Nickel-molybdenum steels
46xx Ni 0.85%, or 1.82%; Mo 0.20%, or 0.25%
48xx Ni 3.50%; Mo 0.25%
Chromium steels
50xx Cr 0.27%, 0.40%, 0.50%, or 0.65%
50xxx Cr 0.50%; C 1.00% min
50Bxx Cr 0.28%, or 0.50%; and added boron [1]
51xx Cr 0.80%, 0.87%, 0.92%, 1.00%, or 1.05%
51xxx Cr 1.02%; C 1.00% min.
51Bxx Cr 0.80%; and added boron[1]
52xxx Cr 1.45%; C 1.00% min.
Chromium-vanadium steels
61xx Cr 0.60%, 0.80%, 0.95%; V 0.10%, or 0.15% min.
Tungsten-chromium steels
72xx W 1.75%; Cr 0.75%
Silicon-manganese steels
92xx

Si 1.40%, or 2.00%; Mn 0.65%, 0.82%, or 0.85%; Cr 0.00%, or


0.65%
High-strength low-alloy steels

9xx Various SAE grades


xxBxx Boron steels

xxLxx Leaded steels

Stainless steel
Main article: Stainless steel

Type 102austenitic general purpose stainless steel working for furniture

200 Seriesaustenitic chromium-nickel-manganese alloys

Type 201austenitic that is hardenable through cold working

Type 202austenitic general purpose stainless steel

300 Seriesaustenitic chromium-nickel alloys


o

Type 301highly ductile, for formed products. Also hardens rapidly


during mechanical working. Good weldability. Better wear resistance
and fatigue strength than 304.

Type 302same corrosion resistance as 304, with slightly higher


strength due to additional carbon.

Type 303free machining version of 304 via addition of sulfur and


phosphorus. Also referred to as "A1" in accordance with ISO 3506.[6]

Type 304the most common grade; the classic 18/8 (18% chromium,
8% nickel) stainless steel. Outside of the US it is commonly known as
"A2 stainless steel", in accordance with ISO 3506 (not to be confused
with A2 tool steel).[6]

Type 304Lsame as the 304 grade but lower carbon content to


increase weldability. Is slightly weaker than 304.

Type 304LNsame as 304L, but also nitrogen is added to obtain a


much higher yield and tensile strength than 304L.

Type 308used as the filler metal when welding 304.

Type 309better temperature resistance than 304, also sometimes


used as filler metal when welding dissimilar steels, along with inconel.

Type 316the second most common grade (after 304); for food and
surgical stainless steel uses; alloy addition of molybdenum prevents
specific forms of corrosion. It is also known as marine grade stainless
steel due to its increased resistance to chloride corrosion compared to
type 304. 316 is often used for building nuclear reprocessing plants.

Type 316Lis an extra low carbon grade of 316, generally used in


stainless steel watches and marine applications, as well exclusively in
the fabrication of reactor pressure vessels for boiling water reactors,
due to its high resistance to corrosion. Also referred to as "A4" in
accordance with ISO 3506.[6]

Type 316Tivariant of type 316 that includes titanium for heat


resistance. It is used in flexible chimney liners.

Type 321similar to 304 but lower risk of weld decay due to addition
of titanium. See also 347 with addition of niobium for desensitization
during welding.

400 Seriesferritic and martensitic chromium alloys


o

Type 405ferritic for welding applications

Type 408heat-resistant; poor corrosion resistance; 11% chromium,


8% nickel.

Type 409cheapest type; used for automobile exhausts; ferritic


(iron/chromium only).

Type 410martensitic (high-strength iron/chromium). Wear-resistant,


but less corrosion-resistant.

Type 416easy to machine due to additional sulfur

Type 420Cutlery Grade martensitic; similar to the Brearley's original


rustless steel. Excellent polishability.

Type 430decorative, e.g., for automotive trim; ferritic. Good


formability, but with reduced temperature and corrosion resistance.

Type 439ferritic grade, a higher grade version of 409 used for


catalytic converter exhaust sections. Increased chromium for improved
high temperature corrosion/oxidation resistance.

Type 440a higher grade of cutlery steel, with more carbon, allowing
for much better edge retention when properly heat-treated. It can be
hardened to approximately Rockwell 58 hardness, making it one of the
hardest stainless steels. Due to its toughness and relatively low cost,
most display-only and replica swords or knives are made of 440
stainless. Available in four grades:

Type 440Ahas the least amount of carbon making this the


most stain-resistant.

Type 440Bslightly more carbon than 440A.

Type 440Chas the greatest amount of carbon of the Type 440


variants. Strongest and considered more desirable in
knifemaking than the Type 440A variant[citation needed], except for
diving or other salt-water applications. This variant is also more
readily available than other variants of Type 440. [7]

Type 440Fa free-machining variant. Contains the same high


carbon content as Type 440C.

Type 446For elevated temperature service

500 Seriesheat-resisting chromium alloys

600 Seriesoriginally created for proprietary alloys, which are no longer


given SAE grade numbers[8]
o

601 through 604: Martensitic low-alloy steels.

610 through 613: Martensitic secondary hardening steels.

614 through 619: Martensitic chromium steels.

630 through 635: Semiaustenitic and martensitic precipitation


hardening stainless steels.

Type 630 is most common PH stainless, better known as 17-4;


17% chromium, 4% nickel.

650 through 653: Austenitic steels strengthened by hot/cold work.

660 through 665: Austenitic superalloys; all grades except alloy 661
are strengthened by second-phase precipitation.
Stainless steel designations[9]

SAE
UNS
designati designati
on
on

%
Cr

% Ni % C

%
%
% Si
Mn
P

%S %N

Austenitic
201

S20100

16
18

3.5
5.5

0.15

5.5
0.75 0.06 0.03 0.25 7.5

202

S20200

17

46

0.15 7.5 0.75 0.06 0.03 0.25 -

Other

19
205

S20500

10.0

16.5 1
18
1.75

0.12 14
0.32
0.75 0.06 0.03
0.25 15.5
0.40
6 Mo; 0.75 Cu;
"Super
0.20
austenitic"; All
values nominal

254[10]

S31254

20

18

0.02
max

301

S30100

16
18

68

0.15 2

0.75

0.04
0.03 5

302

S30200

17
19

810 0.15 2

0.75

0.04
0.03 0.1
5

302B

S30215

17
19

810 0.15 2

2.0 0.04
0.03 3.0 5

303

S30300

17
19

810 0.15 2

0.2

303Se

S30323

17
19

810 0.15 2

0.2 0.06 -

0.15 Se min

304

S30400

18
20

8
0.08 2
10.50

0.75

0.04
0.03 0.1
5

304L

S30403

18
20

812 0.03 2

0.75

0.04
0.03 0.1
5

304Cu

S30430

17
19

810 0.08 2

0.75

0.04
0.03 5

34 Cu

304N

S30451

18
20

8
0.08 2
10.50

0.75

0.04
0.10
0.03
5
0.16

305

S30500

17
19

10.50
0.12 2
13

0.75

0.04
0.03 5

308

S30800

19
21

1012 0.08 2

0.04
0.03 5

309

S30900

22
24

1215 0.2

0.04
0.03 5

309S

S30908

22
24

1215 0.08 2

0.04
0.03 5

0.15
min

Mo 0.60
(optional)

310

S31000

24
26

1922 0.25 2

1.5

0.04
0.03 5

310S

S31008

24
26

1922 0.08 2

1.5

0.04
0.03 5

314

S31400

23
26

1922 0.25 2

1.5 0.04
0.03 3.0 5

316

S31600

16
18

1014 0.08 2

0.75

0.04
0.03 0.10 2.03.0 Mo
5

316L

S31603

16
18

1014 0.03 2

0.75

0.04
0.03 0.10 2.03.0 Mo
5

316F

S31620

16
18

1014 0.08 2

0.2

316N

S31651

16
18

1014 0.08 2

0.75

0.04
0.10
0.03
2.03.0 Mo
5
0.16

317

S31700

18
20

1115 0.08 2

0.75

0.04
0.10
0.03
3.04.0 Mo
5
max

317L

S31703

18
20

1115 0.03 2

0.75

0.04
0.10
0.03
3.04.0 Mo
5
max

321

S32100

17
19

912 0.08 2

0.75

0.04
0.10 Ti 5(C+N) min,
0.03
5
max 0.70 max

329

S32900

23
28

2.55 0.08 2

0.75 0.04 0.03 -

12 Mo

330

N08330

17
20

3437 0.08 2

0.75
0.04 0.03 1.50

347

S34700

17
19

913 0.08 2

0.75

0.10
min

1.752.50 Mo

0.04 0.03
5
0

Nb + Ta, 10 x C
min, 1 max

348

S34800

17
19

913 0.08 2

0.75

0.04 0.03
5
0

Nb + Ta, 10 x C
min, 1 max, but
0.10 Ta max;
0.20 Ca

384

S38400

15
17

1719 0.08 2

0.04
0.03 5

% Ni % C

% % Si

SAE
UNS
designati designati

%S %N

Other

on

on

Cr

Mn

Ferritic
405

S40500

11.5
14.5

0.08 1

0.04 0.03 -

0.10.3 Al, 0.60


max

409

S40900

10.5
0.05
11.75

0.08 1

0.04
0.03 5

Ti 6 x (C + N)

429

S42900

14
16

0.75

0.12 1

0.04 0.03 -

430

S43000

16
18

0.75

0.12 1

0.04 0.03 -

430F

S43020

16
18

0.12 1.25 1

0.06

430FSe

S43023

16
18

0.12 1.25 1

0.06 0.06 -

0.15 Se min

434

S43400

16
18

0.12 1

0.04 0.03 -

0.751.25 Mo

436

S43600

16
18

0.12 1

0.04 0.03 -

0.751.25 Mo;
Nb+Ta 5 x C
min, 0.70 max

442

S44200

18
23

0.2

0.04 0.03 -

446

S44600

23
27

0.25

0.2

1.5 1

0.04 0.03 -

SAE
UNS
designati designati
on
on

%
Cr

% Ni % C

%
%
% Si
Mn
P

0.15
min

[11]

0.60 Mo
(optional)

%S %N

Other

Martensitic
403

S40300

11.5
0.60
13.0

0.15 1

0.5

0.04 0.03 -

410

S41000

11.5
0.75
13.5

0.15 1

0.04 0.03 -

414

S41400

11.5 1.25 0.15 1

0.04 0.03 -

13.5 2.50
416

S41600

12
14

0.15 1.25 1

0.06

416Se

S41623

12
14

0.15 1.25 1

0.06 0.06 -

0.15 Se min

420

S42000

12
14

0.15
1
min

0.04 0.03 -

420F

S42020

12
14

0.15
1.25 1
min

422

S42200

11.0 0.50 0.20 0.5


0.5
12.5 1.0
0.25 1.0

0.02 0.02
5
5

0.901.25 Mo;
0.200.30 V;
0.901.25 W

431

S41623

15
17

1.25
0.2
2.50

440A

S44002

16
18

440B

S44003

440C

S44004

SAE
UNS
designati designati
on
on

0.06

0.15
min

0.15
min

0.060 Mo
(optional)

0.60 Mo max
(optional)

0.04 0.03 -

0.60
1
0.75

0.04 0.03 -

0.75 Mo

16
18

0.75
1
0.95

0.04 0.03 -

0.75 Mo

16
18

0.95
1
1.20

0.04 0.03 -

0.75 Mo

%
Cr

% Ni % C

%
%
% Si
Mn
P

%S %N

Other

Heat resisting
501

S50100

46

0.10
1
min

0.04 0.03 -

0.400.65 Mo

502

S50200

46

0.1

0.04 0.03 -

0.400.65 Mo

Martensitic precipitation hardening


630

S17400

1517

3-5

0.07 1

0.04 0.03 -

Cu 3-5, Ta 0.150.45 [12]